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2.
Front Neuroanat ; 16: 843303, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35655583

RESUMO

The pontomesencephalic tegmentum, comprising the pedunculopontine nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, is involved in various functions via complex connections; however, the organizational structure of these circuits in the whole brain is not entirely clear. Here, combining viral tracing with fluorescent micro-optical sectional tomography, we comprehensively investigated the input and output circuits of two cholinergic subregions in a continuous whole-brain dataset. We found that these nuclei receive abundant input with similar spatial distributions but with different quantitative measures and acquire similar neuromodulatory afferents from the ascending reticular activation system. Meanwhile, these cholinergic nuclei project to similar targeting areas throughout multiple brain regions and have different spatial preferences in 3D. Moreover, some cholinergic connections are unidirectional, including projections from the pedunculopontine nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus to the ventral posterior complex of the thalamus, and have different impacts on locomotion and anxiety. These results reveal the integrated cholinergic connectome of the midbrain, thus improving the present understanding of the organizational structure of the pontine-tegmental cholinergic system from its anatomical structure to its functional modulation.

3.
World J Gastroenterol ; 28(19): 2123-2136, 2022 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35664037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a major cause of death in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Although a series of prediction models have been developed for early identification of such patients, the majority are complicated or lack validation. A simpler and more credible model is required for clinical practice. AIM: To develop and validate a predictive model for SAP related ARDS. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with AP from four hospitals located at different regions of China were retrospectively grouped into derivation and validation cohorts. Statistically significant variables were identified using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression method. Predictive models with nomograms were further built using multiple logistic regression analysis with these picked predictors. The discriminatory power of new models was compared with some common models. The performance of calibration ability and clinical utility of the predictive models were evaluated. RESULTS: Out of 597 patients with AP, 139 were diagnosed with SAP (80 in derivation cohort and 59 in validation cohort) and 99 with ARDS (62 in derivation cohort and 37 in validation cohort). Four identical variables were identified as independent risk factors for both SAP and ARDS: heart rate [odds ratio (OR) = 1.05; 95%CI: 1.04-1.07; P < 0.001; OR = 1.05, 95%CI: 1.03-1.07, P < 0.001], respiratory rate (OR = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.0-1.17, P = 0.047; OR = 1.10, 95%CI: 1.02-1.19, P = 0.014), serum calcium concentration (OR = 0.26, 95%CI: 0.09-0.73, P = 0.011; OR = 0.17, 95%CI: 0.06-0.48, P = 0.001) and blood urea nitrogen (OR = 1.15, 95%CI: 1.09-1.23, P < 0.001; OR = 1.12, 95%CI: 1.05-1.19, P < 0.001). The area under receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.879 (95%CI: 0.830-0.928) and 0.898 (95%CI: 0.848-0.949) for SAP prediction in derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. This value was 0.892 (95%CI: 0.843-0.941) and 0.833 (95%CI: 0.754-0.912) for ARDS prediction, respectively. The discriminatory power of our models was improved compared with that of other widely used models and the calibration ability and clinical utility of the prediction models performed adequately. CONCLUSION: The present study constructed and validated a simple and accurate predictive model for SAP-related ARDS in patients with AP.


Assuntos
Pancreatite , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Doença Aguda , Humanos , Pancreatite/complicações , Pancreatite/diagnóstico , Curva ROC , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 10: 852734, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35646872

