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1.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 4503-4510, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744441

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to use whole-genome sequencing to characterize Klebsiella pneumoniae SKp2F and Klebsiella variicola SKv2E, both carrying bla KPC, co-isolated from the same sputum specimen. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using microbroth dilution. Biofilm formation was determined by crystal violet staining and virulence was measured by a serum killing assay. Whole-genome sequencing of SKp2F and SKv2E was performed using an Illumina sequencer and the genetic characteristics were analyzed by computer. Results: SKp2F and SKv2E were sensitive only to tigecycline and polymyxin among the tested antibiotics. The biofilm-forming ability of SKv2E is stronger than that of SKp2F. The grades of serum resistance of SKp2F and SKv2E are 4 and 3. MLST analysis of the 6,115,610 bp and 5,403,687 bp of SKv2E and SKp2F showed associations with ST1615 and ST631, respectively. SKv2E carried 13 resistance genes (bla KPC-2, bla TEM-1A, bla LEN17, aadA16, arr-3, qnrB4, oqxA/B, dfrA27, sul1, tetD, fosA, qacEΔ1) and SKp2F carried 23 (bla KPC-2, bla CTX-M-3, bla TEM-1B, bla CTX-M-65, bla SHV-27, aac(6')-IIa, rmtB, arr-3, aph(3')-Ia, aadA16, qnrS1, aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrB91, oqxA/B, mph(A), tet(A), fosA, dfrA27, and two copies of qacEΔ1-sul1). Most of them were carried by various mobile genetic elements, such as IncFIB(K)/IncFII(K)/IncFII(Yp), IncFII(K) plasmid, Tn6338, and In469. Both SKv2E and SKp2F carried a large number of virulence factors, including type 1 and 3 fimbriae, capsule, aerobactin (iutA), ent siderophore (entABCDEFS, fepABCDGfes), and salmochelin (iroE/iroEN). SKv2E also carried type IV pili (pilW), fimbrial adherence (steB, stfD), and capsule biosynthesis gene (glf). Conclusion: bla KPC-2-carrying K. variicola and K. pneumoniae, which carried multiple resistance genes, virulence factors, and highly similar mobile genetic elements, were identified from the same specimen, indicating that clinical samples may carry multiple bacteria. We should avoid misidentification, and bear in mind that resistance genes carrying mobile genetic elements can be transmitted or integrated between bacteria in the same host.

2.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(9)2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572712

RESUMO

This prospective observational study aimed to clinically describe voriconazole administrations and trough concentrations in patients with Child-Pugh class C and to investigate the variability of trough concentration. A total of 144 voriconazole trough concentrations from 43 Child-Pugh class C patients were analyzed. The majority of patients (62.8%) received adjustments. The repeated measured trough concentration was higher than the first and final ones generally (median, 4.33 vs. 2.99, 3.90 mg/L). Eight patients with ideal initial concentrations later got supratherapeutic with no adjusted daily dose, implying accumulation. There was a significant difference in concentrations among the six groups by daily dose (p = 0.006). The bivariate correlation analysis showed that sex, CYP2C19 genotyping, daily dose, prothrombin time activity, international normalized ratio, platelet, and Model for end-stage liver disease score were significant factors for concentration. Subsequently, the first four factors mentioned above entered into a stepwise multiple linear regression model (variance inflation factor <5), implying that CYP2C19 testing makes sense for precision medicine of Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis patients. The equation fits well and explains the 34.8% variety of concentrations (R2 = 0.348). In conclusion, it needs more cautious administration clinically due to no recommendation for Child-Pugh class C patients in the medication label. The adjustment of the administration regimen should be mainly based on the results of repeated therapeutic drug monitoring.

3.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 54(9): 1134-1149, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tenofovir amibufenamide (TMF) can provide more efficient delivery than tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). AIM: To compare the efficacy and safety of TMF and TDF for 48 weeks in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). METHODS: We performed a randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority study at 49 sites in China. Patients with CHB were assigned (2:1) to receive either 25 mg TMF or 300 mg TDF with matching placebo. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA less than 20 IU/mL at week 48. We also assessed safety, particularly bone, renal and metabolic abnormalities. RESULTS: We randomised 1002 eligible patients. The baseline characteristics were well balanced between groups. After a median 48 weeks of treatment, the non-inferiority criterion was met in all analysis sets. In the HBeAg-positive population, 50.2% of patients receiving TMF and 53.7% receiving TDF achieved HBV DNA less than 20 IU/mL. In the HBeAg-negative population, 88.9% and 87.8%, respectively, achieved HBV DNA less than 20 IU/mL in the TMF and TDF groups. Patients receiving TMF had significantly less decrease in bone mineral density at both hip (P < 0.001) and spine (P < 0.001), and a smaller increase in serum creatinine at week 48 (P < 0.05). Other safety results were similar between groups. CONCLUSION: TMF was non-inferior to TDF in terms of anti-HBV efficacy and showed better bone and renal safety. (NCT03903796).


