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1.
J Asthma ; : 1-8, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668103

RESUMO

Background: Question 4 (Q4) of the Asthma Control Test (ACT) asks patients to report their SABA use over the prior 4-weeks, a criterion for evaluating the impairment domain of asthma control. Biases in recall may lead to a misclassification of asthma control and has implications for asthma control determination and management strategies.Objective: To correlate objective electronic-recorded short-acting beta-agonist (SABA) use with self-reported use via Q4 of the ACT.Methods: Patients ≥18 years of age with a self-reported diagnosis of asthma were enrolled in a digital health electronic medication monitoring (EMM) platform, which recorded the date and time of SABA actuations and prompted the completion of the ACT. The correlations between ACT Q4 responses and EMM-recorded SABA use were evaluated using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients.Results: 1,062 patients (mean age: 35.4 years, mean ACT: 16.3) were included in analyses. Higher Q4 scores, indicating lower SABA use, were moderately and negatively correlated with EMM-recorded SABA use (ρ = -0.59 [95% CI: -0.63, -0.54]). Thirty-five percent of patients underreported SABA use when comparing Q4 to EMM-recorded SABA use.Conclusions: While ACT Q4 and EMM-recorded use were moderately correlated, underreported SABA use on the ACT highlights the need for objective measures of SABA use in asthma control assessments. The use of EMM-recorded SABA data has the potential for clinicians to more accurately determine asthma control, guide changes to controller therapy, and estimate imminent exacerbation risk.

2.
Respir Med ; 158: 110-113, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655317

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COPD Assessment Test (CAT) is a self-administered questionnaire that measures symptomatic burden. CAT is used as part of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines refined ABCD tool and is usually performed during office visit assessment. Electronic medication monitors (EMMs) capture utilization of short-acting beta-agonists (SABA) that may indicate disease worsening in real-time. The primary objective was to assess the relationship of CAT with SABA utilization. METHODS: From 8/2017-1/2019, COPD patients ≥40 years of age were enrolled in a digital health platform consisting of EMMs and a mobile application to track time and date of SABA use. Patients with a completed CAT and ≥81 days of continuous EMM data were included in analyses. Using one-way ANOVA, SABA use and maintenance medication adherence were compared by CAT score categories: <10 (low burden), 10-20 (medium), 21-30 (high), and 31-40 (very high). Associations were additionally estimated in patients who used ≥1 puff/week of their rescue and maintenance medication. RESULTS: The population included 2196 COPD patients (mean age: 60 years). CAT scores from low to high burden were associated with greater SABA use, from 0.8 to 1.9 puffs/day (+1.1 [95% CI: 0.6, 1.6 puffs/day], P < 0.001), and lower adherence, from 69% to 59%, (-10% [95% CI: -1, -19%], P = 0.04). Sensitivity analyses yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS: This study found a significant association between greater SABA use and lower adherence with higher burden CAT scores. This finding may suggest that passive collection of inhaled medications could serve as a surrogate for CAT.

3.
Circulation ; 140(8): 645-657, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is implicated in coronary heart disease (CHD), but current evidence is based on small, cross-sectional studies. We examined blood DNA methylation in relation to incident CHD across multiple prospective cohorts. METHODS: Nine population-based cohorts from the United States and Europe profiled epigenome-wide blood leukocyte DNA methylation using the Illumina Infinium 450k microarray, and prospectively ascertained CHD events including coronary insufficiency/unstable angina, recognized myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and coronary death. Cohorts conducted race-specific analyses adjusted for age, sex, smoking, education, body mass index, blood cell type proportions, and technical variables. We conducted fixed-effect meta-analyses across cohorts. RESULTS: Among 11 461 individuals (mean age 64 years, 67% women, 35% African American) free of CHD at baseline, 1895 developed CHD during a mean follow-up of 11.2 years. Methylation levels at 52 CpG (cytosine-phosphate-guanine) sites were associated with incident CHD or myocardial infarction (false discovery rate<0.05). These CpGs map to genes with key roles in calcium regulation (ATP2B2, CASR, GUCA1B, HPCAL1), and genes identified in genome- and epigenome-wide studies of serum calcium (CASR), serum calcium-related risk of CHD (CASR), coronary artery calcified plaque (PTPRN2), and kidney function (CDH23, HPCAL1), among others. Mendelian randomization analyses supported a causal effect of DNA methylation on incident CHD; these CpGs map to active regulatory regions proximal to long non-coding RNA transcripts. CONCLUSION: Methylation of blood-derived DNA is associated with risk of future CHD across diverse populations and may serve as an informative tool for gaining further insight on the development of CHD.

