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1.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e027744, 2019 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767577

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate trends in HIV testing, positivity and prevalence in UK primary care for 2000-2015 as part of a wider investigation into reasons for late diagnosis of HIV. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) which is derived from computerised clinical records produced during consultations in primary care. SETTING: 404 general practices in England. PARTICIPANTS: 5 979 598 adults aged ≥16 years registered between 2000 and 2015 with 45 093 761 person years of observation. OUTCOMES: Annual HIV testing rates, proportion of positive tests and prevalence of HIV-infected people recorded in primary care 2000-2015. RESULTS: HIV testing in primary care increased from 2000 to 2010, but then declined. Testing was higher in females than in males and in those aged 16-44 years compared with older adults. Rates per 100 000 in women aged 16-44 years were 177 (95% CI 167 to 188); 1309 (95% CI 1282 to 1336); 1789 (95% CI 1757 to 1821) and 839 (95% CI 817 to 862) in 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015, respectively, and for non-pregnant women: 22.5 (95% CI 19 to 26); 134 (95% CI 125 to 143); 262 (95% CI 250 to 275); 190 (95% CI 179 to 201). For men aged 16-44 years rates were: 26 (95% CI 22 to 29); 107 (95% CI 100 to 115); 196 (95% CI 185 to 206); 137 (95% CI 127 to 146). Over the study period, there were approximately two positive results per 1000 HIV tests. Men were eightfold more likely to test positive than women. The percentage of HIV diagnoses among adults recorded in CPRD may be as low as 55% in London and 67% in the rest of the UK. CONCLUSIONS: HIV testing rates in primary care peaked in 2010 and subsequently declined. Access to testing was higher for women despite the prevalence of HIV being higher in men. IMPLICATIONS AND FURTHER RESEARCH NEEDED: Opportunities remain in primary care for increasing HIV testing to prevent costly late diagnoses and decrease HIV transmission. Interventions to improve targeting of tests and increase adherence to HIV testing guidelines are needed in primary care.

2.
BMC Fam Pract ; 20(1): 74, 2019 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: UK guidelines recommend a 'routine offer of HIV testing' in primary care where HIV diagnosed prevalence exceeds 2 in 1000. However, current primary care HIV testing rates are low. Efforts to increase primary care HIV testing are needed. To examine how an educational intervention to increase HIV testing in general practice was experienced by healthcare professionals (HCPs) and to understand the perceived impacts on HIV testing. METHOD: Qualitative interviews with general practitioners (GPs) and nurses 3-months after receiving an educational intervention developed from an adapted version of the Medical Foundation for HIV and Sexual Health (MEDFASH) HIV Testing In Practice (TIPs) online educational tool which included training on HIV associated clinical indicator conditions, why, who, and how to test. The intervention was delivered in 19 high-HIV prevalence general practices in Bristol. 27 semi-structured interviews were conducted across 13 practices with 16 GPs, 10 nurses and the sexual health clinician who delivered the intervention. Transcripts were analysed thematically informed by Normalisation Process Theory. RESULTS: HCPs welcomed the opportunity to update their HIV knowledge through a tailored, interactive session. Post-training, HCPs reported increased awareness of HIV indicator conditions, confidence to offer HIV tests and consideration of HIV tests. Continued testing barriers include perceived lack of opportunity. CONCLUSIONS: This qualitative study found that HIV education is perceived as valuable in relation to perceived awareness, confidence, and consideration of HIV testing. However, repetition and support from other strategies are needed to encourage HCPs to offer HIV tests. Future interventions should consider using behaviour change theory to develop a complex intervention that addresses not only HCP capability to offer an HIV test, but also issues of opportunity and motivation.