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , DNA Viral , Antígenos E da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Tenofovir/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral
4.
Hepatology ; 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIM: HBV DNA can be reduced using antiviral drugs in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB); however, the rate of HBeAg seroconversion remains low. A clinical trial was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of a de novo designed liposome-based nanoparticle lipopeptide vaccine, εPA-44, for CHB. APPROACH & RESULTS: A two-stage phase II trial, which included a 76-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (stage 1) and a 68-week open-label extension (stage 2), was conducted in 15 centers across China (Clinicaltrials.gov number, NCT00869778). In stage 1, 360 HLA-A2-positive and HBeAg-positive patients were randomly and equally distributed to receive six subcutaneous injections of 600 µg or 900 µg εPA-44 or placebo at week 0, 4, 8, 12, 20, and 28. In stage 2, 183 patients received extended 900 µg εPA-44 and 26 patients were observed for relapse without further treatment. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients with HBeAg seroconversion at week 76. At week 76, patients receiving 900 µg εPA-44 achieved significantly higher HBeAg seroconversion rate (38.8%) vs. placebo (20.2%) (95% CI, 6.9-29.6%; P=0.002). With a combined endpoint of HBeAg seroconversion, ALT normalization and HBV DNA <2000 IU/mL, both 900 µg (18.1%) and 600 µg (14.3%) resulted in significantly higher rate vs. placebo (5.0%) (P=0.002 and P=0.02, respectively) at week 76. In stage 2, none (0/20) of 900 µg εPA-44 treated patients experienced serologic relapse. The safety profile of εPA-44 was comparable to that of placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Among progressive CHB patients with HLA-A2-positive, a finite duration of 900 µg εPA-44 monotherapy resulted in significantly higher HBeAg seroconversion rate than placebo and sustained off-treatment effect. A phase III trial is ongoing (ChiCTR2100043708).

5.
J Clin Transl Hepatol ; 9(3): 324-334, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34221918

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) has similar efficacy to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) but with improved renal and bone safety in chronic hepatitis B patients studied outside of China. We report 3-year results from two phase 3 studies with TAF in China (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02836249 and NCT02836236). Methods: Chinese hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive and -negative chronic hepatitis B patients with viremia and elevated alanine aminotransferase were randomized 2:1 to TAF or TDF treatment groups and treated in a double-blind fashion for 144 weeks (3 years). Efficacy responses were assessed by individual study while safety was assessed by a pooled analysis. Results: Of the 334 patients (180 HBeAg-positive and 154 HBeAg-negative) randomized and treated, baseline characteristics were similar between groups. The overall mean age was 38 years and 73% were male. The mean HBV DNA was 6.4 log10 IU/mL. The median alanine aminotransferase was 88 U/L, and 37% had a history of antiviral use. At week 144, the proportion with HBV DNA <29 IU/mL was similar among the two groups, with TAF at 83% vs. TDF at 79%, and TAF at 93% vs. TDF at 92% for the HBeAg-positive and -negative patients, respectively. In each study, higher proportions of TAF than TDF patients showed normalized alanine aminotransferase (via the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the China criteria) and showed loss of HBsAg; meanwhile, the HBeAg seroconversion rates were similar. Treatment was well-tolerated among the TAF patients, who showed a smaller median decline in creatinine clearance (-0.4 vs. -3.2 mL/min; p=0.014) and less percentage change in bone mineral density vs. TDF at hip (-0.95% vs. -1.93%) and spine (+0.35% vs. -1.40%). Conclusions: In chronic hepatitis B patients from China, TAF treatment provided efficacy similar to TDF but with better renal and bone safety at 3 years.

