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1.
Oncologist ; 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the causal relationship between obesity and colon cancer being firmly established, the effect of obesity on the course of cancer calls for further elucidation. The objective was to assess differences in clinical-pathological and psychosocial variables between obese and nonobese individuals with colon cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, multicentric, observational study conducted from 2015-2018. The sample comprised patients with stage II-III, resected colon cancer about to initiate adjuvant chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidine in monotherapy or associated with oxaliplatin and grouped into nonobese (body mass index <30 kg/m2 ) or obese (≥30 kg/m2 ). Subjects completed questionnaires appraising quality of life (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core questionnaire), coping (Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer), psychological distress (Brief Symptom Inventory 18), perceived social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), personality (Big Five Inventory 10), and pain (Brief Pain Inventory). Toxicity, chemotherapy compliance, 12-month recurrence, and mortality rate data were recorded. RESULTS: Seventy-nine of the 402 individuals recruited (19.7%) were obese. Obese subjects exhibited more comorbidities (≥2 comorbidities, 46.8% vs. 30.3%, p = .001) and expressed feeling slightly more postoperative pain (small size-effect). There was more depression, greater helplessness, less perceived social support from friends, and greater extraversion among the obese versus nonobese subjects (all p < .04). The nonobese group treated with fluoropyrimidine and oxaliplatin suffered more grade 3-4 hematological toxicity (p = .035), whereas the obese had higher rates of treatment withdrawal (17.7% vs. 7.7%, p = .033) and more recurrences (10.1% vs. 3.7%, p = .025). No differences in sociodemographic, quality of life, or 12-month survival variables were detected. CONCLUSION: Obesity appears to affect how people confront cancer, as well as their tolerance to oncological treatment and relapse. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Obesity is a causal factor and affects prognosis in colorectal cancer. Obese patients displayed more comorbidities, more pain after cancer surgery, worse coping, and more depression and perceived less social support than nonobese patients. Severe hematological toxicity was more frequent among nonobese patients, whereas rates of withdrawal from adjuvant chemotherapy were higher in the obese cohort, and during follow-up, obese patients presented greater 12-month recurrence rates. With the growing and maintained increase of obesity and he cancers associated with it, including colorectal cancer, the approach to these more fragile cases that have a worse prognosis must be adapted to improve outcomes.

2.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 5, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence is limited about the joint health effects of the Mediterranean lifestyle on cardiometabolic health and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of the Mediterranean lifestyle with the frequency of the metabolic syndrome (MS) and the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in Spain. METHODS: Data were taken from ENRICA study, a prospective cohort of 11,090 individuals aged 18+ years, representative of the population of Spain, who were free of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes at 2008-2010 and were followed-up to 2017. The Mediterranean lifestyle was assessed at baseline with the 27-item MEDLIFE index (with higher score representing better adherence). RESULTS: Compared to participants in the lowest quartile of MEDLIFE, those in the highest quartile had a multivariable-adjusted odds ratio 0.73 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.5, 0.93) for MS, 0.63. (0.51, 0.80) for abdominal obesity, and 0.76 (0.63, 0.90) for low HDL-cholesterol. Similarly, a higher MELDIFE score was associated with lower HOMA-IR and highly-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P-trend < 0.001). During a mean follow-up of 8.7 years, 330 total deaths (74 CVD deaths) were ascertained. When comparing those in highest vs. lowest quartile of MEDLIFE, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) was 0.58 (0.37, 0.90) for total mortality and 0.33 (0.11, 1.02) for cardiovascular mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The Mediterranean lifestyle was associated with lower frequency of MS and reduced all-cause mortality in Spain. Future studies should determine if this also applies to other Mediterranean countries, and also improve cardiovascular health outside the Mediterranean basin.

