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2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(11): e24894, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725960

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Refractory mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (RMPP) in children has been increasing worldwide. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis to generate large-scale evidence on the risk factors of RMPP to provide suggestions on prevention and controlling for children. METHODS: Web of Science, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang (Chinese) were searched to identify relevant articles. All analyses were performed using Stata 14.0. RESULTS: We conducted a meta-analysis of 15 separate studies. Fever for more than 10 days (odds ratio [OR] 3.965, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.109-7.456), pleural effusion (OR 6.922, 95% CI 2.058-23.282), extra-pulmonary complications (OR 17.762, 95% CI 11.146-28.305), pulmonary X-ray consolidation ≥2/3 (OR 8.245, 95% CI 1.990-34.153), CRP >40 mg/L (OR 4.975, 95% CI 2.116-11.697) were significantly related to the risk of RMPP. We did not find an association between male sex (OR 0.808, 95% CI 0.548-1.189), LDH >410IU/L (OR 1.033, 95% CI 0.979-1.091) and the risk of RMPP. CONCLUSIONS: Fever for more than 10 days, pleural effusion, extra-pulmonary complications, pulmonary X-ray consolidation≥ 2/3 and CRP >40 mg/L are risk factors for early evaluation of RMPP.


Assuntos
Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/etiologia , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/etiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Febre/microbiologia , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/microbiologia , Masculino , Derrame Pleural/microbiologia , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Radiografia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
3.
BMC Biol ; 19(1): 47, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is an important neuromodulator that is widely distributed in the brain and plays a key role in mediating stress responses and autonomic functions. While the distribution pattern of fluorescently labeled CRH-expressing neurons has been studied in different transgenic mouse lines, a full appreciation of the broad diversity of this population and local neural connectivity can only come from integration of single-cell morphological information as a defining feature. However, the morphologies of single CRH neurons and the local circuits formed by these neurons have not been acquired at brain-wide and dendritic-scale levels. RESULTS: We screened the EYFP-expressing CRH-IRES-Cre;Ai32 mouse line to reveal the morphologies of individual CRH neurons throughout the whole mouse brain by using a fluorescence micro-optical sectioning tomography (fMOST) system. Diverse dendritic morphologies and projection fibers of CRH neurons were found in various brain regions. Follow-up reconstructions showed that hypothalamic CRH neurons had the smallest somatic volumes and simplest dendritic branches and that CRH neurons in several brain regions shared a common bipolar morphology. Further investigations of local CRH neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex unveiled somatic depth-dependent morphologies of CRH neurons that exhibited three types of mutual connections: basal dendrites (upper layer) with apical dendrites (layer 3); dendritic-somatic connections (in layer 2/3); and dendritic-dendritic connections (in layer 4). Moreover, hypothalamic CRH neurons were classified into two types according to their somatic locations and characteristics of dendritic varicosities. Rostral-projecting CRH neurons in the anterior parvicellular area had fewer and smaller dendritic varicosities, whereas CRH neurons in the periventricular area had more and larger varicosities that were present within dendrites projecting to the third ventricle. Arborization-dependent dendritic spines of CRH neurons were detected, among which the most sophisticated types were found in the amygdala and the simplest types were found in the hypothalamus. CONCLUSIONS: By using the CRH-IRES-Cre;Ai32 mouse line and fMOST imaging, we obtained region-specific morphological distributions of CRH neurons at the dendrite level in the whole mouse brain. Taken together, our findings provide comprehensive brain-wide morphological information of stress-related CRH neurons and may facilitate further studies of the CRH neuronal system.