3.
BMC Fam Pract ; 19(1): 195, 2018 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV-infected patients often present to primary care several times with HIV-indicator conditions before diagnosis but the opportunity to test by healthcare professionals (HCPs) is frequently missed. Current HIV testing rates in primary care are low and educational interventions to facilitate HCPs to increase testing and awareness of HIV are needed. METHOD: We implemented a pilot feasibility stepped-wedged randomised controlled trial of an educational intervention in high HIV prevalence practices in Bristol. The training delivered to HCPs including General Practitioners (GP) aimed to increase HIV testing and included why, who, and how to test. The intervention was adapted from the Medical Foundation for HIV and Sexual Health HIV Testing in Practice (MEDFASH) educational tool. Questionnaires assessed HCP feedback and perceived impacts of the intervention. HIV testing rates were compared between control and intervention practices using 12 monthly laboratory totals. RESULTS: 169 HCPs (from 19 practices) received the educational intervention. 127 (75%) questionnaires were completed. Delivery of the intervention was received positively and was perceived as valuable for increasing awareness, confidence and consideration of testing, with HCPs gaining more awareness of HIV testing guidelines. The main pre-training HIV testing barrier reported by GPs was the patient not considering themselves at risk, whilst for nurses it was a concern about embarrassing or offending the patient. Most HCPs reported the intervention addressed these barriers. The HIV testing rate increased more in the control than in the intervention practices: mean difference 2.6 (95% CI 0.5,4.7) compared with 1.9 (- 0.5,4.3) per 1000 patients, respectively. The number of HIV tests across all practices increased from 1154 in the first 6 months to 1299 in the second 6 months, an annual increase in testing rate of 2.0 (0.7,3.4) from 16.3 to 18.3 per 1000 patients. CONCLUSION: There was a small increase in HIV testing rates over the study period, but this could not be attributed to the educational intervention. More effective and sustainable programmes tailored to each practice context are needed to change testing culture and HCP behaviour. Repeated training, supported by additional measures, such as testing prompts, may be needed to influence primary care HIV testing.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Medicina Geral/organização & administração , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , HIV , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
4.
N Engl J Med ; 379(4): 352-362, 2018 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30044938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema is a life-threatening illness caused by mutations in the gene encoding C1 inhibitor (also called C1 esterase inhibitor) that lead to overactivation of the kallikrein-bradykinin cascade. BCX7353 is a potent oral small-molecule inhibitor of plasma kallikrein with a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile that may help prevent angioedema attacks. METHODS: In this international, three-part, dose-ranging, placebo-controlled trial, we evaluated four doses of BCX7353 (62.5 mg, 125 mg, 250 mg, and 350 mg once daily) for the prevention of angioedema attacks over a 28-day period. Patients with type I or II hereditary angioedema with a history of at least two angioedema attacks per month were randomly assigned to BCX7353 or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was the number of confirmed angioedema attacks. Key secondary end points included angioedema attacks according to anatomical location and quality of life. RESULTS: A total of 77 patients underwent randomization, 75 received BCX7353 or placebo, and 72 completed the trial. The rate of confirmed angioedema attacks was significantly lower among patients who received BCX7353 at daily doses of 125 mg or more than among those who received placebo, with a 73.8% difference at 125 mg (P<0.001). Significant benefits with respect to quality-of-life scores were observed in the 125-mg and 250-mg dose groups (P<0.05). Gastrointestinal adverse events, predominantly of grade 1, were the most commonly reported adverse events, particularly in the two highest BCX7353 dose groups. CONCLUSIONS: Once-daily oral administration of BCX7353 at a dose of 125 mg or more resulted in a significantly lower rate of attacks of hereditary angioedema than placebo. Mild gastrointestinal symptoms were the principal side effect. (Funded by BioCryst Pharmaceuticals; APeX-1 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02870972 .).


