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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113570

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in an intricate disorder characterized by reproductive and metabolic abnormalities that may affect bone quality and strength along with the lifespan. The present study analysed the impact of postnatal androgenization (of a single dose of testosterone propionate 1.25 mg subcutaneously at day 5 of life) on bone development and markers of bone metabolism in adult female Wistar rats. Compared with healthy controls, the results of measurements of micro-computed tomography (microCT) of the distal femur of androgenized rats indicated an increased cortical bone volume voxel bone volume to total volume (VOX BV/TV) and higher trabecular number (Tb.n) with reduced trabecular separation (Tb.sp). A large magnitude effect size was observed in the levels of circulating bone formation Procollagen I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) at day 60 of life; reabsorption cross-linked C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) markers were similar between the androgenized and control rats at days 60 and 110 of life. The analysis of gene expression in bone indicated elements for an increased bone mass such as the reduction of the Dickkopf-1 factor (Dkk1) a negative regulator of osteoblast differentiation (bone formation) and the reduction of Interleukin 1-b (Il1b), an activator of osteoclast differentiation (bone reabsorption). Results from this study highlight the possible role of the developmental programming on bone microarchitecture with reference to young women with PCOS.

2.
J Equine Vet Sci ; 90: 102982, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534765

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation of age and heat cycle to determine reproductive efficiency in young and aged Thoroughbred mares bred on foal heat (FH) or on second heat (SH) after foaling. Embryo mortality (EmbM) was determined every time a mare was found open after a positive pregnancy diagnosis. Parturition to breeding interval, pregnancy rate (PregR) and EmbM rate were the dependent variables and the treatments were breeding on the FH or on SH. The cutoff age to obtain above-average probability for the EmbM was 10 years old. PregR in mares bred on FH was lower compared with SH (P < .01); however, it was neither affected by the age of mares (P > .05) nor by the age group of mares (P > .05). Regarding FH and SH, there was a difference in PregR in young mares (P < .01), unlike in aged mares (P > .05). EmbM rate was not different between mares bred on FH or SH (P > .05) although it was affected by age of mares (P < .01). EmbM was higher in oldest than young mares (P < .01). Aged mares bred on FH had a significantly higher EmbM rate compared with the young group also bred on FH (P < .01). In conclusion, the reproductive efficiency of Thoroughbred mares bred on FH is dependent of the age. Aged mares (≥10 years old) should be bred at their SH to reduce EmbM and improve reproductive performance.

3.
J Med Food ; 23(7): 689-698, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800339

RESUMO

Obesity reaches an epidemic level worldwide, and this condition is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation and secondary comorbidities, largely driven by global changes in lifestyle and diet. Various dietary approaches are proposed for the obesity treatment and its associated metabolic disorders. Good taste, antioxidant functions, and vitamins have been attributed to virgin coconut oil (VCO). However, VCO contains a large amount of saturated fatty acids, and the consumption of this fat is associated with a number of secondary diseases. We evaluate the effects of VCO supplementation on biochemical, inflammatory, and oxidative stress parameters in rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD). After feeding with HFD for 12 weeks, the animals were supplemented with VCO for 30 days. HFD+VCO group increased in diet intake, weight gain, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. These findings were accompanied by increased in hepatic lipid profile and fat deposition in the liver. Adipocyte hypertrophy was observed in the HFD+VCO group, which was associated with elevated expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in adipose tissue. These results revealed that VCO associated with HFD induced important metabolic alterations, adipose inflammation, and hepatic lipid accumulation in rats.

4.
Epigenetics ; 14(11): 1088-1101, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216927

RESUMO

There is growing evidence that histone lysine demethylases (KDMs) play critical roles in the regulation of embryo development. This study investigated if KDM7A, a lysine demethylase known to act on mono-(me1) and di-(me2) methylation of H3K9 and H3K27, participates in the regulation of early embryo development. Knockdown of KDM7A mRNA reduced blastocyst formation by 69.2% in in vitro fertilized (IVF), 48.4% in parthenogenetically activated (PA), and 48.1% in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos compared to controls. Global immunofluorescence (IF) signal in KDM7A knockdown compared to control embryos was increased for H3K27me1 on D7, for H3K27me2 on D3 and D5, for H3K9me1 on D5 and D7, and for H3K9me2 on D5 embryos, but decreased for H3K9me1, me2 and me3 on D3. Moreover, KDM7A knockdown altered mRNA expression, including the downregulation of KDM3C on D3, NANOG on D5 and D7, and OCT4 on D7 embryos, and the upregulation of CDX2, KDM4B and KDM6B on D5 embryos. On D3 and D5 embryos, total cell number and mRNA expression of embryo genome activation (EGA) markers (EIF1AX and PPP1R15B) were not affected by KDM7A knockdown. However, the ratio of inner cell mass (ICM)/total number of cells in D7 blastocysts was reduced by 45.5% in KDM7A knockdown compared to control embryos. These findings support a critical role for KDM7A in the regulation of early development and cell lineage specification in porcine embryos, which is likely mediated through the modulation of H3K9me1/me2 and H3K27me1/me2 levels, and changes in the expression of other KDMs and pluripotency genes.