4.
Environ Int ; 132: 104723, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation (DNAm) may contribute to processes that underlie associations between air pollution and poor health. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate associations between DNAm and ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5, ≤10, and 2.5-10 µm in diameter (PM2.5; PM10; PM2.5-10). METHODS: We conducted a methylome-wide association study among twelve cohort- and race/ethnicity-stratified subpopulations from the Women's Health Initiative and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (n = 8397; mean age: 61.5 years; 83% female; 45% African American; 9% Hispanic/Latino American). We averaged geocoded address-specific estimates of daily and monthly mean PM concentrations over 2, 7, 28, and 365 days and 1 and 12 months before exams at which we measured leukocyte DNAm in whole blood. We estimated subpopulation-specific, DNAm-PM associations at approximately 485,000 Cytosine-phosphate-Guanine (CpG) sites in multi-level, linear, mixed-effects models. We combined subpopulation- and site-specific estimates in fixed-effects, inverse variance-weighted meta-analyses, then for associations that exceeded methylome-wide significance and were not heterogeneous across subpopulations (P < 1.0 × 10-7; PCochran's Q > 0.10), we characterized associations using publicly accessible genomic databases and attempted replication in the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) study. RESULTS: Analyses identified significant DNAm-PM associations at three CpG sites. Twenty-eight-day mean PM10 was positively associated with DNAm at cg19004594 (chromosome 20; MATN4; P = 3.33 × 10-8). One-month mean PM10 and PM2.5-10 were positively associated with DNAm at cg24102420 (chromosome 10; ARPP21; P = 5.84 × 10-8) and inversely associated with DNAm at cg12124767 (chromosome 7; CFTR; P = 9.86 × 10-8). The PM-sensitive CpG sites mapped to neurological, pulmonary, endocrine, and cardiovascular disease-related genes, but DNAm at those sites was not associated with gene expression in blood cells and did not replicate in KORA. CONCLUSIONS: Ambient PM concentrations were associated with DNAm at genomic regions potentially related to poor health among racially, ethnically and environmentally diverse populations of U.S. women and men. Further investigation is warranted to uncover mechanisms through which PM-induced epigenomic changes may cause disease.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2581, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197173

RESUMO

Despite existing reports on differential DNA methylation in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity, our understanding of its functional relevance remains limited. Here we show the effect of differential methylation in the early phases of T2D pathology by a blood-based epigenome-wide association study of 4808 non-diabetic Europeans in the discovery phase and 11,750 individuals in the replication. We identify CpGs in LETM1, RBM20, IRS2, MAN2A2 and the 1q25.3 region associated with fasting insulin, and in FCRL6, SLAMF1, APOBEC3H and the 15q26.1 region with fasting glucose. In silico cross-omics analyses highlight the role of differential methylation in the crosstalk between the adaptive immune system and glucose homeostasis. The differential methylation explains at least 16.9% of the association between obesity and insulin. Our study sheds light on the biological interactions between genetic variants driving differential methylation and gene expression in the early pathogenesis of T2D.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Simulação por Computador , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Homeostase/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
World Allergy Organ J ; 11(1): 28, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30524644

RESUMO

Digital health interventions have been associated with reduced rescue inhaler use and improved controller medication adherence. This quality improvement project assessed the benefit of these interventions on asthma-related healthcare utilizations, including hospitalizations, emergency department (ED) utilization and outpatient visits. The intervention consisted of electronic medication monitors (EMMs) that tracked rescue and controller inhaler medication use, and a digital health platform that presented medication use information and asthma control status to patients and providers. In 224 study patients, the number of asthma-related ED visits and combined ED and hospitalization events 365 days pre- to 365 days post-enrollment to the intervention significantly decreased from 11.6 to 5.4 visits (p < 0.05) and 13.4 to 5.8 events (p < 0.05) per 100 patient-years, respectively. This digital health intervention was successfully incorporated into routine clinical practice and was associated with lower rates of asthma-related hospitalizations and ED visits.