RESUMO

Background: Pyroptosis is a form of programmed cell death triggered by the rupture of cell membranes and the release of inflammatory substances; it is essential in the occurrence and development of cancer. A considerable number of studies have revealed that pyroptosis is closely associated to the biological process of several cancers. However, the role of pyroptosis in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) remains elusive. The purpose of this study was to explore the prognostic role of pyroptosis-related genes (PRGs) and their relationship with the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) in LUAD. Methods: Gene expression profiles and clinical information were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases. A prognostic PRG signature was established in the training set and verified in the validation sets. Functional enrichment and immune microenvironment analyses related to PRGs were performed and a nomogram based on the risk score and clinical characteristics was established. What is more, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis was applied in order to verify the potential biomarkers for LUAD. Results: A prognostic signature based on five PRGs was constructed to separate LUAD patients into two risk groups. Patients in the high-risk group had worse prognoses than those in the low-risk group. The signature was identified as independent via Cox regression analyses and obtained the largest area under the curve (AUC = 0.677) in the receiver operating characteristic (ROC). Functional enrichment and immune microenvironment analyses demonstrated that the immune status was significantly different in the two subgroups and that immunotherapy may be effective for the high-risk group. Furthermore, qRT-PCR analysis verified that serum PRKACA and GPX4 could serve as diagnostic biomarkers for LUAD. Conclusion: Overall, a risk signature based on five PRGs was generated, providing a novel perspective on the determinants of prognosis and survival in LUAD, as well as a basis for the development of individualized regimes.

5.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 7636983, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510054

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the activity, resistance, clonality of MIC distribution, and the correlation between virulence and resistance genes and biofilm formation of omadacycline (OMC) in clinics for Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from China. 162 isolates were collected retrospectively in China. The S. agalactiae were collected from the body's cervical secretions, wound secretions, ear swabs, secretions, semen, venous blood, cerebrospinal fluid, pee, etc. The MIC of OMC against S. agalactiae was determined by broth microdilution. The inhibition zone diameters of OMC and other common antibiotics were measured using filter paper. D-test was performed to determine the phenotype of cross resistance between erythromycin and clindamycin. In Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), some commonly-detected resistance genes and virulence gene of these S. agalactiae isolates were investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Biofilms were detected by crystal violet staining. Our data demonstrated the correalation of the biofilm formation and OMA antimicrobial susceptibility of S.agalactiae clinical isolates with the carrier of virulence gene scpB. Conclusively, OMC exhibits the robust antimcirobial activity against clinical S. agalactiae isolates from China compared with DOX or MIN, and the carrier of the virulence gene scpB might correlate with the biofilm formation in OMC-resistant S. agalactiae.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Streptococcus agalactiae , China , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Estudos Retrospectivos , Streptococcus agalactiae/genética , Tetraciclinas , Virulência/genética
6.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 178, 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513865

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex, multifactorial, polygenic disease. The rate of occurrence of COPD in the Kashi population (Uyghur) is significantly higher than that observed nationwide. The identification of COPD-related genes in the Chinese Uyghur population could provide useful insights that could help us understand this phenomenon. Our previous whole-exome sequencing study of three Uyghur families with COPD demonstrated that 72 mutations in 55 genes might be associated with COPD; these included rs15783G > A in the anoctamin 3 (ANO3) gene/mucin 15 (MUC15) gene, rs1800517G > A in the collagen type IV alpha 4 chain (COL4A4) gene, rs11960G > A in the ribosome binding protein 1 (RRBP1) gene, and rs5516C > G in the kallikrein 1 (KLK1) gene. This case-control study aimed to further validate the association of the four mutations with COPD in the Chinese Uyghur population. METHODS: Sanger sequencing was used for the genotyping of four polymorphisms (ANO3/MUC15 rs15783, COL4A4 rs1800517, RRBP1 rs11960, and KLK1 rs5516) in 541 unrelated Uyghur COPD patients and 534 Uyghur healthy controls. We then conducted stratified analyses based on the smoking status and airflow limitation severity, to explore the correlation between selected gene polymorphisms and COPD. RESULTS: ANO3/MUC15 rs15783 and KLK1 rs5516 polymorphisms could significantly reduce COPD risk (p < 0.05), but COL4A4 rs1800517 and RRBP1 rs11960 polymorphisms were not correlated with COPD in the entire population. In a stratified analysis of smoking status, non-smokers with the ANO3/MUC15 rs15783G/G genotype (OR = 0.63, p = 0.032) or COL4A4 rs1800517 allele G (OR = 0.80, p = 0.023) had a reduced risk of COPD. Smokers with the RRBP1 rs11960A/G genotype had a lower risk of COPD (OR = 0.41, p = 0.025). The KLK1 rs5516G > C polymorphism was associated with a decreased risk of COPD (OR < 1, p < 0.05), irrespective of the smoking status of individuals. No significant association with COPD severity was observed in individuals with these four polymorphisms (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: We identified four previously unreported mutations (ANO3/MUC15 rs15783, COL4A4 rs1800517, RRBP1 rs11960, and KLK1 rs5516) that might decrease the COPD risk in individuals with different smoking statuses in the Chinese Uyghur population. Our findings provide new light for the genetic risk factors associated with the occurrence of COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Anoctaminas/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Colágeno Tipo IV/genética , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Mucinas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Calicreínas Teciduais/genética
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 881234, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35602136