Assuntos
Linhagem da Célula , Histona Desmetilases/metabolismo , Animais , Blastocisto/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Código das Histonas , Histona Desmetilases/genética , Suínos
5.
J Inflamm Res ; 12: 65-71, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30881081

RESUMO

Background: Disruption of the balance between the production of ROS and their removal through enzymatic and non-enzymatic (antioxidant) processes has been proposed as a new mechanism in the pathology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Evidence from animal models of PCOS (prenatally androgenized sheep) has suggested that treatment with insulin sensitizers, but not antiandrogens, can reduce increases in ROS. Materials and methods: In the present study, we investigated the effects of neonatal treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist (leuprolide acetate) on prenatally androgenized sheep with testosterone propionate to determine its impact on oxidative stress molecules (ferric reducing antioxidant power [FRAP], advanced oxidation protein product [AOPP], nitric oxide [NOx], albumin) at 8, 12, and 18 months of age. Results: Androgenized ewes (but not leuprolide-treated ewes) showed reduced total cholesterol levels associated with a decrease in the ratio of visceral to subcutaneous adiposity (adjusted to abdominal area) as determined by computed tomography. In androgenized ewes at 12 months of age, an increase in subcutaneous fat and relative decrease in the visceral fat compartment did not affect the expression of REDOX markers. At 18 months of age, however, the levels of NOx metabolites decreased in androgenized animals, but remained close to normal in ewes subjected to neonatal treatment with leuprolide acetate. Other oxidative stress parameters (FRAP, AOPP, albumin) did not vary among groups. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that the GnRH agonist leuprolide (as a single dose after birth) had weak effects on markers of the oxidative stress balance.

6.
Anim Reprod ; 16(4): 829-837, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32368260

RESUMO

The transforming growth factors beta (TGFß) are local factors produced by ovarian cells which, after binding to their receptors, regulate follicular deviation and ovulation. However, their regulation and function during corpus luteum (CL) regression has been poorly investigated. The present study evaluated the mRNA regulation of some TGFß family ligands and their receptors in the bovine CL during induced luteolysis in vivo. On day 10 of the estrous cycle, cows received an injection of prostaglandin F2α (PGF) and luteal samples were obtained from separate groups of cows (n= 4-5 cows per time-point) at 0, 2, 12, 24 or 48 h after treatment. Since TGF beta family comprises more than 30 ligands, we focused in some candidates genes such as activin receptors (ACVR-1A, -1B, -2A, -2B) AMH, AMHR2, BMPs (BMP-1, -2, -3, -4, -6 and -7), BMP receptors (BMPR-1A, -1B and -2), inhibin subunits (INH-A, -BA, -BB) and betaglycan (TGFBR3). The mRNA levels of BMP4, BMP6 and INHBA were higher at 2 h after PGF administration (P<0.05) in comparison to 0 h. The relative mRNA abundance of BMP1, BMP2, BMP3, BMP4, BMP6, ACVR1B, INHBA and INHBB was upregulated up to 12 h post PGF (P<0.05). On the other hand, TGFBR3 mRNA that codes for a reservoir of ligands that bind to TGF-beta receptors, was lower at 48 h. In conclusion, findings from this study demonstrated that genes encoding several TGFß family members are expressed in a time-specific manner after PGF administration.

7.
J Cell Biochem ; 120(6): 9992-10000, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548323

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We hypothesized that vitamin D decreases rates of adenosine formation in human cutaneous melanoma cells through the inhibition of extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate breakdown, thereby affecting tumor cell viability. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore the mechanisms of action of 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2 D3) on the activity and expression of ectonucleotidases in cutaneous melanoma cells. METHODS: A human melanoma cell line, SK-Mel-28, was treated with 1 to 50 nM of the active vitamin D metabolite (1,25(OH)2 D3) over 24 hours, followed by determination of NTPDase1/CD39 and ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 activity and expression rates of the purinergic system-related NTPDASE1, NT5E and adenosine deaminase and vitamin D receptor. An 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay was used to evaluate cellular viability. RESULTS: 1,25(OH)2 D3 decreased adenosine monophosphate hydrolysis via ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 and expression of CD73, but did not change NTPDase1/CD39 activity; it increased the CD39 expression. We also observed an increase of cell viability at 1 nM, but this viability decreased as the concentrations of vitamin D active metabolite increased to 50 nM. There were no differences in gene expression levels. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, we showed for the first time a mechanism of control of adenosine production via modulation of the purinergic system in cutaneous melanoma cells treated with the active metabolite of vitamin D. This study provides original information regarding mechanisms, in which vitamin D plays a key role in preventing tumor progression in human melanoma cells.