Assuntos
Angioedemas Hereditários/prevenção & controle , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Calicreína Plasmática/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/efeitos adversos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacocinética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2018 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912307

RESUMO

Background: Both immediate or deferred switching from a PI/r to DTG may improve lipid profile. Methods: NEAT022 is a European, open label, randomized, trial. HIV-infected adults ≥ 50 years or with a Framingham score ≥10% were eligible if HIV RNA < 50 copies/mL. Patients were randomized to switch the PI/r to DTG immediately (DTG-I) or to deferred switch at week 48 (DTG-D) . Week 96 end-points were: proportion of patients with HIV RNA < 50 copies/ml, percentage change of lipid fractions and adverse events. Results: 415 patients were randomized: 205 to DTG-I and 210 to continue PI/r plus a deferred switch (DTG-D) at week 48 . The primary objective of non-inferiority at week 48 was met. At week 96, treatment success rate was 92.2 % in DTG-I arm and 87% in DTG-D arm (difference 5.2%, 95% CI -0.6 to 11). There were 5 virological failures in the DTG-I arm and 5 (1 while on PI/r and 4 after switching to DTG) in the DTG-D arm without selection of resistance mutations. There was no significant difference in terms of grade 3 or 4 AE´s or treatment modifying AE´s. Total cholesterol and other lipid fractions (except HDL) significantly (p<0.001) improved both after immediate and deferred switching to DTG overall and regardless of baseline PI/r strata. Conclusions: Both immediate and deferred switching from a PI/r to a DTG regimen in virologically suppressed HIV patients ≥ 50 years old or with a Framingham score ≥10% was highly efficacious, well tolerated and improved lipid profile.

6.
AIDS ; 31(18): 2503-2514, 2017 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29112070

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy, safety, and impact on lipid fractions of switching from a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r) to a dolutegravir (DTG) regimen. METHODS: HIV type 1-infected adults more than 50 years or with a Framingham score more than 10% were eligible if plasma HIV RNA less than 50 copies per ml for at least 24 weeks while on a PI/r regimen. Patients were randomized to switch to DTG or to remain on PI/r. Primary endpoints were: proportion maintaining HIV RNA less than 50 copies per ml and percentage change from baseline of total cholesterol at week 48. RESULTS: In total, 415 patients (32 sites in six European countries) were randomized: 205 to DTG and 210 to continue PI/r. About 89% were men, 87% more than 50 years, 74% had a Framingham score more than 10%, with a median CD4 cell count of 617 cells per µl and suppressed viremia for a median of 5 years. At week 48, in the intent-to-treat analysis, treatment success rate was 93.1% in DTG group and 95.2% in PI/r group (difference -2.1%, 95% confidence interval -6.6 to 2.4, noninferiority demonstrated). There were four virological failures with DTG and one with PI/r with no emergent resistance mutations. There was no significant difference in severe adverse events or grade 3 or 4 adverse events or treatment modifying adverse events. Total cholesterol and other lipid fractions (except high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) improved significantly (P < 0.001) in the DTG group regardless of PI/r at baseline. CONCLUSION: Switching to a DTG regimen in virologically suppressed HIV type 1 patients with high cardiovascular disease risk was noninferior, and significantly improved lipid profiles.


Assuntos
Substituição de Medicamentos/métodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/administração & dosagem , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia de Manutenção/métodos , Ritonavir/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/efeitos adversos , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ritonavir/efeitos adversos , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28971614

RESUMO

Direct comparisons of tolerability and safety of concentrated intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) versus less concentrated products are scarce. In this postauthorization, prospective, observational, multicenter study, a systematic comparison of 10% and 5% concentrations of Flebogamma® DIF IVIG was performed in both adult and pediatric patients treated with the studied IVIG products according to the approved indications under routine conditions. Dose of product administered, adverse events (AEs), physical assessments, laboratory tests, and concomitant therapy were analyzed. Patient recruitment in the 10% and 5% product groups was, respectively, 34 (32 analyzed, 13 of them children, receiving 130 IVIG infusions) and 35 (34 analyzed, receiving 135 IVIG infusions). Twenty-four infusions (18.5%; 95% CI: 11.8, 25.1) with the 10% product and 3 (2.2%; 95% CI: -0.3, 4.7) with the 5% product were associated with potentially treatment-related AEs (P < 0.0001). Nine patients (28.1%) infused with the 10% product and 3 (8.8%) infused with the 5% product presented, respectively, 33 and 8 treatment-related AEs (of which 7 and 6, respectively, were serious AEs, experienced by only three hypersensitive patients). The profile of AEs occurring with the infusion of 10% and 5% products were comparable. The most frequent treatment-related AEs were headache (n = 17, 3 patients; 15 episodes, 1 patient) and pyrexia (n = 6, 4 patients). In conclusion, no unpredictable risk was detected for both Flebogamma DIF 10% and 5% concentrations, which were therefore deemed as safe and well-tolerated IVIG in the studied population. The frequency of infusions associated with treatment-related AEs was lower with the 5% concentration.