3.
Inorg Chem ; 60(4): 2390-2405, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486958

RESUMO

We report the synthesis of two pyclen-based regioisomer ligands (pyclen = 3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene) functionalized with picolinic acid pendant arms either at positions 3,9-pc2pa (L5) or 3,6-pc2pa (L6) of the macrocyclic fragment. The ligands were prepared by the regiospecific protection of one of the amine nitrogen atoms of the macrocycle using Boc and Alloc protecting groups, respectively. The X-ray structure of the Gd(III) complex of L5 contains trinuclear [(GdL5)3(H2O)3]3+ entities in which the monomeric units are joined by µ2-η1:η1-carboxylate groups. However, the 1H and 89Y NMR spectra of its Y(III) analogue support the formation of monomeric complexes in solution. The Tb(III) complexes are highly luminescent, with emission quantum yields of up to 28% for [TbL5]+. The luminescence lifetimes recorded in H2O and D2O solutions indicate the presence of a water molecule coordinated to the metal ion, as also evidenced by the 1H relaxivities measured for the Gd(III) analogues. The Gd(III) complexes present very different exchange rates of the coordinated water molecule (kex298 = 87.1 × 106 and 1.06 × 106 s-1 for [GdL5]+ and [GdL6]+, respectively). The very high water exchange rate of [GdL5]+ is associated with the steric hindrance originating from the coordination of the ligand around the water binding site, which favors a dissociatively activated water exchange process. The Gd(III) complexes present rather high thermodynamic stabilities (log KGdL = 20.47 and 19.77 for [GdL5]+ and [GdL6]+, respectively). Furthermore, these complexes are remarkably inert with respect to their acid-assisted dissociation, in particular the complex of L5.

4.
Inorg Chem ; 60(3): 1902-1914, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471999

RESUMO

We report a detailed investigation of the coordination properties of macrocyclic lanthanide complexes containing a 3,6,10,13-tetraaza-1,8(2,6)-dipyridinacyclotetradecaphane scaffold functionalized with four acetamide pendant arms. The X-ray structures of the complexes with the large Ln3+ ions (La and Sm) display 12- and 10-coordinated metal ions, where the coordination sphere is fulfilled by the six N atoms of the macrocycle, the four O atoms of the acetamide pendants, and a bidentate nitrate anion in the La3+ complex. The analogous Yb3+ complex presents, however, a 9-coordinated metal ion because one of the acetamide pendant arms remains uncoordinated. 1H NMR studies indicate that the 10-coordinated form is present in solution throughout the lanthanide series from La to Tb, while the smaller lanthanides form 9-coordinated species. 1H and 89Y NMR studies confirm the presence of this structural change because the two species are present in solution. Analysis of the 1H chemical shifts observed for the Tb3+ complex confirms its D2 symmetry in aqueous solution and evidences a highly rhombic magnetic susceptibility tensor. The acetamide resonances of the Pr3+ and Tb3+ complexes provided sizable paraCEST effects, as demonstrated by the corresponding Z-spectra recorded at different temperatures and studies on tube phantoms recorded at 22 °C.