Assuntos
5'-Nucleotidase/biossíntese , Calcitriol/farmacologia , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanoma/enzimologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , Neoplasias Cutâneas/enzimologia , 5'-Nucleotidase/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/biossíntese , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Humanos , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
8.
Reproduction ; 157(2): 123-133, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30444719

RESUMO

Insufficient epigenetic reprogramming is incompatible with normal development of embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), but treatment with histone deacetylases inhibitors (HDACi) enhances development of SCNT embryos. However, the mechanisms underpinning HDACi benefits in SCNT embryos remain largely uncharacterized. We hypothesized that, in addition to enhancing reprogramming, HDACi treatment may promote expression of genes not required for early development of SCNT embryos. To test this hypothesis, RNA synthesis was inhibited by treating bovine SCNT embryos with 5,6-dichlorobenzimidazole 1-ß-D-ribofuranoside (DBR), which were concomitantly treated or not with Scriptaid (Scrip; an HDACi). Development to the blastocyst stage was significantly increased by treatment with Scrip alone (26.6%) or associated with DRB (28.6%) compared to Control (17.9%). The total number of nuclei was significantly improved only in embryos that were treated with both Scrip + DRB. Nuclear decondensation after SCNT was significantly increased by DRB treatment either alone or associated with Scrip. The relative mRNA expression, evaluated during the embryo genome activation (EGA) transition, revealed that some KDMs (KDM1A, KDM3A, KDM4C and KDM6A) and DNMT1 where prematurely expressed in Scrip-treated embryos. However, treatment with Scrip + DRB inhibited early mRNA expression of those genes, as well as several other KDMs (KDM4A, KDM4B, KDM5A, KDM5B, KDM5C and KDM7A) compared to embryos treated with Scrip alone. These findings revealed that HDACi improved development in SCNT embryos compared to Control, but altered the expression of genes involved in epigenetic regulation and did not improve embryo quality. Inhibition of RNA synthesis during HDACi treatment enhanced nuclear chromatin decondensation, modulated gene expression and improved SCNT embryo quality.


Assuntos
Reprogramação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidroxilaminas/farmacologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia , RNA/biossíntese , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bovinos/embriologia , Bovinos/genética , Células Cultivadas , Reprogramação Celular/genética , Clonagem de Organismos/veterinária , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária , Embrião de Mamíferos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Técnicas de Transferência Nuclear
9.
Endocrinology ; 159(12): 4056-4064, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30376052

RESUMO

The main clinical feature associated with hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in humans is hirsutism, where hair increases its length, pigmentation, and particularly its diameter. Currently, it is not known whether PCOS animal models also exhibit changes in the hair. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the wool characteristics in sheep prenatally androgenized (PA) with testosterone propionate. After 4 and 13 months of life, wool was collected from the top of the shoulder of both females and males (both androgenized and controls). The offspring sheep were followed for up to 19 months of life to evaluate testosterone and androstenedione serum levels by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, determine insulin and glucose response to intravenous glucose tolerance test, and address estrus cyclicity during the second breeding season. PA male animals showed a reduction in wool fiber diameter at 4 months of age compared with controls (P = 0.02) but not at 13 months, whereas PA females showed increased hair diameter at 13 months (P = 0.002), with no difference at 4 months. No substantial changes in other hair parameters (length, color, and medullation) were identified. In addition, increased levels of serum testosterone were observed in PA female sheep compared with controls at 12 months (P = 0.03). Our results indicate for the first time, to our knowledge, that changes in wool fiber diameter observed in PA ewes replicate, at the translational level, the increase in hair diameter in hirsute women with PCOS.