Assuntos
Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Cefaleia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
AIDS ; 31(18): 2525-2532, 2017 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28926400

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare rates of all-cause, liver-related, and AIDS-related mortality among individuals who are HIV-monoinfected with those coinfected with HIV and hepatitis B (HBV) and/or hepatitis C (HCV) viruses. DESIGN: An ongoing observational cohort study collating routinely collected clinical data on HIV-positive individuals attending for care at HIV treatment centres throughout the United Kingdom. METHODS: Individuals were included if they had been seen for care from 2004 onwards and had tested for HBV and HCV. Crude mortality rates (all cause, liver related, and AIDS related) were calculated among HIV-monoinfected individuals and those coinfected with HIV, HBV, and/or HCV. Poisson regression was used to adjust for confounding factors, identify independent predictors of mortality, and estimate the impact of hepatitis coinfection on mortality in this cohort. RESULTS: Among 25 486 HIV-positive individuals, with a median follow-up 4.5 years, HBV coinfection was significantly associated with increased all-cause and liver-related mortality in multivariable analyses: adjusted rate ratios (ARR) [95% confidence intervals (95% CI)] were 1.60 (1.28-2.00) and 10.42 (5.78-18.80), respectively. HCV coinfection was significantly associated with increased all-cause (ARR 1.43, 95% CI 1.15-1.76) and liver-related mortality (ARR 6.20, 95% CI 3.31-11.60). Neither HBV nor HCV coinfection were associated with increased AIDS-related mortality: ARRs (95% CI) 1.07 (0.63-1.83) and 0.40 (0.20-0.81), respectively. CONCLUSION: The increased rate of all-cause and liver-related mortality among hepatitis-coinfected individuals in this HIV-positive cohort highlights the need for primary prevention and access to effective hepatitis treatment for HIV-positive individuals.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/mortalidade , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/mortalidade , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 17(1): 506, 2017 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28738800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Feedback tools for clinical audit data that compare site-specific results to average performance over all sites can be useful for quality improvement. Proposed tools should be simple and clearly benchmark the site's performance, so that a relevant action plan can be directly implemented to improve patient care services. We aimed to develop such a tool in order to feedback data to UK HIV clinics participating in the 2015 British HIV Association (BHIVA) audit assessing compliance with the 2011 guidelines for routine investigation and monitoring of adult HIV-1- infected individuals. METHODS: HIV clinic sites were asked to provide data on a random sample of 50-100 adult patients attending for HIV care during 2014 and/or 2015 by completing a self-audit spreadsheet. Outcomes audited included the proportion of patients with recorded resistance testing, viral load monitoring, adherence assessment, medications, hepatitis testing, vaccination management, risk assessments, and sexual health screening. For each outcome we benchmarked the proportion for a specific site against the average performance. We produced performance charts for each site using boxplots for the outcomes. We also used the mean and differences from the mean performance to produce a dashboard for each site. We used principal components analysis to group correlated outcomes and simplify the dashboard. RESULTS: The 106 sites included in the study provided information on a total of 7768 patients. Outcomes capturing monitoring of treatment of HIV-infection showed high performance across the sites, whereas testing for hepatitis, and risk assessment for cardiovascular disease and smoking, management of flu vaccination, sexual health screening, and cervical cytology for women were very variable across sites. The principal components analysis reduced the original 12 outcomes to four factors that represented HIV care, hepatitis testing, other screening tests, and resistance testing. These provided simplified measures of adherence to guidelines which were presented as a 4 bar dashboard of performance. CONCLUSION: Our dashboard performance charts provide easily digestible visual summaries of locally relevant audit data that are benchmarked against the overall mean and can be used to improve feedback to HIV services. Feedback from clinicians indicated that they found these charts acceptable and useful.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/normas , Benchmarking , Auditoria Clínica/métodos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Infecções por HIV/terapia , HIV-1 , Adulto , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Análise de Componente Principal , Melhoria de Qualidade , Reino Unido
11.
BJPsych Open ; 3(3): 127-137, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28507772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between depression and sexual behaviour among men who have sex with men (MSM) is poorly understood. AIMS: To investigate prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score ≥10) and the relationship between depressive symptoms and sexual behaviour among MSM reporting recent sex. METHOD: The Attitudes to and Understanding of Risk of Acquisition of HIV (AURAH) is a cross-sectional study of UK genitourinary medicine clinic attendees without diagnosed HIV (2013-2014). RESULTS: Among 1340 MSM, depressive symptoms (12.4%) were strongly associated with socioeconomic disadvantage and lower supportive network. Adjusted for key sociodemographic factors, depressive symptoms were associated with measures of condomless sex partners in the past 3 months (≥2 (prevalence ratio (PR) 1.42, 95% CI 1.17-1.74; P=0.001), unknown or HIV-positive status (PR 1.43, 95% CI 1.20-1.71; P<0.001)), sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis (PR 1.46, 95% CI 1.19-1.79; P<0.001) and post-exposure prophylaxis use in the past year (PR 1.83, 95% CI 1.33-2.50; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Management of mental health may play a role in HIV and STI prevention. DECLARATION OF INTEREST: A.N.P. has received payments for presentations made at meetings sponsored by Gilead in spring 2015. N.C.N. has received support for attendance at conferences, speaker fees and payments for attendance at advisory boards from Gilead Sciences, Viiv Healthcare, Janssen Pharmaceuticals and Bristol-Myers Squibb and a research grant from Gilead Sciences. D.A. served on the advisory board for Gilead in January 2016. M.M.G. has had sponsorship to attend conferences by Bristol-Myers Squibb, been on the BioCryst advisory board and run trials for Merck, Gilead, SSAT, BioCryst and Novartis. COPYRIGHT AND USAGE: © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license.

