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J Neurol Surg B Skull Base ; 80(4): 392-398, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316885


Background There is little data regarding postoperative outcomes of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) undergoing skull base surgery. The purpose of this study is to determine an association between risk factors and proximity of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak to surgery in patients with OSA undergoing endoscopic skull base surgery. Methods A retrospective review of neurosurgical inpatients, with and without OSA, at a tertiary care institution from 2002 to 2015 that experienced a postoperative CSF leak after undergoing endoscopic skull base surgery. Results Forty patients met inclusion criteria, 12 (30%) with OSA. OSA patients had significantly higher body mass index (BMI; median 39.4 vs. 31.7, p < 0.01) and were more likely to have diabetes (41.7 vs. 10.7%, p = 0.04) than non-OSA patients; otherwise there were no significant differences in clinical comorbidities. No patients restarted positive pressure ventilation (PPV) in the inpatient setting. The type of repair was not a significant predictor of the time from surgery to leak. Patients with OSA experienced postoperative CSF leak 49% sooner than non-OSA patients (Hazard Ratio 1.49, median 2 vs. 6 days, log-rank p = 0.20). Conclusion Patients with OSA trended toward leaking earlier than those without OSA, and no OSA patients repaired with a nasoseptal flap (NSF) had a leak after postoperative day 5. Due to a small sample size this trend did not reach significance. Future studies will help to determine the appropriate timing for restarting PPV in this high risk population. This is important given PPV's significant benefit to the patient's overall health and its ability to lower intracranial pressure.

J Neurol Surg B Skull Base ; 80(4): 399-415, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316886


Introduction Optimal management of vestibular schwannoma (VS) demands involvement of an experienced multidisciplinary team. As the number of training programs in neurotology and skull base neurosurgery continues to rise, ensuring that trainees are capable of evidence-based decision-making and treatment, whether microsurgical or radiosurgical, is of paramount importance. The purpose of this study is to characterize the landscape of neurotologic and neurosurgical fellowship training programs in North America, with special reference to VS management. Methods A 64-item web-based survey assessing VS practice trends was devised by members of the North American Skull Base Society (NASBS) Research Task Force and distributed electronically to NASBS membership via SurveyMonkey as a cross-sectional study. Participation was entirely voluntary and there was no remuneration for survey completion. The survey link was active from November 29 to December 14, 2016. Results Of 719 members of the NASBS who were emailed a survey link, a total of 57 were returned (8%) completed surveys. Of all respondents, 51 (89%) claimed to have formal training in skull base neurosurgery or neurotology. Thirty-three respondents (65%) were skull base neurosurgeons while the remainder were neurotologists ( n = 18; 35%). Institutions with fellowship programs tended to have a higher surgical, radiosurgical, and overall case volume than those with a residency program alone. However, 20% of respondents at institutions with fellowship programs reported evaluating less than 50 new diagnoses of VS per year and 12% reported a surgical case volume of less than 10 cases per year. Conclusion As the number of skull base training programs expands, it is our duty to ensure that trainees gain sufficient experience to enter independent practice with the ability to exercise informed decision-making and safely perform VS surgery and radiosurgery. In the current training climate, implementing multidisciplinary care models, formalized training requirements, and emerging surgical simulators will support the development of minimum proficiencies in VS care.

J Neurol Surg B Skull Base ; 80(Suppl 3): S286, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143593


Objectives This video describes the surgical indications, relevant anatomy, and surgical steps of routine translabyrinthine surgery for gross total resection of sporadic vestibular schwannoma. Design The procedure is presented through a surgical instructional video. Setting The surgery took place at tertiary skull base referral center. Parcipant A 47-year-old patient reported with nonserviceable hearing, frequent episodes of vertigo, recurrent severe headache, and a small unilateral right sided vestibular schwannoma. Results Gross total resection with preservation of facial nerve function was achieved. Conclusion This instructional video documents the surgical steps and relevant anatomy for translabyrinthine resection of vestibular schwannoma. The link to the video can be found at: .