Assuntos
Androgênios , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hirsutismo , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Ovinos , Virilismo/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hirsutismo/sangue , Hirsutismo/induzido quimicamente , Hirsutismo/complicações , Hirsutismo/patologia , Hiperandrogenismo/sangue , Hiperandrogenismo/induzido quimicamente , Hiperandrogenismo/patologia , Masculino , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/patologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , Propionato de Testosterona , Virilismo/sangue , Virilismo/patologia
10.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 44(4): 1253-1264, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29777417

RESUMO

In aquaculture, nutrition and supplemented diets have been shown to affect broodstock reproductive performance. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with Cymbopogon flexuosus essential oil (CFEO) microcapsules on reproductive-related parameters in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) male broodfish. Adult male broodstocks were separated into three groups according to the concentrations of supplemented CFEO (0.0 = control; 1.0 or 3.0 mL per kg of diet). After 20 days under experimental conditions, the animals were euthanized and the gonads were harvested for gonadosomatic index, sperm analysis, oxidative stress, and histopathology; testosterone levels were measured in the plasma; gene expression of prl, smtl, pomca, and pomcb was assessed in the pituitary gland by real-time PCR. The results showed no alterations on reproductive parameters in R. quelen males treated with Cymbopogon flexuosus essential oil compared to the control-diet animals. In conclusion, CFEO microcapsules supplied for 20 days in the concentrations of 1.00 or 3.00 mL per kilogram of diet did not affect the reproduction criteria evaluated in this study in male silver catfish.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Cymbopogon/química , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Reprodução , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
J Inflamm Res ; 11: 193-202, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29805266

RESUMO

Background: Several studies have described an enhanced inflammatory status and oxidative stress balance disruption in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, there is scarce information about redox markers in the blood of androgenized animal models. Here, we evaluated the serum/plasma oxidative stress marker and metabolic parameter characteristics of prenatal (PreN) and postnatal (PostN) androgenized rat models of PCOS. Materials and methods: For PreN androgenization (n=8), 2.5 mg of testosterone propionate was subcutaneously administered to dams at embryonic days 16, 17, and 18, whereas PostN androgenization (n=7) was accomplished by subcutaneously injecting 1.25 mg of testosterone propionate to animals at PostN day 5. A unique control group (n=8) was constituted for comparison. Results: Our results indicate that PostN group rats exhibited particular modifications in the oxidative stress marker, an increased plasma ferric-reducing ability of plasma, and an increased antioxidant capacity reflected by higher albumin serum levels. PostN animals also presented increased total cholesterol and triglyceride-glucose levels, suggesting severe metabolic disarrangement. Conclusion: Study findings indicate that changes in oxidative stress could be promoted by testosterone propionate exposure after birth, which is likely associated with anovulation and/or lipid disarrangement.

12.
Biol Reprod ; 98(6): 742-751, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29528362

RESUMO

Epigenetic modifications in the C-terminal domain of histones coordinate important events during early development including embryo genome activation (EGA) and cell differentiation. In this study, the mRNA expression profile of the main lysine demethylases (KDMs) acting on the lysine 4 (H3K4), 9 (H3K9), and 27 (H3K27) of the histone H3 was determined at pre-, during and post-EGA stages of bovine and porcine embryos produced by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In IVF embryos, mRNA abundance of most KDMs revealed a bell-shaped profile with peak expression around the EGA period, i.e. Day 3 for porcine (KDM2B, KDM5B, KDM5C, KDM4B, KDM4C, KDM6A, KDM6B, and KDM7A), and Day 4 for bovine (KDM1A, KDM5A, KDM5B, KDM5C, KDM3A, KDM4A, KDM4C, and KDM7A). The mRNA profile of KDM1A, KDM2B, KDM3A, KDM3B, KDM6A, and KDM6B differed between porcine and bovine IVF embryos. Several differences were also observed between SCNT and IVF, which includes a precocious peak in the mRNA expression of KDM1A, KDM3A, KDM4C, KDM5A, KDM5B, KDM5C, KDM6A, and KDM7A in bovine SCNT embryos; absence of mRNA peak for KDM4B, KDM4C, and KDM6A in porcine SCNT embryos; and early decreasing in KDM5B and KDM5C mRNA in porcine SCNT embryos. Based on the mRNA profile, this study has identified several KDMs that are likely involved in the regulation of the EGA transition, KDMs that may have a species-specific role in bovine and porcine embryos, and KDMs that are improperly expressed during cell reprogramming in SCNT embryos.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Epigênese Genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Histona Desmetilases/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Clonagem Molecular , Fertilização In Vitro , Histona Desmetilases/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Suínos
13.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 48(12): e20180336, 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045042

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Previous studies have evaluated the effects of different reproductive procedures on discomfort markers in sheep and cattle. Such studies may help stimulate the adoption of techniques that are more beneficial for animal welfare. However, markers that are commonly used to evaluate discomfort are highly influenced by external factors. To overcome this, several systemic markers can be evaluated to more precisely identify stress, pain, and inflammation. Such markers include cortisol, acute phase proteins, bradykinin, and substance P. We aimed to review the potential markers of stress, pain, and inflammation, and discuss how and when they are regulated after different stimuli related to reproductive procedures in cattle and sheep. Furthermore, we aimed to review how reproductive procedures with different degrees of invasiveness cause stress and provide information that may help develop strategies to limit animal discomfort.