6.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 87(4): 1890-1902, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010043

RESUMO

AIMS: Voriconazole is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent for the treatment of invasive fungal infections. There is limited information about the pharmacokinetics and appropriate dosage of voriconazole in patients with liver dysfunction. This study aimed to explore the relationship between voriconazole trough concentration (Ctrough ) and toxicity, identify the factors significantly associated with voriconazole pharmacokinetic parameters and propose an optimised voriconazole dosing regimen for patients with liver dysfunction. METHODS: The study prospectively enrolled 51 patients with 272 voriconazole concentrations. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to explore the relationship between voriconazole Ctrough and toxicity. The pharmacokinetic data was analysed with nonlinear mixed-effects method. Dosing simulations stratified by total bilirubin (TBIL, TBIL-1: TBIL < 51 µmol/L; TBIL-2: 51 µmol/L ≤ TBIL < 171 µmol/L; TBIL-3: TBIL ≥ 171 µmol/L) were performed. RESULTS: Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that voriconazole Ctrough of ≤ 5.1 mg/L were associated with significantly lower the incidence of adverse events. A 1-compartment pharmacokinetic model with first-order absorption and elimination was used to describe the data. Population pharmacokinetic parameters of clearance, volume of distribution and oral bioavailability were 0.88 L/h, 148.8 L and 88.4%, respectively. Voriconazole clearance was significantly associated with TBIL and platelet count. The volume of distribution increased with body weight. Patients with TBIL-1 could be treated with a loading dose of 400 mg every 12 hours (q12h) for first day, followed by a maintenance dose of 100 mg q12h administered orally or intravenously. TBIL-2 and TBIL-3 patients could be treated with a loading dose of 200 mg q12h and maintenance doses of 50 mg q12h or 100 mg once daily and 50 mg once daily orally or intravenously, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Lower doses and longer dosing intervals should be considered for patients with liver dysfunction. TBIL-based dosing regimens provide a practical strategy for achieving voriconazole therapeutic range and therefore maximizing treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas , Hepatopatias , Antifúngicos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos , Voriconazol/efeitos adversos
7.
Biotechnol Appl Biochem ; 68(3): 469-475, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388885

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a worldwide epidemic pathogen that causes hepatitis B. On-site screening the HBV infection is of critical importance for preventing and diagnosing HBV infection. In this paper, a simple, visual, and rapid method for on-site detection of HBV-DNA has been developed. This method is based on betaine-assisted recombinase polymerase assay and followed with naked-eye detection via lateral flow assay (BRPA-LF). Result show that nonspecific amplification is prone to occur in recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) if the assay was performed with serum sample without purification. This problem has been addressed by adding 0.8 M of betaine to the RPA reactions. It was demonstrated that BRPA-LF can detect 1,000 copies of HBV-DNA in 50 µL mixture, and achieved 90% sensitivity and 100% specificity for serum sample detection. These results demonstrated that BRPA-LF can resist serum interference and has great potential for on-site screening of HBV infection.


Assuntos
Betaína/química , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Recombinases/genética , Humanos , Recombinases/metabolismo
9.
J Hepatocell Carcinoma ; 7: 257-269, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154957

RESUMO

Purpose: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a key determinant of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the mechanism by which HBV contributes to the development of HCC remains to be further explored. HBV-encoded miR-3 (HBV-miR-3) is a newly discovered microRNA that can affect the replication of HBV, but its influence on host genes is unclear. The tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is expressed at low levels in most cancer cells. How HBV-miR-3 acts on PTEN to induce tumorigenesis has not been clarified. Materials and Methods: PTEN protein expression was evaluated in HBV-miR-3-transfected cells and HBV-related liver cancer and paracancerous tissues. A luciferase reporter assay was employed to identify the HBV-miR-3 binding site on the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of PTEN. Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. Cell proliferation was evaluated by colony formation assays. Transwell assays were used to detect cancer cell invasion. Results: HBV-miR-3 was identified only in HBV-replicating HCC cells and HBV-infected patients. HBV-miR-3 expression in liver cancer tissues was higher than that in paracancerous tissues, and the corresponding PTEN expression was significantly decreased. Wild-type HBV-miR-3 bound to the 3'-UTR of PTEN and downregulated its protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the inhibition of HBV-miR-3 rescued PTEN protein expression. Furthermore, HBV-miR-3 reduced liver cancer cell apoptosis, enhanced cell invasion, and promoted cell proliferation. Conclusion: HBV-miR-3 binds to the 3'-UTR of PTEN mRNA and downregulates PTEN protein expression, thereby reducing cell apoptosis and enhancing cell invasion and proliferation. These results indicate that HBV-miR-3 contributes to the development of HBV-related HCC and may be a therapeutic target for this cancer.