RESUMO

Objective: Based on the respiratory disease big data platform in southern Xinjiang, we established a model that predicted and diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis, pulmonary embolism and pulmonary tuberculosis, and provided assistance for primary physicians. Methods: The method combined convolutional neural network (CNN) and long-short-term memory network (LSTM) for prediction and diagnosis of respiratory diseases. We collected the medical records of inpatients in the respiratory department, including: chief complaint, history of present illness, and chest computed tomography. Pre-processing of clinical records with "jieba" word segmentation module, and the Bidirectional Encoder Representation from Transformers (BERT) model was used to perform word vectorization on the text. The partial and total information of the fused feature set was encoded by convolutional layers, while LSTM layers decoded the encoded information. Results: The precisions of traditional machine-learning, deep-learning methods and our proposed method were 0.6, 0.81, 0.89, and F1 scores were 0.6, 0.81, 0.88, respectively. Conclusion: Compared with traditional machine learning and deep-learning methods that our proposed method had a significantly higher performance, and provided precise identification of respiratory disease.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Redes Neurais de Computação , Aprendizado de Máquina
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(9)2022 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35591271

RESUMO

When a traditional Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient (DDPG) algorithm is used in mobile robot path planning, due to the limited observable environment of mobile robots, the training efficiency of the path planning model is low, and the convergence speed is slow. In this paper, Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) is introduced into the DDPG network, the former and current states of the mobile robot are combined to determine the actions of the robot, and a Batch Norm layer is added after each layer of the Actor network. At the same time, the reward function is optimized to guide the mobile robot to move faster towards the target point. In order to improve the learning efficiency, different normalization methods are used to normalize the distance and angle between the mobile robot and the target point, which are used as the input of the DDPG network model. When the model outputs the next action of the mobile robot, mixed noise composed of Gaussian noise and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) noise is added. Finally, the simulation environment built by a ROS system and a Gazebo platform is used for experiments. The results show that the proposed algorithm can accelerate the convergence speed of DDPG, improve the generalization ability of the path planning model and improve the efficiency and success rate of mobile robot path planning.


Assuntos
Robótica , Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador , Memória de Longo Prazo , Políticas , Robótica/métodos
10.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 200: 115045, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35439535