12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 5(4): 938-945, 2017 Jul - Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28351785

RESUMO

A proportion of people living with common variable immunodeficiency disorders develop granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD). We aimed to develop a consensus statement on the definition, diagnosis, and management of GLILD. All UK specialist centers were contacted and relevant physicians were invited to take part in a 3-round online Delphi process. Responses were graded as Strongly Agree, Tend to Agree, Neither Agree nor Disagree, Tend to Disagree, and Strongly Disagree, scored +1, +0.5, 0, -0.5, and -1, respectively. Agreement was defined as greater than or equal to 80% consensus. Scores are reported as mean ± SD. There was 100% agreement (score, 0.92 ± 0.19) for the following definition: "GLILD is a distinct clinico-radio-pathological ILD occurring in patients with [common variable immunodeficiency disorders], associated with a lymphocytic infiltrate and/or granuloma in the lung, and in whom other conditions have been considered and where possible excluded." There was consensus that the workup of suspected GLILD requires chest computed tomography (CT) (0.98 ± 0.01), lung function tests (eg, gas transfer, 0.94 ± 0.17), bronchoscopy to exclude infection (0.63 ± 0.50), and lung biopsy (0.58 ± 0.40). There was no consensus on whether expectant management following optimization of immunoglobulin therapy was acceptable: 67% agreed, 25% disagreed, score 0.38 ± 0.59; 90% agreed that when treatment was required, first-line treatment should be with corticosteroids alone (score, 0.55 ± 0.51).