10.
Cytokine ; 136: 155288, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980687

RESUMO

Hepatic fibrosis is characterized by abnormal accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the primary cells that produce ECM in response to hepatic injury, and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß) has been regarded as the central stimulus responsible for HSC-mediated ECM production. In the present study, we attempted to identify a critical factor in HSC activation and the underlying mechanism. By analyzing online microarray expression profiles, we found that the expression of high-affinity cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT1) was upregulated in hepatic fibrosis models and activated HSCs. We isolated and identified mouse HSCs (MHSCs) and found that in these cells, CAT1 was most highly upregulated by TGF-ß1 stimulation in both time- and dose-dependent manners. In vitro, CAT1 overexpression further enhanced, while CAT1 silencing inhibited, the effect of TGF-ß1 in promoting MHSC activation. In vivo, CAT1 silencing significantly improved the hepatic fibrosis induced by both CCl4 and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In summary, CAT1 was significantly upregulated in TGF-ß1-activated MHSCs and mice with hepatic fibrosis. CAT1 silencing inhibited TGF-ß1-induced MHSC activation in vitro and fibrogenic changes in vivo. CAT1 is a promising target for hepatic fibrosis treatment that requites further investigation in human cells and clinical practice.

11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 99: 84-91, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The antiviral effects of Novaferon, a potent antiviral protein drug, on COVID-19 was evaluated in the laboratory, and in a randomized, open-label, parallel-group trial. METHODS: In the laboratory, Novaferon's inhibition of viral replication in cells infected with SARS-CoV-2, and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 entry into healthy cells was determined. Antiviral effects of Novaferon in COVID-19 patients with treatment of Novaferon, Novaferon plus Lopinavir/Ritonavir, or Lopinavir/Ritonavir were evaluated. The primary endpoint was the SARS-CoV-2 clearance rates on day six of treatment, and the secondary endpoint was the time to SARS-CoV-2 clearance. RESULTS: Novaferon inhibited viral replication (EC50=1.02ng/ml), and prevented viral infection (EC50=0.10ng/ml). Results from the 89 enrolled COVID-19 patients showed that both Novaferon and Novaferon plus Lopinavir/Ritonavir groups had significantly higher viral clearance rates on day six than Lopinavir/Ritonavir group (50.0% vs. 24.1%, p=0.0400, and 60.0% vs. 24.1%, p=0.0053). The median time to viral clearance was six days, six days, and nine days for three groups, respectively, a 3-day reduction in both the Novaferon and Novaferon plus Lopinavir/Ritonavir groups compared with the Lopinavir/Ritonavir group. CONCLUSIONS: Novaferon exhibited anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects in vitro and in COVID-19 patients. These data justify further evaluation of Novaferon. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Number ChiCTR2000029496 at the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (http://www.chictr.org.cn/).


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Interferons/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Administração por Inalação , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Interferons/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pandemias , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2 , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(12): 11296-11305, 2020 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 causes high mortality risk in older patients. This study aims to characterize the clinical features of older and younger SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. RESULTS: A total of 239 patients were divided into the younger group (<60 years; n=181) and the older group (≥60 years; n=58). In both groups, fever and cough were common symptoms. However, dyspnea was more frequent in older patients than younger patients (20.7% versus 9.9%, p=0.032). Compared with younger patients, older patients harbored more severe cases (37.9% versus 17.1%, p=0.001) and comorbidities (58.6% versus 21.0%, p<0.001) such as hypertension and diabetes. The baseline values of eosinophils and C-reactive protein were abnormal in older and younger groups. From baseline to day 14, significant decreases of three biomarkers (C-reactive protein, hemoglobin, albumin) and dramatic increases of three biomarkers (lymphocytes, platelets, blood urea nitrogen) were observed in older patients. CONCLUSION: Older and younger patients exhibited differences in dyspnea, comorbidities, and proportions of severe cases. Moreover, the disease progression of SARS-CoV-2 in older patients is observed with the dynamics of laboratory biomarkers, supporting their potential use in disease monitoring. METHODS: We retrieved clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, comorbidities, and hospitalization information of SARS-CoV-2 cases in Changsha.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores , COVID-19 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 34(7): e23255, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133679