4.
Brain Struct Funct ; 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710409

RESUMO

The impressive functions of the brain rely on an extensive connectivity matrix between specific neurons, the architecture of which is frequently characterized by one brain nucleus/region connecting to multiple targets, either via collaterals of the same projection neuron or several, differentially specified neurons. Delineating the fine architecture of projection neuron subsets in a specific brain region could greatly facilitate its circuit, computational, and functional resolution. Here, we developed multiple fluorescent rabies viruses (RV) to delineate the fine organization of corticothalamic projection neuron subsets in the primary visual cortex (V1). By simultaneously retrograde labeling multiple distinct subsets of corticothalamic projection neurons in V1 from their target nuclei in thalamus (dLGN, LP, LD), we observed that V1-dLGN corticothalamic projection neurons were densely concentrated in layer VI, except for several sparsely scattered neurons in layer V, while V1-LP and V1-LD corticothalamic projection neurons were localized to both layers V and VI. Meanwhile, we observed a fraction of V1 corticothalamic projection neurons targeting two thalamic nuclei, which was further confirmed by fMOST whole-brain imaging. The multiple fluorescent RV tracing tools can be extensively applied to resolve the architecture of projection neuron subsets in certain brain regions, with a strong potential to delineate the computational and functional organization of these brain regions.

5.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 203: 106023, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is associated with neuronal damage and decrease. Micro-Optical Sectioning Tomography (MOST) provides an approach to acquire high-resolution images for neuron analysis in the whole-brain. Application of this technique to AD mouse brain enables us to investigate neuron changes during the progression of AD pathology. However, how to deal with the huge amount of data becomes the bottleneck. METHODS: Using MOST technology, we acquired 3D whole-brain images of six AD mice, and sampled the imaging data of four regions in each mouse brain for AD progression analysis. To count the number of neurons, we proposed a deep learning based method by detecting neuronal soma in the neuronal images. In our method, the neuronal images were first cut into small cubes, then a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classifier was designed to detect the neuronal soma by classifying the cubes into three categories, "soma", "fiber", and "background". RESULTS: Compared with the manual method and currently available NeuroGPS software, our method demonstrates faster speed and higher accuracy in identifying neurons from the MOST images. By applying our method to various brain regions of 6-month-old and 12-month-old AD mice, we found that the amount of neurons in three brain regions (lateral entorhinal cortex, medial entorhinal cortex, and presubiculum) decreased slightly with the increase of age, which is consistent with the experimental results previously reported. CONCLUSION: This paper provides a new method to automatically handle the huge amounts of data and accurately identify neuronal soma from the MOST images. It also provides the potential possibility to construct a whole-brain neuron projection to reveal the impact of AD pathology on mouse brain.

6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(11): e23855, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725926

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The application of transcatheter angiographic embolization (TAE) is controversial in the treatment of ulcer bleeding. This study aims to determine rebleeding risk factors and evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic TAE (p-TAE) following endoscopic hemostasis in rebleeding prevention of Forrest lla ulcers.The medical records of Forrest lla ulcer patients who underwent endoscopic hemostasis (E group) and endoscopic hemostasis plus p-TAE (E + p-TAE group) in West China Hospital from May 2009 to May 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Baseline characteristics, clinical efficacy, and rebleeding risk factors were analyzed.As a result, a total of 102 patients were included, with 75 and 27 patients in E and E + p-TAE group, respectively. Most of the baseline data in E and E + p-TAE group were similar except for the proportion of protruded non-bleeding visible vessel (NBVV) (E group vs E + p-TAE group, 50.7% vs 74.1%, P = .035). The rebleeding rate of E + p-TAE group (3.7%) was significantly lower than E group (24.0%) (P = .02). The protruded NBVV (OR: 6.896, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.532-30.642, P = .01) and employment of p-TAE (OR: 0.038, 95% CI: 0.003-0.448, P = .009) were identified as independent risk factors for Forrest IIa ulcer rebleeding. Additionally, log-rank test indicated the rebleeding occurrence was greatly reduced by p-TAE in patients with protruded NBVVs (P = .006).In conclusion, the protruded NBVV and employment of p-TAE were the independent risk factors tightly associated with rebleeding of Forrest IIa ulcer. P-TAE following endoscopic hemostasis could effectively prevent Forrest IIa ulcer from rebleeding.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Hemostase Endoscópica/métodos , Úlcera Péptica Hemorrágica/terapia , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Angiografia/métodos , Cateterismo/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Nat Methods ; 18(3): 309-315, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649587