9.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 75(9): 949-959, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29998287

RESUMO

Importance: Depressive disorders arise from a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors. Epigenetic disruption provides a plausible mechanism through which gene-environment interactions lead to depression. Large-scale, epigenome-wide studies on depression are missing, hampering the identification of potentially modifiable biomarkers. Objective: To identify epigenetic mechanisms underlying depression in middle-aged and elderly persons, using DNA methylation in blood. Design, Setting, and Participants: To date, the first cross-ethnic meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) within the framework of the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium was conducted. The discovery EWAS included 7948 individuals of European origin from 9 population-based cohorts. Participants who were assessed for both depressive symptoms and whole-blood DNA methylation were included in the study. Results of EWAS were pooled using sample-size weighted meta-analysis. Replication of the top epigenetic sites was performed in 3308 individuals of African American and European origin from 2 population-based cohorts. Main Outcomes and Measures: Whole-blood DNA methylation levels were assayed with Illumina-Infinium Human Methylation 450K BeadChip and depressive symptoms were assessed by questionnaire. Results: The discovery cohorts consisted of 7948 individuals (4104 [51.6%] women) with a mean (SD) age of 65.4 (5.8) years. The replication cohort consisted of 3308 individuals (2456 [74.2%] women) with a mean (SD) age of 60.3 (6.4) years. The EWAS identified methylation of 3 CpG sites to be significantly associated with increased depressive symptoms: cg04987734 (P = 1.57 × 10-08; n = 11 256; CDC42BPB gene), cg12325605 (P = 5.24 × 10-09; n = 11 256; ARHGEF3 gene), and an intergenic CpG site cg14023999 (P = 5.99 × 10-08; n = 11 256; chromosome = 15q26.1). The predicted expression of the CDC42BPB gene in the brain (basal ganglia) (effect, 0.14; P = 2.7 × 10-03) and of ARHGEF3 in fibroblasts (effect, -0.48; P = 9.8 × 10-04) was associated with major depression. Conclusions and Relevance: This study identifies 3 methylated sites associated with depressive symptoms. All 3 findings point toward axon guidance as the common disrupted pathway in depression. The findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the complex pathophysiology of depression. Further research is warranted to determine the utility of these findings as biomarkers of depression and evaluate any potential role in the pathophysiology of depression and their downstream clinical effects.

10.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 5675, 2018 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618737

RESUMO

The genetic basis of supraventricular and ventricular ectopy (SVE, VE) remains largely uncharacterized, despite established genetic mechanisms of arrhythmogenesis. To identify novel genetic variants associated with SVE/VE in ancestrally diverse human populations, we conducted a genome-wide association study of electrocardiographically identified SVE and VE in five cohorts including approximately 43,000 participants of African, European and Hispanic/Latino ancestry. In thirteen ancestry-stratified subgroups, we tested multivariable-adjusted associations of SVE and VE with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) dosage. We combined subgroup-specific association estimates in inverse variance-weighted, fixed-effects and Bayesian meta-analyses. We also combined fixed-effects meta-analytic t-test statistics for SVE and VE in multi-trait SNP association analyses. No loci reached genome-wide significance in trans-ethnic meta-analyses. However, we found genome-wide significant SNPs intronic to an apoptosis-enhancing gene previously associated with QRS interval duration (FAF1; lead SNP rs7545860; effect allele frequency = 0.02; P = 2.0 × 10-8) in multi-trait analysis among European ancestry participants and near a locus encoding calcium-dependent glycoproteins (DSC3; lead SNP rs8086068; effect allele frequency = 0.17) in meta-analysis of SVE (P = 4.0 × 10-8) and multi-trait analysis (P = 2.9 × 10-9) among African ancestry participants. The novel findings suggest several mechanisms by which genetic variation may predispose to ectopy in humans and highlight the potential value of leveraging pleiotropy in future studies of ectopy-related phenotypes.

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(6): 888-902, 2017 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29198723