5.
Inorg Chem ; 60(2): 1133-1148, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378171

RESUMO

We report the Mn(II) complexes with two pyclen-based ligands (pyclen = 3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene) functionalized with acetate pendant arms at either positions 3,6 (3,6-PC2A) or 3,9 (3,9-PC2A) of the macrocyclic fragment. The 3,6-PC2A ligand was synthesized in five steps from pyclen oxalate by protecting one of the secondary amine groups of pyclen using Alloc protecting chemistry. The complex with 3,9-PC2A is characterized by a higher thermodynamic stability [log KMnL = 17.09(2)] than the 3,6-PC2A analogue [log KMnL = 15.53(1); 0.15 M NaCl]. Both complexes contain a water molecule coordinated to the metal ion, which results in relatively high 1H relaxivities (r1p = 2.72 and 2.91 mM-1 s-1 for the complexes with 3,6-PC2A and 3,9-PC2A, respectively, at 25 °C and 0.49 T). The coordinated water molecule displays fast exchange kinetics with the bulk in both cases; the rates (kex298) are 140 × 106 and 126 × 106 s-1 for [Mn(3,6-PC2A)(H2O)] and [Mn(3,9-PC2A)(H2O)], respectively. The two complexes were found to be remarkably inert with respect to their dissociation, with half-lives of 63 and 21 h, respectively, at pH = 7.4 in the presence of excess Cu(II). The r1p values recorded in blood serum remain constant at least over a period of 120 h. Cyclic voltammetry experiments show irreversible oxidation features shifted to higher potentials with respect to [Mn(EDTA)(H2O)]2- (H4EDTA = ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and [Mn(PhDTA)(H2O)]2- (H4PhDTA = phenylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid), indicating that the PC2A complexes reported here have a lower tendency to stabilize Mn(III). The superoxide dismutase activity of the Mn(II) complexes was tested using the xanthine/xanthine oxidase/p-nitro blue tetrazolium chloride assay at pH = 7.8. The Mn(II) complexes of 3,6-PC2A and 3,9-PC2A are capable of assisting decomposition of the superoxide anion radical. The kinetic rate constant of the complex of 3,9-PC2A is smaller by 1 order of magnitude than that of 3,6-PC2A.

6.
Dalton Trans ; 50(3): 1076-1085, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367361

RESUMO

The stability constants of Mn2+ complexes with ligands containing a trans-1,2-cyclobutanediamine spacer functionalized with picolinate and/or carboxylate functions were determined using potentiometric titrations (25 °C, 0.1 M KCl). The stability constant of the complex with a hexadentate ligand containing four acetate groups (L14-, log KMnL = 10.26) is improved upon replacing one (L24-, log KMnL = 14.71) or two (L34-, log KMnL = 15.81) carboxylate groups with picolinates. The [Mn(L1)]2- complex contains a water molecule coordinated to the metal ion in aqueous solutions, as evidenced by 1H NMRD studies and 17O chemical shifts and transverse relaxation rates. The 1H relaxivities determined at 60 MHz (3.3 and 2.4 mM-1 s-1 at 25 and 37 °C, respectively) are comparable to those of monohydrated complexes such as [Mn(edta)]2-. The exchange rate of the inner-sphere water molecule (k = 248 × 106 s-1) is slightly lower than that of the edta4- analogue. DFT calculations (M11/def2-TZVP) suggest that the water exchange reaction follows a dissociatively activated mechanism, providing activation parameters in reasonably good agreement with the experimental data. DFT calculations also show that the 17O hyperfine coupling constant A/ℏ is affected slightly by changes in the Mn-Owater distance and the orientation of the water molecule with respect to the Mn-O vector.

7.
EMBO J ; 40(3): e105793, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314217

RESUMO

Mammalian TFEB and TFE3, as well as their ortholog in Caenorhabditis elegans HLH-30, play an important role in mediating cellular response to a variety of stress conditions, including nutrient deprivation, oxidative stress, and pathogen infection. In this study, we identify a novel mechanism of TFEB/HLH-30 regulation through a cysteine-mediated redox switch. Under stress conditions, TFEB-C212 undergoes oxidation, allowing the formation of intermolecular disulfide bonds that result in TFEB oligomerization. TFEB oligomers display increased resistance to mTORC1-mediated inactivation and are more stable under prolonged stress conditions. Mutation of the only cysteine residue present in HLH-30 (C284) significantly reduced its activity, resulting in developmental defects and increased pathogen susceptibility in worms. Therefore, cysteine oxidation represents a new type of TFEB post-translational modification that functions as a molecular switch to link changes in redox balance with expression of TFEB/HLH-30 target genes.