Assuntos
Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum , Granuloma , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais , Instituições de Caridade , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/diagnóstico , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/diagnóstico por imagem , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/tratamento farmacológico , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/patologia , Consenso , Granuloma/diagnóstico , Granuloma/diagnóstico por imagem , Granuloma/tratamento farmacológico , Granuloma/patologia , Humanos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/patologia , Sociedades Médicas , Reino Unido
13.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 74(2): 185-192, 2017 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27749603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improvements in cognitive function are described after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), with sparse data on differences between cART strategies. METHODS: We assessed changes in cognition, over 96 weeks, in therapy-naive HIV-positive adults randomized to darunavir/ritonavir (800/100 mg once daily) with either raltegravir (400 mg twice daily, Arm1) or tenofovir/emtricitabine (245/200 mg once daily, Arm2). Seven cognitive tests were administered at baseline and week (W) 96. Changes from baseline in individual cognitive test scores and composite score (NPZ) were assessed. Comparisons between treatment arms were by intention to treat and associations with immunological and virological parameters by regression models. FINDINGS: Of 343 subjects enrolled, 208 completed the W96 cognitive assessment. Baseline median (interquartile range) CD4 count and plasma HIV RNA were 348 (282-398) cells per microliter and 4.7 (4.2-5.1) log10 copies per milliliter, respectively. At W96, numbers with plasma HIV RNA undetectable and remaining on randomized cART were 85 (92%) and 110 (96%), and 84 (90%) and 107 (93%) in Arm1 and Arm2, respectively. Overall performance significantly improved by W96 in 5 of 7 individual tests and in NPZ. Mean changes in NPZ were 0.28 versus 0.21 for Arm1 and 2, respectively (P = 0.37). No statistically significant differences between study treatment arms were observed in individual cognitive domains apart from attention (greater improvement in Arm1, P = 0.0499). At W96, NPZ score increase was associated with increase in CD4 (P = 0.001) but not HIV RNA area under curve (P = 0.60). INTERPRETATION: Subsequent to the initiation of cART, immunological recovery rather than type of antiretroviral therapy is the major driver of changes in cognitive function.


Assuntos
Complexo AIDS Demência/tratamento farmacológico , Complexo AIDS Demência/patologia , Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Cognição/fisiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 5(2): e58, 2016 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27091769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The annual number of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in the United Kingdom among men who have sex with men (MSM) has risen, and remains high among heterosexuals. Increasing HIV transmission among MSM is consistent with evidence of ongoing sexual risk behavior in this group, and targeted prevention strategies are needed for those at risk of acquiring HIV. OBJECTIVE: The Attitudes to and Understanding of Risk of Acquisition of HIV (AURAH) study was designed to collect information on HIV negative adults at risk of HIV infection in the United Kingdom, based on the following parameters: physical and mental health, lifestyle, patterns of sexual behaviour, and attitudes to sexual risk. METHODS: Cross-sectional questionnaire study of HIV negative or undiagnosed sexual health clinic attendees in the United Kingdom from 2013-2014. RESULTS: Of 2630 participants in the AURAH study, 2064 (78%) were in the key subgroups of interest; 580 were black Africans (325 females and 255 males) and 1484 were MSM, with 27 participants belonging to both categories. CONCLUSIONS: The results from AURAH will be a significant resource to understand the attitudes and sexual behaviour of those at risk of acquiring HIV within the United Kingdom. AURAH will inform future prevention efforts and targeted health promotion initiatives in the HIV negative population.