RESUMO

Compounds with senolysis activity are discovered in recent years, featuring by their capacity to specifically eliminate senescent cells in vitro or in vivo. These compounds, referring to as Senolytics, provide a new method for aging counteraction and probably for geriatric disease amelioration. However, their clinical application is unpractical still, mainly because of the safety issue. In fact, the effective dose range even of the most potent senolytic cannot guarantee the safety requirements application for human being. Here, we report a study which investigated the combinational application of one potential senolytic molecule navitoclax, a Bcl-2 inhibitor with several mTOR inhibitors, to assess the influence of this combination on the senolytic outcome. Our results reveal that pan-mTOR inhibitors can reduce the dosage or timespan of navitoclax necessary for reaching IC50 and LT50 in senescent cells, also extend the lifespan of premature-aged Drosophila and mitigate the aging-related phenotype. Our results also confirmed that mTOR inhibitor sensitized senolytic cell death is apoptotic and pan-mTOR inhibitors PP242 and AZD8055 works more effectively than mTORC1 inhibitor Rapamycin. Mechanically, we verified the crucial role of mTORC2 inhibition contributes sensitization by increasing the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bim. In summary, this study firstly exposes the sensitization effect of pan-mTOR inhibitors on navitoclax-induced senolytic apoptosis, therefore providing novel evidence to show the advantage of drug combination on setting senotherapy. It also provides an intriguing clue to demonstrate the value of mTORC2 inhibition for apoptotic death of senescent cells.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina , Apoptose , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 2 de Rapamicina , Sulfonamidas
11.
Health Phys ; 122(6): 685-695, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383629

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Ultra-short, ultra-intense laser facilities could produce ultra-intense pulsed radiation fields. Currently, only passive detectors are fit for dose measurement in this circumstance. Since the laser device could generate a dose up to tens of mSv outside the chamber in tens of picoseconds, resulting in a high instantaneous dose rate of ~107 Sv s-1, it is necessary to perform real-time dose measurement to ensure the safety of nearby workers. Due to fast response and excellent radiation resistance, a diamond-based dose measurement device was designed and developed, and its dose-rate response and its feasibility for such occasions were characterized. The measurement results showed that the detector had a good dose-rate linearity in the range of 3.39 mGy h-1 to 10.58 Gy h-1 for an x-ray source with energy of 39 keV to 208 keV. No saturation phenomenon was observed, and the experimental results were consistent with the results obtained from Monte Carlo simulation. The charge collection efficiency was about 80%. Experimental measurements and simulations with this dose measurement device were carried out based on the "SG-II" laser device. The experimental and simulation results preliminarily verified the feasibility of using the diamond detector to measure the dose generated by ultra-short, ultra-intense laser devices. The results provided valuable information for the follow-up real-time dose measurement work of ultra-short, ultra-intense laser devices.


Assuntos
Diamante , Radiometria , Humanos , Lasers , Método de Monte Carlo , Radiometria/métodos , Raios X
12.
Mil Med Res ; 9(1): 14, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361280

RESUMO

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is highly prevalent among older men, impacting on their quality of life, sexual function, and genitourinary health, and has become an important global burden of disease. Transurethral plasmakinetic resection of prostate (TUPKP) is one of the foremost surgical procedures for the treatment of BPH. It has become well established in clinical practice with good efficacy and safety. In 2018, we issued the guideline "2018 Standard Edition". However much new direct evidence has now emerged and this may change some of previous recommendations. The time is ripe to develop new evidence-based guidelines, so we formed a working group of clinical experts and methodologists. The steering group members posed 31 questions relevant to the management of TUPKP for BPH covering the following areas: questions relevant to the perioperative period (preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative) of TUPKP in the treatment of BPH, postoperative complications and the level of surgeons' surgical skill. We searched the literature for direct evidence on the management of TUPKP for BPH, and assessed its certainty generated recommendations using the grade criteria by the European Association of Urology. Recommendations were either strong or weak, or in the form of an ungraded consensus-based statement. Finally, we issued 36 statements. Among them, 23 carried strong recommendations, and 13 carried weak recommendations for the stated procedure. They covered questions relevant to the aforementioned three areas. The preoperative period for TUPKP in the treatment of BPH included indications and contraindications for TUPKP, precautions for preoperative preparation in patients with renal impairment and urinary tract infection due to urinary retention, and preoperative prophylactic use of antibiotics. Questions relevant to the intraoperative period incorporated surgical operation techniques and prevention and management of bladder explosion. The application to different populations incorporating the efficacy and safety of TUPKP in the treatment of normal volume (< 80 ml) and large-volume (≥ 80 ml) BPH compared with transurethral urethral resection prostate, transurethral plasmakinetic enucleation of prostate and open prostatectomy; the efficacy and safety of TUPKP in high-risk populations and among people taking anticoagulant (antithrombotic) drugs. Questions relevant to the postoperative period incorporated the time and speed of flushing, the time indwelling catheters are needed, principles of postoperative therapeutic use of antibiotics, follow-up time and follow-up content. Questions related to complications incorporated types of complications and their incidence, postoperative leukocyturia, the treatment measures for the perforation and extravasation of the capsule, transurethral resection syndrome, postoperative bleeding, urinary catheter blockage, bladder spasm, overactive bladder, urinary incontinence, urethral stricture, rectal injury during surgery, postoperative erectile dysfunction and retrograde ejaculation. Final questions were related to surgeons' skills when performing TUPKP for the treatment of BPH. We hope these recommendations can help support healthcare workers caring for patients having TUPKP for the treatment of BPH.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Prostática , Ressecção Transuretral da Próstata , Estreitamento Uretral , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Próstata , Hiperplasia Prostática/cirurgia , Qualidade de Vida , Ressecção Transuretral da Próstata/efeitos adversos , Ressecção Transuretral da Próstata/métodos , Estreitamento Uretral/etiologia , Estreitamento Uretral/cirurgia
13.
Nat Neurosci ; 25(4): 515-529, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361973