8.
Entropy (Basel) ; 22(6)2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33286447

RESUMO

Nowadays, across the most important problems faced by health centers are those caused by the existence of patients who do not attend their appointments. Among others, these patients cause loss of revenue to the health centers and increase the patients' waiting list. In order to tackle these problems, several scheduling systems have been developed. Many of them require predicting whether a patient will show up for an appointment. However, obtaining these estimates accurately is currently a challenging problem. In this work, a systematic review of the literature on predicting patient no-shows is conducted aiming at establishing the current state-of-the-art. Based on a systematic review following the PRISMA methodology, 50 articles were found and analyzed. Of these articles, 82% were published in the last 10 years and the most used technique was logistic regression. In addition, there is significant growth in the size of the databases used to build the classifiers. An important finding is that only two studies achieved an accuracy higher than the show rate. Moreover, a single study attained an area under the curve greater than the 0.9 value. These facts indicate the difficulty of this problem and the need for further research.

9.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing physical activity (PA) and reducing sedentary behaviour (SB) have been associated with healthy ageing, but their effects when adjusted for reverse causation and selection bias remain unclear. METHODS: A deficits accumulation (DA) index based on the number and severity of 51 health deficits (0-100%) was calculated at baseline and three biannual follow-up visits, in a representative cohort of 3 228 community-dwelling older adults in Spain. Average differences in DA index by previous recreational PA, household PA, mentally-active SB and passive SB were estimated using marginal structural models with inverse probability of exposure and censoring weights. RESULTS: Compared with participants with previous recreational PA of 10-19.9 metabolic equivalent hours/week (MET-hours/week), average differences in DA index (95% confidence intervals) were 0.19 (-1.09, 1.48), 0.69 (-0.23, 1.61), -0.66 (-1.34, 0.02), -0.87 (-1.59, -0.13) and -0.55 (-1.37, 0.28) for 0, 0.1-9.9, 20-29.9, 30-39.9 and ≥40 MET-hours/week, respectively (P for trend = 0.006). Household PA showed no effect on subsequent DA after adjusting for reverse causation. Women, but not men, who spent 7-14.9, 15-20.9 and ≥21 h/week on mentally active SB had DA decreases of 0.09 (-1.00, 1.19), 1.08 (-0.28, 2.45) and 2.17 (0.58, 3.75), respectively, compared with 1-6.9 h/week (P for trend = 0.005); whereas women who spent 3-3.9, 4-4.9 and ≥5 h/day on passive SB showed DA increases of 0.41 (-0.52, 1.35), 1.35 (0.13, 2.57) and 2.13 (0.78, 3.47), respectively, compared with 2-2.9 h/day (P for trend = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The proposed methodology allows estimation of the causal effects of PA and SB on ageing, by simulating a random assignment in which all subjects have the same probability of exposure.

11.
Ecol Evol ; 10(18): 9788-9807, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33005345

RESUMO

Adaptation of long-living forest trees to respond to environmental changes is essential to secure their performance under adverse conditions. Water deficit is one of the most significant stress factors determining tree growth and survival. Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), the main source of softwood in southwestern Europe, is subjected to recurrent drought periods which, according to climate change predictions for the years to come, will progressively increase in the Mediterranean region. The mechanisms regulating pine adaptive responses to environment are still largely unknown. The aim of this work was to go a step further in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying maritime pine response to water stress and drought tolerance at the whole plant level. A global transcriptomic profiling of roots, stems, and needles was conducted to analyze the performance of siblings showing contrasted responses to water deficit from an ad hoc designed full-sib family. Although P. pinaster is considered a recalcitrant species for vegetative propagation in adult phase, the analysis was conducted using vegetatively propagated trees exposed to two treatments: well-watered and moderate water stress. The comparative analyses led us to identify organ-specific genes, constitutively expressed as well as differentially expressed when comparing control versus water stress conditions, in drought-sensitive and drought-tolerant genotypes. Different response strategies can point out, with tolerant individuals being pre-adapted for coping with drought by constitutively expressing stress-related genes that are detected only in latter stages on sensitive individuals subjected to drought.