RESUMO

The microscopic visualization of large-scale three-dimensional (3D) samples by optical microscopy requires overcoming challenges in imaging quality and speed and in big data acquisition and management. We report a line-illumination modulation (LiMo) technique for imaging thick tissues with high throughput and low background. Combining LiMo with thin tissue sectioning, we further develop a high-definition fluorescent micro-optical sectioning tomography (HD-fMOST) method that features an average signal-to-noise ratio of 110, leading to substantial improvement in neuronal morphology reconstruction. We achieve a >30-fold lossless data compression at a voxel resolution of 0.32 × 0.32 × 1.00 µm3, enabling online data storage to a USB drive or in the cloud, and high-precision (95% accuracy) brain-wide 3D cell counting in real time. These results highlight the potential of HD-fMOST to facilitate large-scale acquisition and analysis of whole-brain high-resolution datasets.

8.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 165: 324-333, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556462

RESUMO

Perivascular tissue including adipose layer and adventitia have been considered to play pivotal roles in vascular development and disease progression. Recent studies showed that abundant stem/progenitorcells (SPCs) are present in perivascular tissues. These SPCs exhibit capability to proliferate and differentiate into specific terminal cells. Adult perivascular SPCs are quiescent in normal condition, once activated by specific molecules (e.g., cytokines), they migrate toward the lumen side where they differentiate into both smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs), thus promoting intima hyperplasia or endothelial regeneration. In addition, perivascular SPCs can also regulate vascular diseases via other ways including but not limited to paracrine effects, matrix protein modulation and microvessel formation. Perivascular SPCs have also been shown to possess therapeutic potentials due to the capability to differentiate into vascular cells and regenerate vascular structures. This review summarizes current knowledge on resident SPCs features and discusses the potential benefits of SPCs therapy in vascular diseases.

9.
Mol Cell Probes ; 56: 101708, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636281

RESUMO

Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have been used in the field of biomedicine as antigen carriers and adjuvants for protective antigens. In the present study, an oral nanovaccine against Vibrio alginolyticus was prepared employing MSNs as carriers. The uptake of the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLDH) antigens in the intestine of large yellow croaker was evaluated using an immunohistochemistry assay. Additionally, the effects of the nanovaccine on the early immune response in large yellow croaker were investigated via oral vaccination. The presence of the antigens was detected in the mucosa and lamina propria of the foregut, midgut, and hindgut of large yellow croaker at 3 h following oral immunization. The expression levels of cytokines (i.e., lysozyme, IFN-γ, IFITM, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13) in the intestine, spleen, and head kidney tissues of large yellow croaker before and after the immune challenge were determined via RT-qPCR assay. The obtained results revealed that the expression levels of lysozyme, IFN-γ, IFITM, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 in the intestine and head kidney of the vaccinated large yellow croaker, as well as the expression of lysozyme, IL-1ß, and IL-10 in the spleen, exhibited time-dependent oscillation regulation patterns. Notably, the nanovaccine immunization could induce early (6 h) and high expression of IFN-γ in the spleen and kidney tissues after the bacterial infection. The current study supplements the available data on the early immune response to fish nanovaccines. It also provides a valuable theoretical basis for the future development of large yellow croaker oral vaccines.