16.
Stat Med ; 35(20): 3583-94, 2016 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27027882

RESUMO

Shared parameter joint models provide a framework under which a longitudinal response and a time to event can be modelled simultaneously. A common assumption in shared parameter joint models has been to assume that the longitudinal response is normally distributed. In this paper, we instead propose a joint model that incorporates a two-part 'hurdle' model for the longitudinal response, motivated in part by longitudinal response data that is subject to a detection limit. The first part of the hurdle model estimates the probability that the longitudinal response is observed above the detection limit, whilst the second part of the hurdle model estimates the mean of the response conditional on having exceeded the detection limit. The time-to-event outcome is modelled using a parametric proportional hazards model, assuming a Weibull baseline hazard. We propose a novel association structure whereby the current hazard of the event is assumed to be associated with the current combined (expected) outcome from the two parts of the hurdle model. We estimate our joint model under a Bayesian framework and provide code for fitting the model using the Bayesian software Stan. We use our model to estimate the association between HIV RNA viral load, which is subject to a lower detection limit, and the hazard of stopping or modifying treatment in patients with HIV initiating antiretroviral therapy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Teorema de Bayes , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Carga Viral , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Esquema de Medicação , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Modelos Estatísticos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
17.
Lancet HIV ; 2(10): e417-26, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26423649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Standard-of-care antiretroviral therapy (ART) uses a combination of drugs deemed essential to minimise treatment failure and drug resistance. Protease inhibitors are potent, with a high genetic barrier to resistance, and have potential use as monotherapy after viral load suppression is achieved with combination treatment. We aimed to assess clinical risks and benefits of protease inhibitor monotherapy in long-term clinical use: in particular, the effect on drug resistance and future treatment options. METHODS: In this pragmatic, parallel-group, randomised, controlled, open-label, non-inferiority trial, we enrolled adults (≥18 years of age) positive for HIV attending 43 public sector treatment centres in the UK who had suppressed viral load (<50 copies per mL) for at least 24 weeks on combination ART with no change in the previous 12 weeks and a CD4 count of more than 100 cells per µL. Participants were randomly allocated (1:1) to maintain ongoing triple therapy (OT) or to switch to a strategy of physician-selected ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor monotherapy (PI-mono); we recommended ritonavir (100 mg)-boosted darunavir (800 mg) once daily or ritonavir (100 mg)-boosted lopinavir (400 mg) twice daily, with prompt return to combination treatment if viral load rebounded. All treatments were oral. Randomisation was with permuted blocks of varying size and stratified by centre and baseline ART; we used a computer-generated, sequentially numbered randomisation list. The primary outcome was loss of future drug options, defined as new intermediate-level or high-level resistance to one or more drugs to which the patient's virus was deemed sensitive at trial entry (assessed at 3 years; non-inferiority margin of 10%). We estimated probability of rebound and resistance with Kaplan-Meier analysis. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number registry, number ISRCTN04857074. FINDINGS: Between Nov 4, 2008, and July 28, 2010, we randomly allocated 587 participants to OT (291) or PI-mono (296). At 3 years, one or more future drug options had been lost in two participants (Kaplan-Meier estimate 0·7%) in the OT group and six (2·1%) in the PI-mono group: difference 1·4% (-0·4 to 3·4); non-inferiority shown. 49 (16·8%) participants in the OT group and 65 (22·0%) in the PI-mono group had grade 3 or 4 clinical adverse events (difference 5·1% [95% CI -1·3 to 11·5]; p=0·12); 45 (six treatment related) and 56 (three treatment related) had serious adverse events. INTERPRETATION: Protease inhibitor monotherapy, with regular viral load monitoring and prompt reintroduction of combination treatment for rebound, preserved future treatment options and did not change overall clinical outcomes or frequency of toxic effects. Protease inhibitor monotherapy is an acceptable alternative for long-term clinical management of HIV infection. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia de Manutenção/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Farmacorresistência Viral , Feminino , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
18.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 15(2): 125-9, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25824062