12.
CMAJ ; 192(42): E1253-E1263, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Firearm-related injury is an important and preventable cause of death and disability. We describe the burden, baseline characteristics and regional rates of firearm-related injury and death in Ontario. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study using linked data from health administrative data sets held at ICES. We identified residents of Ontario of all ages who were injured or died as a result of a firearm discharge between Apr. 1, 2002, and Dec. 31, 2016. We included injuries classified as assault, unintentional, self-harm or undetermined intent secondary to handguns, rifles, shotguns and larger firearms. The primary outcome was the incidence of nonfatal and fatal injuries resulting in an emergency department visit, hospital admission or death. We also describe regional and temporal rates. RESULTS: We identified 6483 firearm-related injuries (annualized injury rate 3.54 per 100 000 population), of which 2723 (42.3%) were fatal. Assault accounted for 40.2% (1494/3715) of nonfatal injuries and 25.5% (694/2723) of deaths. Young men, predominantly in urban neighbourhoods, within the lowest income quintile were overrepresented in this group. Injuries secondary to self-harm accounted for 68.0% (1366/2009) of injuries and occurred predominantly in older men living in rural Ontario across all income quintiles. The case fatality rate of injuries secondary to self-harm was 91.7%. Self-harm accounted for 1842 deaths (67.6%). INTERPRETATION: We found that young urban men were most likely to be injured in firearm-related assaults and that more than two-thirds of self-harm-related injuries occurred in older rural-dwelling men, most of whom died from their injuries. This highlights a need for suicide-prevention strategies in rural areas targeted at men aged 45 or older.

13.
Brain Sci ; 10(10)2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050130

RESUMO

In the last few years, several computerized tasks have been developed to increase the objectivity of the diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article proposes the "running raccoon" video game to assess the severity of inattention in patients diagnosed with ADHD. Unlike existing tests, the proposed tool is a genuine video game in which the patient must make a raccoon avatar jump to avoid falling into different gaps. The distance to the gap is recorded for each jump. To evaluate the proposed game, an experiment was conducted in which 32 children diagnosed with ADHD participated. For each participant, the median and interquartile range of these distances were calculated, along with the number of omissions. Experimental results showed a significant correlation between the participants' inattention (measured by the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Normal Behavior rating scale (SWAN) inattention subscale) with each of these three measures. In addition to its accuracy, other benefits are its short duration and the possibility of being run on both standard computers and mobile devices. These characteristics facilitate its acceptance in clinical environments or even its telematic use. The obtained results, together with the characteristics of the video game, make it an excellent tool to support clinicians in the diagnosis of ADHD.

14.
Inorg Chem ; 59(19): 14306-14317, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962345

RESUMO

We present two ligands containing a N-ethyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzenesulfonamide group attached to either a 6,6'-(azanediylbis(methylene))dipicolinic acid unit (H3DPASAm) or a 2,2'-(1,4,7-triazonane-1,4-diyl)diacetic acid macrocyclic platform (H3NO2ASAm). These ligands were designed to provide a pH-dependent relaxivity response upon complexation with Mn2+ in aqueous solution. The protonation constants of the ligands and the stability constants of the Mn2+ complexes were determined using potentiometric titrations complemented by spectrophotometric experiments. The deprotonations of the sulfonamide groups of the ligands are characterized by protonation constants of log KiH = 10.36 and 10.59 for DPASAm3- and HNO2ASAm2-, respectively. These values decrease dramatically to log KiH = 6.43 and 5.42 in the presence of Mn2+, because of the coordination of the negatively charged sulfonamide groups to the metal ion. The higher log KiH value in [Mn(DPASAm)]- is related to the formation of a seven-coordinate complex, while the metal ion in [Mn(NO2ASAm)]- is six-coordinated. The X-ray crystal structure of Na[Mn(DPASAm)(H2O)]·2H2O confirms the formation of a seven-coordinate complex, where the coordination environment is fulfilled by the donor atoms of the two picolinate groups, the amine N atom, the N atom of the sulfonamide group, and a coordinated water molecule. The lower conditional stability of the [Mn(NO2ASAm)]- complex and the lower protonation constant of the sulfonamide group results in complex dissociation at relatively high pH (<7.0). However, protonation of the sulfonamide group in [Mn(DPASAm)]- falls into the physiologically relevant pH window and causes a significant increase in relaxivity from r1p = 3.8 mM-1 s-1 at pH 9.0 to r1p = 8.9 mM-1 s-1 at pH 4.0 (10 MHz, 25 °C).