10.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 45, 2021 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: All countries are facing decisions about which population groups to prioritize for access to COVID-19 vaccination after the first vaccine products have been licensed, at which time supply shortages are inevitable. Our objective is to define the key target populations, their size, and priority for a COVID-19 vaccination program in the context of China. METHODS: On the basis of utilitarian and egalitarian principles, we define and estimate the size of tiered target population groups for a phased introduction of COVID-19 vaccination, considering evolving goals as vaccine supplies increase, detailed information on the risk of illness and transmission, and past experience with vaccination during the 2009 influenza pandemic. Using publicly available data, we estimated the size of target population groups, and the number of days needed to vaccinate 70% of the target population. Sensitivity analyses considered higher vaccine coverages and scaled up vaccine delivery relative to the 2009 pandemic. RESULTS: Essential workers, including staff in the healthcare, law enforcement, security, nursing homes, social welfare institutes, community services, energy, food and transportation sectors, and overseas workers/students (49.7 million) could be prioritized for vaccination to maintain essential services in the early phase of a vaccination program. Subsequently, older adults, individuals with underlying health conditions and pregnant women (563.6 million) could be targeted for vaccination to reduce the number of individuals with severe COVID-19 outcomes, including hospitalizations, critical care admissions, and deaths. In later stages, the vaccination program could be further extended to target adults without underlying health conditions and children (784.8 million), in order to reduce symptomatic infections and/or to stop virus transmission. Given 10 million doses administered per day, and a two-dose vaccination schedule, it would take 1 week to vaccinate essential workers but likely up to 7 months to vaccinate 70% of the overall population. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed framework is general but could assist Chinese policy-makers in the design of a vaccination program. Additionally, this exercise could be generalized to inform other national and regional strategies for use of COVID-19 vaccines, especially in low- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
/uso terapêutico , Pessoal de Saúde , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Seleção de Pacientes , Polícia , Adolescente , Idoso , /mortalidade , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Teoria Ética , Feminino , Indústria Alimentícia , Prioridades em Saúde , Hospitalização , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Lactente , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Casas de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Formulação de Políticas , Gravidez , Transportes , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cell Rep ; 34(5): 108709, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535048

RESUMO

A thorough neuroanatomical study of the brain architecture is crucial for understanding its cellular compositions, connections, and working mechanisms. However, the fine- and multiscale features of neuron structures make it challenging for microscopic imaging, as it requires high contrast and high throughput simultaneously. Here, we propose chemical sectioning fluorescence tomography (CSFT) to solve this problem. By chemically switching OFF/ON the fluorescent state of the labeled proteins (FPs), we light only the top layer as thin as submicron for imaging without background interference. Combined with the wide-field fluorescence micro-optical sectioning tomography (fMOST) system, we have shown multicolor CSFT imaging. We also demonstrate mouse whole-brain imaging at the subcellular resolution, as well as the power for quantitative acquisition of synaptic-connection-related pyramidal dendritic spines and axon boutons on the brain-wide scale at the complete single-neuron level. We believe that the CSFT method would greatly facilitate our understanding of the brain-wide neuron networks.

12.
Opt Lett ; 46(3): 504-507, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528395

RESUMO

Optical sectioning with high-throughput, a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and submicrometer resolution is crucial, but challenging, to three-dimensional visualization of large biological tissue samples. Here we propose line-scanning imaging with digital structured modulation for optical sectioning. Our method generates images with a significantly improved SNR, compared to wide-field structured illumination microscopy (WF-SIM), without residual modulation artifacts. We image a 14.5mm×11.5mm horizontal view of mouse brain tissue at a pixel resolution of 0.32µm×0.32µm in 101 s, which, compared to WF-SIM, represents a significant improvement on imaging throughput. These results provide development opportunities for high-throughput, high-resolution large-area optical imaging methods.

13.
Theranostics ; 11(3): 1249-1268, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33391533

RESUMO

Rationale: Maladaptive cardiac remodeling is a critical step in the progression of heart failure. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), a co-receptor of Wnt, has been implicated in cardiac protection. We aimed to study the role of cardiomyocyte-expressed LRP6 in cardiac remodeling under chronic pressure overload. Methods: Cardiac parameters were analyzed in inducible cardiac-specific LRP6 overexpressing and control mice subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Results: Cardiac LRP6 was increased at an early phase after TAC. Cardiomyocyte-specific LRP6 overexpression improved cardiac function and inhibited cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis four weeks after TAC. The overexpression significantly inhibited ß-catenin activation, likely contributing to the inhibitory effect on cardiac hypertrophy after TAC. LRP6 overexpression reduced the expression and secretion of Wnt5a and Wnt11 by cardiomyocytes, and knockdown of Wnt5a and Wnt11 greatly inhibited cardiac fibrosis and dysfunction under pressure overload in vitro and in vivo. Cardiomyocyte-expressed LRP6 interacted with cathepsin D (CTSD, a protease) and promoted the degradation of Wnt5a and Wnt11, inhibiting cardiac fibrosis and dysfunction induced by TAC. The protease inhibitor leupeptin attenuated the interaction between LRP6 and CTSD, enhanced the expression of Wnt5a and Wnt11, and deteriorated cardiac function and fibrosis in cardiomyocyte-specific LRP6-overexpressing mice under pressure overload. Mutants from human patients, P1427Q of LRP6 and G316R of CTSD significantly inhibited the interaction between LRP6 and CTSD and increased Wnt5a and Wnt11 expression. Conclusion: Cardiomyocyte-expressed LRP6 promoted the degradation of Wnt5a and Wnt11 by regulating CTSD and inhibited cardiac fibrosis under pressure overload. Our study demonstrated a novel role of LRP6 as an anti-fibrosis regulator.