RESUMO: Estudos anteriores avaliaram o efeito de diferentes procedimentos reprodutivos sobre marcadores de desconforto em bovinos e ovinos. Tais estudos podem estimular a adoção de técnicas que preservem o bem-estar animal. Entretanto, os marcadores comumente utilizados apresentam alta influência de fatores externos. Para contornar isso, a avaliação conjunta de diferentes parâmetros sistêmicos pode ser utilizada para determinar com maior precisão a presença de estresse, dor ou inflamação, como cortisol, proteínas de fase aguda, a bradicinina e a substância P. O objetivo desta revisão é relacionar potenciais marcadores de inflamação e estresse, discutindo como e quando são regulados frente aos estímulos em bovinos e ovinos. Ainda, pretende-se revisar de que forma procedimentos reprodutivos com diferentes graus de invasividade acarretam em desconforto, fornecendo informações para a elaboração de estratégias que possibilitem minimizá-lo.

14.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 47(11): e20170380, Nov. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1044907

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Gestation length in swine has a considerable amplitude and both early and delayed parturition are common. This variation increases the occurrence of unassisted farrowing and could lead to a wide-ranging age at weaning for piglets born from one batch. Supervision of sow parturition is crucial to reduce mortality of neonate piglets. To facilitate assistance, induction of farrowing using prostaglandin F2α (PGF) has been widely used in batch farrowing systems, whereby synchronization would concentrate the time of farrowing, allowing for better organization of employees. However, a viable alternative method that can be implemented to manage farrowing is to sustain high progestagen levels in the final days of gestation and, consequently, prevent early parturition. Efficient techniques to delay farrowing such as using oral progestagen supplementation have been previously described, but are only recently being considered for commercial use. The present manuscript reviews publications regarding delaying parturition and discusses the use of intravaginal devices (IVDs) containing progestagen. There is limited data addressing the effect of progestagen treatment during gestation on productive and reproductive performance. Therefore, future studies should focus on improving synchronization protocols following progestagen supplementation and evaluating piglet viability and sow fertility, before widely using progestagen supplementation to manipulate parturition.


RESUMO: Como a duração da gestação de suínos pode ter ampla variação, é comum a ocorrência de partos antecipados ou gestações prolongadas. Isso aumenta as chances de partos sem assistência e leva a uma grande variação de idade dos leitões dentro do lote de produção. Portanto, a supervisão do parto é indispensável para reduzir as perdas neonatais. Para facilitar o auxílio aos leitões, a indução do parto com prostaglandina F2α (PGF) é eficaz e amplamente utilizada, sendo indicada para concentrar os partos em momentos mais adequados, preferencialmente durante o horário com maior disponibilidade de colaboradores. Uma alternativa viável é manipular o momento do parto, através da manutenção de níveis plasmáticos elevados de progestágeno durante o final da gestação, a fim de evitar partos antecipados. Formas eficientes de evitar o parto através de suplementação oral de progestágenos foram descritas há décadas, mas apenas recentemente tem sido cogitada a utilização comercial. A presente revisão aborda estudos disponíveis na literatura relacionados ao protelamento do parto, incluindo a utilização de dispositivos intravaginais (DIVs) impregnados com progestágeno. São poucos os dados disponíveis relacionados ao uso de progestágenos na gestação com índices produtivos e reprodutivos. Portanto, alguns pontos ainda devem ser melhor avaliados, especialmente com relação à determinação da sincronia dos partos após o fim da suplementação com progestágenos, à viabilidade dos neonatos e à fertilidade subsequente das fêmeas antes da ampla adoção desta técnica.