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of storage time and temperature on plasma insulin levels and to establish a correction formula. METHODS: Venous blood samples were taken from 20 volunteers and processed as follows: whole blood samples, centrifuged samples, and separated plasma samples were stored at 4°C or 25°C. Insulin levels were determined by direct chemiluminescence at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours. According to the correlation between the insulin concentration ratio and storage time, correction formulas for the insulin concentration were established. To verify the test, the venous blood samples of another 33 volunteers were processed in the same way. The insulin levels of the samples were corrected after 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours and compared with the value at 0 hours to verify the feasibility of the corrected formula. RESULTS: With the prolongation of storage time, the insulin levels of the whole blood samples at 4°C or 25°C and of the centrifuged samples at 25°C decreased gradually (P < .001), and the insulin level correction formulas were Ccorrection  = Cdetermination /0.991e-0.069 x , Ccorrection  = Cdetermination /1.048e-0.126 x , and Ccorrection  = Cdetermination /[-0.068ln(x) + 0.9242]. There was no significant difference between the corrected insulin results and the original results at any time within 12 hours (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: The insulin levels of the whole blood samples at 4°C or 25°C and of the plasma samples at 25°C gradually decreased with storage time. The effect of storage time on the insulin level can be reduced with the correction formulas.


Assuntos
Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Insulina/sangue , Adulto , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Flebotomia , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Hepatol Int ; 14(2): 212-224, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As an important anti-HBV drug, pegylated interferon α (PegIFNα) offers promising clinical efficacy, but biomarkers that accurately forecast treatment responses are yet to be elucidated. Here, we evaluated whether HBV RNA could act as an early monitor of pegylated interferon responses. METHODS: We analyzed a phase 3, multicenter, randomized cohort of 727 HBeAg-positive non-cirrhotic patients receiving a 48-week treatment of PegIFNα-2a or PegIFNα-2b and a 24-week treatment-free follow-up. Serum levels of HBV RNA, HBV DNA, HBeAg, and HBsAg were measured at weeks 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72. RESULTS: HBeAg seroconversion and HBsAg loss at week 72 were observed in 217 (29.8%) and 21 (2.9%) patients, respectively. During the 48-week treatment, HBV RNA decreased more rapidly than HBV DNA and HBsAg, but HBV RNA and HBeAg shared similar dynamics with positive correlations. Multivariate regression analyses consistently revealed the significance of HBV RNA at weeks 0, 12, 24, and 48 to monitor HBeAg seroconversion but not HBsAg loss. Although baseline HBV RNA only showed a modest AUC performance, HBV RNA with a significant increase of AUC at week 12 outperformed other HBV biomarkers to forecast HBeAg seroconversion (p value < 0.05). HBV RNA ≤ 1000 copies/mL was an optimized cutoff at week 12 that offered better prediction than other HBV biomarkers. This optimized cutoff plus patient age, HBV genotype B, and HBeAg offered a strong estimation of HBeAg seroconversion (accuracy 95.2%, true negative rate 99.8%). CONCLUSION: HBV RNA at week 12 is an effective monitor of HBeAg seroconversion in HBeAg-positive patients treated with pegylated interferons.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Adulto , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , RNA Viral/análise , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico
15.
Life Sci ; 248: 117461, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097665

RESUMO

AIMS: To compare how OCT4A proteins interact with and regulate multiple OCT4A-octamer motifs (OMs) in different regions of the FOS gene expressed in somatic cancer cells versus pluripotent stem cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two FOS reporter gene systems harboring predicted OMs or their mutational counterparts were introduced into HeLa and NCCIT cells with varying OCT4A protein levels. The transcription of dsGFP reflecting FOS expression was quantitated by RT-qPCR, the OCT4A-OMs binding and the correlation between OCT4A and FOS transcription was determined by ChIP-PCR and RNA-Seq, respectively. KEY FINDINGS: In NCCIT cells, abundant OCT4A proteins bound to and inhibited OM1 and OM2 at the promoter of the FOS gene. RA-induced OCT4A down-regulation transiently increased FOS transcription. In contrast, in HeLa cells that contain much lower levels of endogenous OCT4A proteins, OCT4A primarily bound to and activate OM1 thereby promoting FOS transcription. OCT4A KO significantly reduced FOS expression. Ectopically introduced OCT4A, at its leaked or induced expression level, promoted FOS transcription by binding to OM2/OM3 or OM1/OM3, respectively. Thus, the interaction of OCT4A proteins with different OMs is cellular context- and protein level-dependent, and such complicated OCT4A binding mode can only be reflected by a dsGFP-based reporter harboring the full-length FOS gene but not by that merely having the FOS promoter. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings unravel an additional layer of regulatory mechanisms that account for the cellular context- and dose-related versatile functions of OCT4A protein, and further underscore the importance of precise modulation of OCT4A in the regenerative medicine and anticancer therapies.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/genética , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/genética , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Genes Reporter , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Transcrição Genética
16.
Dis Markers ; 2020: 4873074, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076461