14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(3): 1079-1090, 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445864

RESUMO

Lipolytic enzymes are essential biocatalysts in food processing as well as pharmaceutical and pesticide industries, catalyzing the cleavage of ester bonds in a variety of acyl chain substrates. Here, we report the crystal structure of an esterase from the deep-sea hydrothermal vent of the East Pacific Rise (EprEst). The X-ray structure of EprEst in complex with the ligand, acetate, has been determined at 2.03 Å resolution. The structure reveals a unique spatial arrangement and orientation of the helix cap domain and α/ß hydrolase domain, which form a substrate pocket with preference for short-chain acyl groups. Molecular docking analysis further demonstrated that the active site pocket could accommodate p-nitrophenyl (pNP) carboxyl ligands of varying lengths (≤6 C atoms), with pNP-butyrate ester predicted to have the highest binding affinity. Additionally, the semirational design was conducted to improve the thermostability of EprEst by enzyme engineering based on the established structure and multiple sequence alignment. A mutation, K114P, introduced in the hinge region of the esterase, which displayed increased thermostability and enzyme activity. Collectively, the structural and functional data obtained herein could be used as basis for further protein engineering to ultimately expand the scope of industrial applications of marine-derived lipolytic enzymes.

15.
Dis Markers ; 2020: 8833885, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299498

RESUMO

Glioma is defined as a common brain tumor which causes severe disability or death. As many genes are reported to relate with glioma's occurrence and development, their prognostic and therapeutic value still remains uncertain. This study aimed at investigating the association between STAT3/p-STAT3 and glioma prognosis. Nine studies (12 trials) scored ≥5 on the Newcastle-Ottawa scale were meta-analysed from the Medline, Embase, and Web of Science databases. We found that STAT3/p-STAT3 overexpression in glioma patients was associated with worse overall survival (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.40, 95%confidence interval (CI) = 1.05 ~ 1.86, P = 0.020), progression-free survival (HR = 2.05, 95%CI = 1.63 ~ 2.58, P < 0.001), and better recurrence-free survival (HR = 0.37, 95%CI = 0.15 ~ 0.95, P < 0.039). Subgroup analysis implied that STAT3/p-STAT3 overexpression was associated with worse OS in standard treatment (HR = 1.80, 95%CI = 1.06 ~ 3.04, P = 0.030), and in China (HR = 2.18, 95%CI = 1.77 ~ 2.70, P < 0.001), and metaregression analysis indicated countries (P = 0.001) may be the source of heterogeneity in our study. In conclusion, we suggested STAT3/p-STAT3 was associated with poor prognosis in patients with glioma, which indicated that STAT3/p-STAT3 might be a valuable prognostic biomarker and a promising therapeutic target for glioma.

16.
FEBS Open Bio ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301643

RESUMO

Chondroitin polymerizing factor (CHPF) plays an important role in the development of certain malignant tumors. However, the role of CHPF in breast carcinoma (BRCA) and its underlying mechanism are still not fully elucidated. Expression profiles for CHPF in BRCA tissues were retrieved from The Cancer Genome Atlas(TCGA) and used for prognostic analysis. Cell viability, invasion and migration were measured in vitro using MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines upon knockdown or over-expression of CHPF. Bioinformatic analysis showed that CHPF was substantially upregulated in BRCA tissues, and qRT-PCR was performed to confirm its upregulation in BRCA cells. High expression of CHPF was observed to be significantly associated with pathological stage, metastasis, and worse prognosis. We also observed that depletion of CHPF significantly inhibited cell proliferative, invasive and migratory abilities, while overexpression of CHPF exerted the opposite effects. Furthermore, analysis of the GEPIA database revealed that CHPF expression is positively correlated with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related markers Vimentin, Snail, Slug and motion-related protein MMP2; these findings were confirmed using western blot of cell lines. Our data suggest that CHPF may contribute to BRCA progression by modulating EMT-related markers and MMP2 expression.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301676