15.
Theriogenology ; 99: 53-62, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28708500

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of inhibiting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway on meiosis blockage and resumption, mRNA expression of genes involved in oocyte maturation and cumulus expansion, and embryo development. Bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were cultured for 15 h in the presence of the EGFR inhibitor (AG1478) and follicular hemisections (FHS). Most of the oocytes (89.3%) remained at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage when cultured in the presence of FHS and 5 µM AG1478. The inhibitory effect was reversible as most oocytes (83.8%) completed meiosis after additional 20 h maturation. Embryo development to the blastocyst stage was similar (P > 0.05) between FHS and 5 µM AG1478 treated (39.3%) and control (41.1%) groups. In cumulus cells, mRNA abundance of early growth response protein 1 (EGR1), tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 6 (TNFAIP6) and hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) genes, and phosphorylated extracellular regulated kinase (p-ERK1/2) protein were lower in COCs treated with AG1478 plus FHS compared with FHS alone (P < 0.05). In granulosa cells of FHS, AG1478 treatment reduced transcript levels of PGR and ADAMTS1 (P < 0.05). The inhibitory effect of AG1478 on meiotic progression was not reverted by treatment with angiotensin II (ANG II) or prostaglandins (PGF2α or PGE2). This study demonstrates that inhibition of EGFR in the presence of FHS is a reliable approach to promote reversible arrest of bovine oocytes at the GV stage.


Assuntos
Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/veterinária , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Tirfostinas/farmacologia , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células do Cúmulo , Dinoprostona/farmacologia , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária/veterinária , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/farmacologia , Células da Granulosa , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/métodos , Meiose/efeitos dos fármacos , Oócitos/fisiologia , Quinazolinas/administração & dosagem , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Tirfostinas/administração & dosagem
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 194: 108-116, 2016 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27590731

RESUMO

ETHOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. (Rubiaceae) (Ut), also known as cat's claw, is a woody liana widely spread throughout the Amazon rainforest of Central and South America, containing many chemical constituents such as oxindole alkaloids, which are responsible for various biological activities. Since ancient times, the indigenous people of Peru have used it as a bark infusion for the treatment of a wide range of health problems gastric ulcers, arthritis and rheumatism. Recently, Ut is distributed worldwide and used as an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory herbal remedy. Additionally, U. tomentosa also has antitumural activity. However, little is known about the action of U. tomentosa on the purinergic system mechanisms, which is involved in tumor progression. AIM OF THE STUDY: Considering the pharmacological properties of U. tomentosa, we sought to evaluate the hydroalcoholic extract U tomentosa is able to influence the purinergic system in breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231. Through the activity and expression of ectonucleotidases (NTPDase - CD39; Ecto-5'-nucleotidase - CD73) and purinergic repceptores (P2X7 and A1). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A hydroalcoholic extract was prepared in two concentrations, 250 and 500µg/mL. (Ut250; Ut500). The effect of these concentrations on the activity and expression of ectonucleotidases, as well as on the density of purinergic receptors were investigated in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Cells were treated with the hydroalcoholic extract of Uncaria tomentosa and/or doxorubicin (Doxo 1µM; Ut250+Doxo; Ut500+Doxo) for 24h. RESULTS: Although the results were not significant for the hydrolysis of the ATP, they presented an increase in the ADP hydrolysis in the Ut500+Doxo group when compared to the control group. Additionally, the activity of 5'-nucleotidase was inhibited in all groups when compared with the untreated group of cells. Inhibition of the enzyme was more evident in groups with U. tomentosa per se. The expression of CD39 was increased in the Ut250 and Ut250+Doxo groups when compared to the control group. No changes were found in the CD73 expression. Furthermore, a reduction in the density of the P2X7 receptor in all treated groups was detected. On the other hand, the density of the A1 receptor increased in all groups compared to the control group, with the exception of the Ut500+Doxo group. CONCLUSION: Therefore, we conclude that hydroalcoholic extract of U. tomentosa may be responsible for the reduction of adenosine levels in the extracellular medium, which accelerates tumor progression. Interestingly, the dysregulation of A1 and P2X7 receptors in the MDA-MB-231 cells exacerbate the proliferation of this cells and U. tomentosa treatment may be stimulate the antitumor activity of adenosine A1 receptor and control the P2X7 effects. Our study demonstrates the significant participation of purinergic pathway in the regulation of MDA-MB-231 progression; additionally, U. tomentosa treatment alone or combined with chemotherapy may favor the action of doxorubicin.