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified hundreds of genetic variants associated with blood pressure (BP), but sequence variation accounts for a small fraction of the phenotypic variance. Epigenetic changes may alter the expression of genes involved in BP regulation and explain part of the missing heritability. We therefore conducted a two-stage meta-analysis of the cross-sectional associations of systolic and diastolic BP with blood-derived genome-wide DNA methylation measured on the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip in 17,010 individuals of European, African American, and Hispanic ancestry. Of 31 discovery-stage cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides, 13 replicated after Bonferroni correction (discovery: N = 9,828, p < 1.0 × 10-7; replication: N = 7,182, p < 1.6 × 10-3). The replicated methylation sites are heritable (h2 > 30%) and independent of known BP genetic variants, explaining an additional 1.4% and 2.0% of the interindividual variation in systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. Bidirectional Mendelian randomization among up to 4,513 individuals of European ancestry from 4 cohorts suggested that methylation at cg08035323 (TAF1B-YWHAQ) influences BP, while BP influences methylation at cg00533891 (ZMIZ1), cg00574958 (CPT1A), and cg02711608 (SLC1A5). Gene expression analyses further identified six genes (TSPAN2, SLC7A11, UNC93B1, CPT1A, PTMS, and LPCAT3) with evidence of triangular associations between methylation, gene expression, and BP. Additional integrative Mendelian randomization analyses of gene expression and DNA methylation suggested that the expression of TSPAN2 is a putative mediator of association between DNA methylation at cg23999170 and BP. These findings suggest that heritable DNA methylation plays a role in regulating BP independently of previously known genetic variants.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Tetraspaninas/genética , Idoso , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Estudos Transversais , Epigênese Genética/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
13.
Environ Health Perspect ; 125(6): 067002, 2017 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28749367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient particulate matter (PM) air pollution exposure has been associated with increases in QT interval duration (QT). However, innate susceptibility to PM-associated QT prolongation has not been characterized. OBJECTIVE: To characterize genetic susceptibility to PM-associated QT prolongation in a multi-racial/ethnic, genome-wide association study (GWAS). METHODS: Using repeated electrocardiograms (1986­2004), longitudinal data on PM<10 µm in diameter (PM10), and generalized estimating equations methods adapted for low-prevalence exposure, we estimated approximately 2.5×106 SNP×PM10 interactions among nine Women's Health Initiative clinical trials and Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study subpopulations (n=22,158), then combined subpopulation-specific results in a fixed-effects, inverse variance-weighted meta-analysis. RESULTS: A common variant (rs1619661; coded allele: T) significantly modified the QT-PM10 association (p=2.11×10−8). At PM10 concentrations >90th percentile, QT increased 7 ms across the CC and TT genotypes: 397 (95% confidence interval: 396, 399) to 404 (403, 404) ms. However, QT changed minimally across rs1619661 genotypes at lower PM10 concentrations. The rs1619661 variant is on chromosome 10, 132 kilobase (kb) downstream from CXCL12, which encodes a chemokine, stromal cell-derived factor 1, that is expressed in cardiomyocytes and decreases calcium influx across the L-type Ca2+ channel. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that biologically plausible genetic factors may alter susceptibility to PM10-associated QT prolongation in populations protected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Independent replication and functional characterization are necessary to validate our findings. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP347


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Arritmias Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Quimiocina CXCL12 , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise
14.
PLoS One ; 10(10): e0140332, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26469785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human babesiosis, caused by intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites, can be an asymptomatic or mild-to-severe disease that may be fatal. The study objective was to assess babesiosis occurrence among the U.S. elderly Medicare beneficiaries, ages 65 and older, during 2006-2013. METHODS: Our retrospective claims-based study utilized large Medicare administrative databases. Babesiosis occurrence was ascertained by recorded ICD-9-CM diagnosis code. The study assessed babesiosis occurrence rates (per 100,000 elderly Medicare beneficiaries) overall and by year, age, gender, race, state of residence, and diagnosis months. RESULTS: A total of 10,305 elderly Medicare beneficiaries had a recorded babesiosis diagnosis during the eight-year study period, for an overall rate of about 5 per 100,000 persons. Study results showed a significant increase in babesiosis occurrence over time (p<0.05), with the largest number of cases recorded in 2013 (N = 1,848) and the highest rates (per 100,000) in five Northeastern states: Connecticut (46), Massachusetts (45), Rhode Island (42), New York (27), and New Jersey (14). About 75% of all cases were diagnosed from May through October. Babesiosis occurrence was significantly higher among males vs. females and whites vs. non-whites. CONCLUSION: Our study reveals increasing babesiosis occurrence among the U.S. elderly during 2006-2013, with highest rates in the babesiosis-endemic states. The study also shows variation in babesiosis occurrence by age, gender, race, state of residence, and diagnosis months. Overall, our study highlights the importance of large administrative databases in assessing the occurrence of emerging infections in the United States.