15.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2020: 9727096, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952603

RESUMO

One of the current challenges faced by health centers is to reduce the number of patients who do not attend their appointments. The existence of these patients causes the underutilization of the center's services, which reduces their income and extends patient's access time. In order to reduce these negative effects, several appointment scheduling systems have been developed. With the recent availability of electronic health records, patient scheduling systems that incorporate the patient's no-show prediction are being developed. However, the benefits of including a personalized individual variable time slot for each patient in those probabilistic systems have not been yet analyzed. In this article, we propose a scheduling system based on patients' no-show probabilities with variable time slots and a dynamic priority allocation scheme. The system is based on the solution of a mixed-integer programming model that aims at maximizing the expected profits of the clinic, accounting for first and follow-up visits. We validate our findings by performing an extensive simulation study based on real data and specific scheduling requirements provided by a Spanish hospital. The results suggest potential benefits with the implementation of the proposed allocation system with variable slot times. In particular, the proposed model increases the annual cumulated profit in more than 50% while decreasing the waiting list and waiting times by 30% and 50%, respectively, with respect to the actual appointment scheduling system.

16.
Heliyon ; 6(8): e04706, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32904319

RESUMO

Sustainable development in education is growing a public awareness and is gaining an increasing importance to improve a long-term learning program. However, a higher sustainability education is an initial phase as ever in many universities. E-learning systems in science education based on innovative information and Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have close relationship in effective long-standing learnings of sustainability and numerous criteria. Also, the technological challenge integrated to sustainability science education has been focused on e-learning programs, which can fill current educational niche. This paper presents a combined application, Fuzzy-DEcision-MAking Trial and Evaluation Laboratory/Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (F-DEMATEL/MCDA) technique, identifying and analyzing e-learning systems' the most essential criteria for sustainability science education. The main criteria to accomplish this goal proposed are delineated, weighted, appraised and assigned into four groups such as sustainability, science education, e-learning and technology criteria. Sixteen sub-criteria were analyzed by the participatory F-DEMATEL technique on the basis of coefficients' value and computation in the context of impact and examination. For the final decision problem, the most important criteria are acquired with the help of Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) assessed by six implementation strategies' sensitivity analysis (A to F) and the sub-criteria by a professional online survey. Analysis on F-DEMATEL/MCDA shows sustainability criteria (Strategy A, 0.54 with 84% most likely and likely professional perception survey) that is the most essential criteria in sustainability and e-learning systems science education. Also, it indicates information environmental (0.57 with 77% most likely and likely professional perception survey) is the most essential variable among sub-criteria. Strategy F considering the most important criteria as equal (0.25) got 19% positively perception professional assessment. Consequently, fuzzy-operational and multi-decision analysis and professional survey could be utilized to find out the most essential sustainability science e-learning criteria that also could be engaged to make pliable and pertinent decision features.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881093

RESUMO

No studies have analyzed the longitudinal associations of change in physical fitness components and obesity with academic performance. The aim of the study was to examine longitudinal associations of changes in physical fitness components and body mass index with academic performance among youth, and whether the physical fitness components are moderators of the longitudinal association between obesity and academic performance in youth. Longitudinal analyses (2 years) included 1802 youths. Physical fitness components were assessed following the ALPHA health-related fitness test battery. Academic performance was assessed via school records. Youth in the persistently high cardiorespiratory fitness and motor ability categories (ie, fit at baseline and at 2-year follow-up) had higher academic performance at follow-up than those in the persistently low category. Further, youth with normal weight at baseline and overweight/obesity at follow-up had lower academic performance scores at follow-up compared to those with normal weight. Also, cardiorespiratory fitness may ameliorate the negative influence of excess body mass index on academic performance at follow-up. Promoting physical activity programs at school that include both aerobic exercise and motor tasks to improve physical fitness and reduce body mass index may not only improve physical health, but also contribute toward successful academic development.