J Neurol Surg B Skull Base ; 79(2): 184-188, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29868325


Objective Olfactory preservation after resection of esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) has been reported, however, the ability to predict tumor involvement of the olfactory system is critical to this surgical strategy. This study aims to answer the question: Can a surgeon predict, based on preoperative imaging, whether there is unilateral involvement of the olfactory system allowing for safe attempt of olfactory preservation? Methods This is a retrospective review of post-resection ENB meeting inclusion criteria of having bilateral olfactory tracts and bulbs submitted at the time of primary resection for pathologic margins. Five board-certified skull base surgeons blinded to the pathology individually reviewed the preoperative MRI scans to predict degree of tumor involvement. Results Olfactory bulb involvement occurred in both bulbs in 35% of cases and unilateral in 39% of cases, and there was no involvement in 26% of cases sampled. When comparing physician prediction of involved tracts or bulbs, involvement was appropriate or over-called (i.e., called positive when pathology was in fact negative) in 96% of cases. Conclusion This study demonstrates unilateral or no pathologic olfactory involvement of the olfactory system in 65% of cases. Our ability to predict this involvement, which may allow for a management strategy that attempts to preserve olfactory function, was accurate at 96%. Therefore, interpretation of imaging and proceeding with smell preservation in ENB appears reasonable in this cohort. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 2b.

J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg ; 79(3): 247-256, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29195268


OBJECTIVE: Few studies have compared transsphenoidal endoscopic (TE) and transsphenoidal microscopic (TM) techniques for the treatment of craniopharyngiomas. DESIGN: We performed a systematic review of published series. The results were stratified in two time periods from 1995 to 2016. RESULTS: A total of 48 articles and 1,186 patients met the inclusion criteria. Overall, 60% of endoscopic cases were supradiaphragmatic, and 76% of microsurgical cases were infradiaphragmatic. Mean tumor size was 3 cm and 2.4 cm in the TE and TM series, respectively (p = 0.008). Total resection rate was similar (66%) between TE and TM. Considering the surgical outcome for different tumor locations, total resection rate was slightly higher in the TE for supradiaphragmatic lesions (59% versus 42.5%; p = 0.26). Recurrence rate was higher in the endoscopic series (21.7% versus 12%). Mortality and the overall complication rates were similar (p = 0.84). However, hydrocephalus (7.6%) and cognitive dysfunction (15.8%) were more common in TE, and meningitis (6%) and endocrinologic complications were more common in the TM series. In the past 6 years, the rate of cerebrospinal fluid leak in TE was significantly lower (13%) and was comparable between TE and TM. CONCLUSION: Both techniques appear comparable for infradiaphragmatic lesions; however, TE seems to yield better results for supradiaphragmatic tumors. In conclusion, more complex lesions with difficult locations can be effectively treated with endoscopic surgery.

Craniofaringioma/cirurgia , Endoscopia , Microcirurgia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 148: 105-9, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27434528


OBJECTIVE: Obesity has been associated with increased risk for postoperative CSF leak in patients with benign cranial nerve tumors. Other measures of postoperative morbidity associated with obesity have not been well characterized. METHODS: Patients enrolled in the American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) from 2007 to 2013 with a diagnosis code of a benign neoplasm of a cranial nerve were included. The primary outcome of postoperative morbidity was analyzed as well as secondary outcomes of readmission and reoperation. The main covariate of interest was body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: A total of 561 patients underwent surgery for a benign cranial nerve neoplasm between 2007 and 2013. Readmission data, available for 2012-2013(n=353), revealed hydrocephalus, facial nerve injury, or CSF leak requiring readmission or reoperation occurred in 0.85%, 1.42%, and 3.12%, respectively. Composite morbidity included wound complications, infection, respiratory insufficiency, transfusion requirement, stroke, venous thromboembolism, coma and cardiac arrest. On multivariable analysis patients with class I (BMI 30-34.9) and II (BMI 35-39.9) obesity showed trends towards increasing return to operating room, though not significant, but there was no trend for composite complications in class I and II obesity patients. However, class III obesity, BMI≥40, was associated with increased odds of composite morbidity (OR 4.40, 95% CI 1.24-15.88) and return to the operating room (OR 5.97, 95% CI 1.20-29.6) relative to patients with a normal BMI, 18.5-25. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity is an independent and important risk factor for composite morbidity in resection of benign cranial nerve neoplasms, and as such, merits discussion during preoperative counseling.

Neoplasias dos Nervos Cranianos/cirurgia , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias dos Nervos Cranianos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Risco