Assuntos
Babesiose/epidemiologia , Medicare/organização & administração , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Transfusion ; 55(2): 284-95, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25065878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Posttransfusion purpura (PTP) is a serious transfusion complication resulting in sudden thrombocytopenia with bleeding. The study's objective was to assess PTP occurrence and potential risk factors among the inpatient US elderly, ages 65 and older, during 2011 through 2012. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This retrospective claims-based study utilized large Medicare databases for calendar years 2011 and 2012. Transfusions of blood and blood components were identified by recorded ICD-9-CM procedure codes and revenue center codes, and PTP was ascertained via ICD-9-CM diagnosis code. Our study evaluated PTP rates (per 100,000 inpatient transfusion stays) among elderly Medicare beneficiaries, overall and by age, sex, race, number of units, and blood components transfused. Multivariate regression analyses were used to assess potential risk factors. RESULTS: Among 4,336,338 inpatient transfusion stays for elderly beneficiaries during the study period, 78 had a PTP diagnosis code recorded, an overall rate of 1.8 per 100,000 stays. PTP occurrence varied by the blood components, units transfused, and other characteristics. Significantly higher odds of PTP were found for platelet (PLT)-containing transfusions, with greater number of units transfused, as well as for elderly with histories of cardiac arrhythmias (odds ratio [OR], 2.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-4.93), coagulopathy (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.01-3.21), leukemia (OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.07-5.26), transplant (OR, 2.68; 95% CI, 1.41-5.09), and other conditions. CONCLUSION: Our population-based study suggests a substantially higher PTP risk with PLT-containing transfusions. The study also suggests increased PTP risk with greater number of units transfused as well as the importance of underlying health conditions and prior recipient alloimmunization for PTP occurrence among the elderly.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos/efeitos adversos , Plaquetas , Bases de Dados Factuais , Medicare , Púrpura Trombocitopênica/epidemiologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Arritmias Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia/terapia , Masculino , Transplante de Órgãos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
16.
Transfusion ; 54(9): 2182-93, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24673344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a serious complication leading to pulmonary edema and respiratory failure. This study's objective was to assess TRALI occurrence and potential risk factors among inpatient US elderly Medicare beneficiaries, ages 65 and older, during 2007 through 2011. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This retrospective claims-based study utilized large Medicare administrative databases. Transfusions were identified by recorded procedure and revenue center codes. TRALI was ascertained via ICD-9-CM diagnosis code. The study evaluated TRALI rates among the inpatient elderly overall and by calendar year, age, sex, race, blood components, and units transfused. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess potential risk factors. RESULTS: Of 11,378,264 inpatient transfusion stays for elderly Medicare beneficiaries, 2556 had a recorded TRALI diagnosis code, an overall rate of 22.46 per 100,000 stays. TRALI rates were higher for platelet (PLT)- and plasma-containing transfusions and increased by year and number of units transfused (p < 0.0001). Significantly higher odds of TRALI were also found for persons ages 65 to 79 years versus more than 79 years (OR, 1.19; 95% confidence interval CI, 1.09-1.29), females versus males (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.16-1.38), white versus nonwhite (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.27-1.66), and with 6-month histories of postinflammatory pulmonary fibrosis (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.52-2.20), tobacco use (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.00-1.26), and other diseases. CONCLUSION: Our study among the elderly suggests TRALI to be a severe event and identifies a substantially increased TRALI occurrence with greater number of units and with PLT- or plasma-containing transfusions. The study also suggests importance of underlying health conditions, prior recipient alloimmunization, and nonimmune mechanism in TRALI development among the elderly.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/etiologia , Reação Transfusional , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
17.
Vaccine ; 31(29): 3009-13, 2013 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23664998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rates of nonmedical exemptions to kindergarten-entry immunization requirements have increased over the past 2 decades, especially in states that permit philosophical exemptions and/or have easier administrative policies for obtaining nonmedical exemptions. We evaluated trends in school personal belief exemption rates over the period 1994-2009 in California, and associated school and community characteristics. METHODS: We used data on personal belief exemptions from 6392 public and private elementary schools from the California Department of Public Health, as well as census tract and school demographic data. Generalized estimating equations were used to model annual mean increases in personal belief exemption rates, and to identify school and community characteristics associated with personal belief exemption rates. RESULTS: Over the study period, the average school personal belief exemption rate increased from 0.6% in 1994 to 2.3% in 2009, an average of 9.2% (95% CI: 8.8-9.6%) per year. The average personal belief exemption rate among private schools over the entire study period was 1.77 (95% CI: 1.55-2.01) times that among public schools. The annual rate of increase was slightly higher among private schools (10.1%, 95% CI: 9.1-11.1%) than among public schools (8.8%, 95% CI: 8.4-9.2%). Schools located within census tracts classified as rural had 1.66 (95% CI: 1.26-2.08) times higher personal belief exemption rates than schools located within urban census tracts. Exemption rates were also associated with race, population density, education, and income. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms concerns about increasing rates of nonmedical exemptions to kindergarten vaccine requirements within the state of California, using data collected over a 16-year period.


Assuntos
Cultura , Escolas Maternais , Vacinação/legislação & jurisprudência , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , California/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Imunização/legislação & jurisprudência , Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos
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