RESUMO

Objective: Gram-negative bloodstream infections (GNBSIs), especially those caused by antibiotic-resistant species, have become a public health challenge. Procalcitonin (PCT) showed promising potential in early diagnosis of GNBSI; however, little was known about its performance under different clinical settings. We here systematically assessed the diagnostic accuracy of PCT in recognizing GNBSI and made direct comparisons with C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Methods: PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus were searched from inception to March 15th, 2019. Area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), pooled sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were calculated. Hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) model was used for the investigation of heterogeneity and for comparisons between markers. Results: 25 studies incorporating 50933 suspected BSI episodes were included. Pooled sensitivity and specificity for PCT were 0.71 and 0.76, respectively. The overall AUC was 0.80. The lowest AUCs were found in patients with febrile neutropenia (0.69) and hematological malignancy (0.69). The highest AUC was found in groups using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (0.87). In direct comparisons, PCT showed better overall performance than CRP with the AUC being 0.85 (95% CI 0.81-0.87) for PCT and 0.78 (95% CI 0.74-0.81) for CRP, but the relative DORs varied with thresholds between PCT and CRP (p < 0.001). No significant difference was found either in threshold (p < 0.001). No significant difference was found either in threshold (p < 0.001). No significant difference was found either in threshold (. Conclusions: PCT was helpful in recognizing GNBSI, but the test results should be interpreted carefully with knowledge of patients' medical condition and should not serve as the only criterion for GNBSI. Further prospective studies are warranted for comparisons between different clinical settings.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/análise , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/diagnóstico , Bacteriemia/metabolismo , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Aprendizado Profundo , Diagnóstico Precoce , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-6/análise , Pró-Calcitonina/análise , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(2): 457-467.e21, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with entecavir suppresses virus replication and reduces disease progression, but could require life-long therapy. To investigate clinical outcome events and safety associated with long-term treatment with entecavir, we followed up patients treated with entecavir or another standard-of-care HBV nucleos(t)ide analogue for up to 10 years. We assessed long-term outcomes and relationships with virologic response. METHODS: Patients with chronic HBV infection at 299 centers in Asia, Europe, and North and South America were assigned randomly to groups that received entecavir (n = 6216) or an investigator-selected nonentecavir HBV nucleos(t)ide analogue (n = 6162). Study participants were followed up for up to 10 years in hospital-based or community clinics. Key end points were time to adjudicated clinical outcome events and serious adverse events. In a substudy, we examined relationships between these events and virologic response. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between groups in time to event assessments for primary end points including malignant neoplasms, liver-related HBV disease progression, and death. There were no differences between groups in the secondary end points of nonhepatocellular carcinoma malignant neoplasms and hepatocellular carcinoma. In a substudy of 5305 patients in China, virologic response, regardless of treatment group, was associated with a reduced risk of liver-related HBV disease progression (hazard ratio, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.038-0.221) and hepatocellular carcinoma (hazard ratio, 0.03; 95% CI, 0.009-0.113). Twelve patients given entecavir (0.2%) and 50 patients given nonentecavir drugs (0.8%) reported treatment-related serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized controlled trial of patients with chronic HBV infection, we associated entecavir therapy with a low rate of adverse events over 10 years of follow-up evaluation. Patients receiving entecavir vs another nucleos(t)ide analogue had comparable rates of liver- and non-liver-related clinical outcome events. Participants in a China cohort who maintained a virologic response, regardless of treatment group, had a reduced risk of HBV-related outcome events including hepatocellular carcinoma. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier no: NCT00388674.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Guanina/análogos & derivados , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(1): 27-60, 2020 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472167