18.
Sleep Sci ; 13(2): 125-130, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32742583

RESUMO

Objective: Poor sleep quality is a common problem in the general population, frequently associated with personal habits and comorbid conditions. University students may be a vulnerable population because of their daily routine, habits and sleep hygiene behavior. There are few related studies on this subject in Colombian undergraduates. The aim of this study is to characterize sleep quality in Colombian university undergraduates and examine possible associated factors. Methods: Cross-sectional study was performed with self-administered questionnaires including demographic data, lifestyle habits, sleep hygiene habits and sleep quality measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The study group included 414 students from different schools enrolled at the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana in Bogotá, Colombia. Results: Prevalence of poor sleep quality according to PSQI was 58.9%. Multivariate analysis showed an association of poor sleep quality with smoking (OR = 3.17 [1.51-6.66]) and eating in bed (OR = 2.13 [1.31-3.47]), with probable protective factors in sleeping at the same time (OR = 0.37 [0.25-0.59]) and having breakfast 5 or more days of the week (OR = 0.53 [0.31-0.91]). Discussion: Poor sleep quality is frequent among undergraduates, regardless of their area of study. The identification of possible related factors may help to design targeted preventive measures, as it is promoting healthy lifestyle habits, adequate sleep hygiene practices and avoiding tobacco use.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858540

RESUMO

Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are an important source for investigation of dengue virus (DENV) infection, particularly when blood or fresh frozen (FF) samples are unavailable. Histopathologic features and immunohistochemistry may have poor sensitivity and serotype determination is not always possible. Viral RNA genome detection tests are faster and considered the most sensitive technique for this kind of analysis, however, the use of molecular methods applied to FFPE tissues is still limited. The authors applied a single-step multiplex reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) for the investigation of DENV infection and typing to FFPE samples of 32 fatal cases received during the 2019 outbreak that occurred in São Paulo state, Brazil. The authors compared the results with those obtained using FF tissues. Of the 24 cases with both FF and FFPE samples, 22 (91.67%) of the FF and 19 (76.20%) of the FFPE specimens were positive. Two cases (8.33%) tested negative in both types of samples. All 8 cases with only FFPE samples available were positive. The accuracy (87.5%) of the RT-qPCR for DENV in FFPE samples were satisfactory. Although the cycle quantification (Cq) values were significantly higher in these materials (P<0.0001, Wilcoxon signed-rank test) when compared with FF tissues, Spearman's rank coefficient indicated a good correlation between the Cq values from both sample types (P=0.0063; rho=0.576). RT-qPCR applied to FFPE samples improved detection of DENV in fatal cases and represents a useful tool for diagnosis and epidemiologic studies.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32786159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the bidirectional longitudinal associations of several markers of fatness and physical fitness in adolescents with Down syndrome. METHODS: This study comprised a total of 111 adolescents (41 females), aged from 11 to 20 years with complete data at the baseline. We had a drop-out of <10% from the baseline to the 2-year follow-up. The ALPHA health-related fitness test battery for youth was used. RESULTS: Our results show that all fatness variables at the baseline were associated with a 2-year change in cardiorespiratory fitness (ß ranging from -0.32 to -0.38; all p < .05), but not with muscular and motor fitness (p > .05). However, no associations were found between physical fitness components as predictors and fatness indicators (p > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that reducing fatness during adolescence might represent a modifiable factor to improve cardiorespiratory fitness at the 2-year follow-up, but not vice versa since associations were not bidirectional.

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