RESUMO

Nanochannel system provides a promising platform to create nanofluidic components in large-scale integrated circuits for "lab-on-a-chip" applications. However, it is a big challenge to achieve in situ monitoring on microscopic nanofluidic manipulation of single nanofluidic components in the integrated ionic circuit. Herein, we present a simple approach to realize visual nanofluidic manipulation in asymmetric nanochannels by the functionalization of an electrochromic polyaniline coating, which demonstrates redox-tunable surface charge accompanied by a visible color variation. The electrochromic nanochannels present a green color when behaving as ionic diodes, while the color turns to light yellow in a manner of ionic resistor. Moreover, both ionic transport behavior and color transition could respond well with alternating switch between redox states, contributing to a reversible and stable visual nanofluidic manipulation of electrochromic nanochannels. This work will create new avenues on in situ characterizing nanofluidic manipulation of nanofluidic components in integrated ionic circuits for intelligent sensing and detection applications.

19.
Sex Transm Infect ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219164

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Co-infection of syphilis and HIV remains hard to manage and its morbidity shows a rising tendency. Syphilis has been associated with increased risk of HIV acquisition in high-risk groups, especially in men who have sex with men (MSM). This systematic review and meta-analysis estimates the effect of syphilis infection on subsequent HIV acquisition, and assesses its difference between MSM and other high-risk populations. METHODS: Five electronic databases were searched for literature published to 21 September 2019 without language restrictions. Longitudinal studies that enrolled key populations to compare the incidence of HIV with and without syphilis exposure were included. We used a random-effects model to estimate the effect of syphilis infection on HIV acquisition among high-risk populations, which include MSM, sex workers, serodiscordant couples, people who inject drugs and attendees of STD clinics. RESULTS: A total of 17 cohorts and 5 case-control studies involving 65 232 participants were included. HIV incidence showed a two-time increase after syphilis exposure, compared with a control group (relative risk (RR) 2.67 (95% CI 2.05 to 3.47); p<0.05 for prevalence; RR 3.21 (95% CI 2.26 to 4.57); p=0.419 for incidence). No significant differences were observed between MSM and other high-risk groups in syphilis infection prevalence (RR 2.60 (95% CI 1.78 to 3.80); p<0.05 vs RR, 2.98 (95% CI 2.15 to 4.14); p<0.05; ratio of relative risk 0.76 (95% CI 0.49 to 1.17)). CONCLUSIONS: Syphilis infection increases the risk of HIV acquisition in high-risk populations. There is no evidence to suggest MSM are at greater risk than other high-risk populations. Prompt diagnosis, timely treatment, preventive interventions against syphilis infection would be a worthwhile investment for reducing HIV incidence. Strategies to combat stigma and discrimination targeted at MSM are pragmatically needed.

20.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143549, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33223171

RESUMO

Mesophilic and thermophilic digestion has long been considered as preferred temperature ranges for anaerobic digestion. However, in this study, the effects of temperatures (37, 42, 47, and 55 °C) on the biomethane potential of corn stover were conducted with batch experiments, and the highest biomethane potential was at 42 °C. It was inferred that the change of feed materials, e.g., pretreatment caused by acidification (pH 6.0) during the lag time (4 days), was the main driver for higher biomethane potential. The natural pretreatment stimulated by a slight digestive temperature increase to 42 °C can enhance the biomethane potential of corn stover without adding extra acid. Meanwhile, metabolic pathways of methanogens changed from acetoclastic to mixotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Based on these results, the transition temperature (42 °C) from mesophilic to thermophilic micro-organisms could be a promising option for corn stover anaerobic digestion.

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