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic causes severe morbidity and mortality. This multi-country study aimed to explore risk factors that drive mortality in COVID-19 patients who received neither dexamethasone nor remdesivir. We analyzed a cohort of 568 survivors and 507 non-survivors from China, European regions, and North America. Elderly males ≥70 years accounted for only 25% of survivors, but this rate was significantly higher in non-survivors from China (55%), European regions (63%), and North America (47%). Compared with survivors, non-survivors had more incidences of comorbidities such as cerebrovascular disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, p-values<0.05). Survival analyses revealed age, male gender, shortness of breath, cerebrovascular disease, and COPD as mortality-associated factors. Survival time from symptom onset was significantly shorter in elderly versus young patients (median: 29 versus 62 days), males versus females (median: 46 versus 59 days), and patients with versus without comorbidities (mean: 41 versus 61 days). Mortality risk was higher in elderly males with comorbidities than in young females without comorbidities (p-value<0.01). Elderly male survivors with comorbidities also had longer hospital stays than other survivors (25 versus 18.5 days, p-value<0.01). Overall, the high mortality risk in elderly males with COVID-19-associated comorbidities supports early prevention and critical care for elderly populations.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculose/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/complicações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Lactente , Hepatopatias/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doenças Respiratórias/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(23): 11111-11123, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mixed evidence challenges preoperative alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) as an independent prognostic factor for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after hepatectomy. RESULTS: Daily post-operative decrease of AFP by 9% as compared to the preoperative level (A09) were selected as the Cut-off. The Kaplan-Meier curve showed that A09 was significantly different for OS (P=0.043) and RFS (P=0.03). A decrease in risk by 54% was observed for OS and 32% for RFS in the at-risk population (A09>9%). A better concordance was observed after adding A09 into TNM and BCLC staging systems. Moreover, a consistent concordance was observed in the internal (FDZS5:0.63; FDZS3:0.608) and external (FDZS5:0.85; FDZS3:0.762) validation cohorts, suggesting its prognostic value in HCC population with elevated AFP. CONCLUSIONS: Decrease in perioperative serum AFP rather than preoperative AFP is an independent prognostic factor for HCC patients after hepatectomy. Cut-off A09 significantly discriminates overall and recurrence-free survival and could be interpret into TNM and BCLC staging systems to improve the stratification power for HCC patients with elevated AFP. METHODS: Kaplan-Meier curve depicted the differences of overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). Nomogram and concordance were employed to evaluate the superiority of the current staging system.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , alfa-Fetoproteínas/metabolismo , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
J Clin Transl Hepatol ; 7(3): 213-220, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608212

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Ravidasvir (RDV) is a new generation pangenotypic hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A inhibitor, with high barrier to baseline resistance-associated species. This is the first phase 2/3 study conducted in Mainland China confirming the efficacy and safety of RDV + ritonavir-boosted danoprevir + ribavirin for 12 weeks in treatment-naïve noncirrhotic patients with genotype 1 infection in a large population. Methods: In this multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase 2/3 trial (NCT03362814), we enrolled 424 treatment-naïve, noncirrhotic adult HCV genotype 1 patients. All patients were randomized at 3:1 ratio to receive a combination of RDV 200mg once daily plus ritonavir-boosted danoprevir 100mg/100mg twice daily and oral ribavirin 1000/1200mg/day (body weight <75/≥75 kg) (n = 318) or placebo (n = 106) for 12 weeks. The primary end-point was the rate of sustained virologic response 12 weeks after the end of treatment, and the safety was evaluated and compared between treatment and placebo groups. Results: The overall rate of sustained virological response at 12 weeks after treatment is 99% (306/309, 95%, CI: 97%-100%) under per protocol set analysis. All patients harboring baseline NS5A resistance-associated species in the treatment group (76/76, per protocol set) achieved sustained virological response at 12 weeks after treatment. No treatment-related serious adverse events were reported. Laboratory abnormalities showed mild or moderate severity (grade 1 and grade 2) in liver function tests. Conclusions: In treatment-naïve, noncirrhotic HCV Chinese patients infected with HCV genotype 1, all-oral regimen of RDV + ritonavir-boosted danoprevir + ribavirin for 12 weeks was highly efficacious, safe, and well tolerated.

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