RESUMO

Therapeutic immunoglobulin G (IgG) products are produced from numerous plasma donations, and are infused in many medical conditions. The serological testing of patients who have received IgG infusions may well produce falsely positive and misleading results from this infused IgG, rather than endogenously produced IgG. We present two example cases of clinical situations where this could cause concern. We tested multiple IgG products with a range of serological tests performed in infective or autoimmune conditions, including hepatitis B, syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus, human T-lymphotropic virus, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA), anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-cardiolipin antibodies and anti-double stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibody. We found positivity within these products for hepatitis B surface and core antibody, syphilis, ANCA, ANA, anti-cardiolipin IgG and dsDNA antibody, which may result from specific or non-specific reactivity. The serological testing of patients who have received IgG treatment detects the administered IgG in addition to IgG produced by the patient.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina G/administração & dosagem , Testes Sorológicos/normas , Adulto , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/efeitos adversos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Sorodiagnóstico da Sífilis
19.
Postgrad Med J ; 91(1071): 3-7, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25573132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis is increasing in incidence. This potentially fatal condition requires immediate intramuscular adrenaline as a vital part of early treatment. A 2002 survey of UK Senior House Officers showed a lack of knowledge regarding the recognition and management of anaphylaxis. Since then major changes in medical education and updated national guidelines have aimed to ensure that doctors can recognise and treat anaphylaxis appropriately. OBJECTIVES: To determine current knowledge concerning the recognition and management of anaphylaxis among junior doctors compared to their predecessors. METHODS: Using the same methodology as in 2002, we asked 68 Foundation doctors to read five clinical scenarios potentially suggesting anaphylaxis and indicate how they would respond to each case. Their results were compared to those of Senior House Officers in 2002. RESULTS: 68 of 107 (64%) junior doctors completed the questionnaire. All recognised the need for adrenaline in anaphylaxis, but only 74% selected the correct intramuscular route, and 34% the correct route and dose. 82% of junior doctors would inappropriately give adrenaline to the patient who had inhaled a foreign body (case 2). A higher percentage of the 2013 cohort indicated the correct route and dose of adrenaline in anaphylaxis than their 2002 colleagues. However, a greater percentage also selected adrenaline treatment inappropriately in non-anaphylactic case scenarios. CONCLUSIONS: Despite updated guidelines, junior doctors continue to have poor knowledge about the recognition and management of anaphylaxis, with some still considering inappropriate intravenous adrenaline. More effort should be given to the recognition of anaphylaxis in early medical training.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia/diagnóstico , Anafilaxia/tratamento farmacológico , Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Tratamento de Emergência/normas , Epinefrina/administração & dosagem , Médicos/normas , Vasoconstritores/administração & dosagem , Competência Clínica , Inglaterra , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares
20.
AIDS ; 28(9): 1333-9, 2014 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24583670

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Few data describe antiretroviral treatment (ART)-related adverse events when treatment is initiated at CD4(+) cell counts more than 350 cells/µl. We compared rates of laboratory-defined adverse events (LDAEs) according to CD4(+) cell count at ART initiation. DESIGN: Analysis of on-going cohort study. METHODS: ART-naive persons initiating ART from 2000 to 2010 were included. Chi-square, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis tests compared characteristics among those starting ART with a CD4(+) cell count of 350 or less, 351-499 and at least 500 cells/µl. Time-updated Poisson regression compared rates of LDAE in the three CD4(+) cell strata. Cox proportional hazard models compared risk of ART discontinuation. RESULTS: Nine thousand, four hundred and six individuals were included: median age 37 years, 61% white, 80% men, median viral load 4.8 log copies/ml. Four hundred and forty-seven (4.9%) and 1099 (11.7%) started ART with a CD4(+) cell count at least 500 and 351-499 cells/µl, respectively. One thousand, two hundred and eighty-three (13.6%) patients experienced at least one LDAE. The rate of LDAE did not differ between those starting ART with a CD4(+) cell count 351-499 and less than 350 cells/µl [relative rate 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74-1.09)], but an increased risk of ART discontinuation was observed (hazard ratio 1.58, 95% CI 1.10-2.27). Those starting ART at CD4(+) cell count at least 500 cells/µl had an increased rate of LDAE (relative rate 1.44, 95% CI 1.13-1.82) but were not more likely to discontinue ART (hazard ratio 1.15, 95% CI 0.64-2.09). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the need to consider ART-related toxicities when initiating therapy at CD4(+) cell counts at least 500 cells/µl. Whilst evidence from randomized controlled trials is awaited, the timing of ART initiation in terms of benefits and risks of ART remains an important question.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Suspensão de Tratamento
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