Assuntos
5'-Nucleotidase/metabolismo , Nucleotídeos de Adenina/metabolismo , Unha-de-Gato/química , Receptor A1 de Adenosina/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/enzimologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais
17.
Parasitol Res ; 115(10): 3913-21, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27277233

RESUMO

Molecular detection of Sarcocystis spp. in tissue samples can be useful for experimental and diagnostic purposes. However, the parasite spreads unevenly through tissues, forming tissue cysts, and the cystic wall is an obstacle in DNA extraction protocols. Therefore, adequate sampling and effective disruption of the cysts are essential to improve the accuracy of DNA detection by PCR. The aims of this study were to evaluate the suitability of four protocols for DNA extraction from cysts of Sarcocystis spp. present in bovine myocardium samples or after their harvest in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution as well as determine the effects of single or multiple sampling on the accuracy of molecular diagnosis of sarcocystosis in cattle hearts. Cysts and myocardium samples from nine bovine hearts were randomly distributed to four DNA extraction protocols: kit, kit with modification, DNAzol, and cetyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). Samples were submitted to DNA extraction and PCR as replicates of each heart (simplicate, duplicate, and triplicate), and the probability of a true positive diagnostic was calculated. Among the protocols tested, the kit with modification was determined to be the most suitable for DNA extraction from cysts in PBS solution (92.6 % of DNA detection by PCR); DNAzol resulted in higher DNA detection frequency from bovine myocardium samples (48.1 %). Multiple sampling improved the molecular diagnosis of Sarcocystis spp. infection in cattle hearts, increasing at 22.2 % the rate of true positive diagnostic.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Sarcocystis/isolamento & purificação , Sarcocistose/veterinária , Manejo de Espécimes/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , DNA Ribossômico/isolamento & purificação , Coração/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sarcocystis/genética , Sarcocistose/diagnóstico , Sarcocistose/parasitologia
18.
PLoS One ; 11(5): e0154453, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27158926

RESUMO

Adiponectin is the most abundantly produced human adipokine with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and insulin-sensitizing properties. Evidence from in vitro studies has indicated that adiponectin has a potential role in reproduction because it reduces the production of androstenedione in bovine theca cells in vitro. However, this effect on androgen production has not yet been observed in vivo. The current study evaluated the effect of adiponectin on androstenedione secretion and oxidative stress parameters in a rodent model. Seven-week-old female Balb/c mice (n = 33), previously treated with equine gonadotropin chorionic, were assigned to one of four different treatments: Group 1, control (phosphate-buffered saline); Group 2, adiponectin 0.1 µg/mL; Group 3, adiponectin 1.0 µg/mL; Group 4, adiponectin 5.0 µg/mL. After 24 h, all animals were euthanized and androstenedione levels were measured in the serum while oxidative stress markers were quantified in whole ovary tissue. Female mice treated with adiponectin exhibited a significant reduction (about 60%) in serum androstenedione levels in comparison to controls. Androstenedione levels decreased from 0.78 ± 0.4 ng/mL (mean ± SD) in controls to 0.28 ± 0.06 ng/mL after adiponectin (5 µg/mL) treatment (P = 0.01). This change in androgen secretion after 24 hours of treatment was associated with a significant reduction in the expression of CYP11A1 and STAR (but not CYP17A1). In addition, ovarian AOPP product levels, a direct product of protein oxidation, decreased significantly in adiponectin-treated mice (5 µg/mL); AOPP (mean ± SD) decreased to 4.3 ± 2.1 µmol/L in comparison with that of the controls (11.5 ± 1.7 µmol/L; P = 0.0003). Our results demonstrated for the first time that acute treatment with adiponectin reduced the levels of a direct oxidative stress marker in the ovary as well as decreased androstenedione serum levels in vivo after 24 h.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/farmacologia , Androstenodiona/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Animais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
19.
Peptides ; 81: 1-8, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27060674

RESUMO

The discovery of a receptor that binds prorenin and renin in human endothelial and mesangial cells highlights the possible effect of renin-independent prorenin in the resumption of meiosis in oocytes that was postulated in the 1980s.This study aimed to identify the (pro)renin receptor in the ovary and to assess the effect of prorenin on meiotic resumption. The (pro)renin receptor protein was detected in bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes, theca cells, granulosa cells, and in the corpus luteum. Abundant (pro)renin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) was detected in the oocytes and cumulus cells, while prorenin mRNA was identified in the cumulus cells only. Prorenin at concentrations of 10(-10), 10(-9), and 10(-8)M incubated with oocytes co-cultured with follicular hemisections for 15h caused the resumption of oocyte meiosis. Aliskiren, which inhibits free renin and receptor-bound renin/prorenin, at concentrations of 10(-7), 10(-5), and 10(-3)M blocked this effect (P<0.05). To determine the involvement of angiotensin II in prorenin-induced meiosis resumption, cumulus-oocyte complexes and follicular hemisections were treated with prorenin and with angiotensin II or saralasin (angiotensin II antagonist). Prorenin induced the resumption of meiosis independently of angiotensin II. Furthermore, cumulus-oocyte complexes cultured with forskolin (200µM) and treated with prorenin and aliskiren did not exhibit a prorenin-induced resumption of meiosis (P<0.05). Only the oocytes' cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels seemed to be regulated by prorenin and/or forskolin treatment after incubation for 6h. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to identify the (pro)renin receptor in ovarian cells and to demonstrate the independent role of prorenin in the resumption of oocyte meiosis in cattle.


Assuntos
Corpo Lúteo/transplante , Meiose/fisiologia , Ovário/fisiologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Renina/metabolismo , Reprodução/fisiologia , Amidas/farmacologia , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Células Cultivadas , Colforsina/farmacologia , Corpo Lúteo/efeitos dos fármacos , Corpo Lúteo/fisiologia , Células do Cúmulo/citologia , Células do Cúmulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células do Cúmulo/fisiologia , Feminino , Fumaratos/farmacologia , Células da Granulosa/citologia , Células da Granulosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Granulosa/fisiologia , Humanos , Meiose/efeitos dos fármacos , Nucleotídeos Cíclicos/metabolismo , Oócitos/citologia , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oócitos/fisiologia , Folículo Ovariano/citologia , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Ovário/citologia , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Renina/antagonistas & inibidores , Renina/genética , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Saralasina/farmacologia , Células Tecais/citologia , Células Tecais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Tecais/fisiologia
20.
Ciênc. rural ; 46(2): 362-367, fev. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-767652

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Pregnancy diagnosis is an important tool for farm management. Ultrasonography is the main technique used for pregnancy diagnosis in ewes. As an alternative, radioimmunoassay (RIA) allows accurate and early detection of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) in sheep blood. However, radioactive-based techniques, as RIA, have been increasingly inadvisable due to environmental risk. Homology between ovine and bovine PAGs is high, and ELISA kits used for PAGs detection in cattle are safer than RIA. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of PAGs detection for pregnancy diagnosis in sheep serum samples using an ELISA kit produced for cattle. The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA kit were 93.5% and 98.9%, respectively, whereas positive and negative predictive values were 99.0% and 93.1%, respectively, in comparison to ultrasonography diagnostic (control). PAGs reached consistently detectable concentrations in ovine serum around 33 days after mating. Accuracy of the ELISA test was 96.1% from 33 days of pregnancy until lambing. After parturition, PAGs were still detectable seven days post-lambing. However, from 21 days post-parturition, PAGs from the previous pregnancy were no longer detected in serum samples. In conclusion, the bovine ELISA kit can accurately detect pregnancy in sheep 33 days following mating, while PAGs levels from the previous gestation are no longer detected from 21 days post-partum. The evaluated ELISA test is a reliable tool for pregnancy diagnosis in sheep at random stages and as a complementary exam at early gestation.


RESUMO: O diagnóstico de gestação é uma ferramenta importante no manejo da propriedade. A ultrassonografia é a principal técnica utilizada no diagnóstico de prenhez em ovelhas. Como alternativa, o radiomunoensaio (RIA) permite acurácia e a detecção precoce de proteínas associadas à prenhez (PAGs) no sangue. No entanto, as técnicas radioativas, como o RIA, têm sido cada vez mais desaconselháveis, devido ao risco ambiental. A homologia entre PAGs de ovinos e bovinos é alta, e os kits de ELISA utilizados para a detecção de PAGs em bovinos são mais seguros do que RIA. Portanto, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a viabilidade de detecção de PAGs no soro ovino para diagnóstico de gestação em soro ovino, utilizando um kit de ELISA produzido para bovinos. A sensibilidade e a especificidade do kit de ELISA foram de 93,5% e 98,9%, respectivamente, enquanto que os valores preditivos positivo e negativo foram de 99,0% e 93,1%, respectivamente, em comparação com a ultrassonografia (utilizada como referência). As PAGs atingiram concentrações consistentemente detectáveis no soro ovino em torno de 33 dias após o acasalamento. A acurácia do teste de ELISA foi de 96,1% a partir de 33 dias de gestação até o parto. As PAGs ainda eram detectáveis sete dias pós-parto. No entanto, a partir de 21 dias após o parto, as PAGs da prenhez anterior já não eram detectadas no soro. Em conclusão, o kit de ELISA bovino pode detectar a prenhez com precisão em ovelhas a partir de 33 dias após o acasalamento, e os níveis de PAGs da gestação anterior não são detectados a partir de 21 dias pós-parto. O teste de ELISA avaliado é uma ferramenta confiável para o diagnóstico de gestação em ovelhas em estágios aleatórios e como exame complementar no início da gestação.

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