RESUMO

Prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cognitive center that integrates and regulates global brain activity. However, the whole-brain organization of PFC axon projections remains poorly understood. Using single-neuron reconstruction of 6,357 mouse PFC projection neurons, we identified 64 projectome-defined subtypes. Each of four previously known major cortico-cortical subnetworks was targeted by a distinct group of PFC subtypes defined by their first-order axon collaterals. Further analysis unraveled topographic rules of soma distribution within PFC, first-order collateral branch point-dependent target selection and terminal arbor distribution-dependent target subdivision. Furthermore, we obtained a high-precision hierarchical map within PFC and three distinct functionally related PFC modules, each enriched with internal recurrent connectivity. Finally, we showed that each transcriptome subtype corresponds to multiple projectome subtypes found in different PFC subregions. Thus, whole-brain single-neuron projectome analysis reveals organization principles of axon projections within and outside PFC and provides the essential basis for elucidating neuronal connectivity underlying diverse PFC functions.


Assuntos
Neurônios , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Animais , Axônios , Encéfalo , Interneurônios , Camundongos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia
14.
Opt Express ; 30(9): 14839-14850, 2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35473219

RESUMO

Topological photonics offers the possibility of robust transport and efficiency enhancement of information processing. Terahertz (THz) devices, such as waveguides and beam splitters, are prone to reflection loss owing to their sensitivity to defects and lack of robustness against sharp corners. Thus, it is a challenge to reduce backscattering loss at THz frequencies. In this work, we constructed THz photonic topological insulators and experimentally demonstrated robust, topologically protected valley transport in THz photonic crystals. The THz valley photonic crystal (VPC) was composed of metallic cylinders situated in a triangular lattice. By tuning the relevant location of metallic cylinders in the unit cell, mirror symmetry was broken, and the degenerated states were lifted at the K and K' valleys in the band structure. Consequently, a bandgap of THz VPC was opened, and a nontrivial band structure was created. Based on the calculated band structure, THz field distributions, and valley Berry curvature, we verified the topological phase transition in such type of THz photonic crystals. Further, we showed the emergence of valley-polarized topological edge states between the topologically distinct VPCs. The angle-resolved transmittance measurements identified the bulk bandgap in the band structure of the VPC. The measured time-domain spectra demonstrated the topological transport of valley edge states between distinct VPCs and their robustness against bending and defects. Furthermore, experiments conducted on a topological multi-channel intersectional device revealed the valley-polarized characteristic of the topological edge states. This work provides a unique approach to reduce backscattering loss at the THz regime. It also demonstrates potential high-efficiency THz functional devices such as topologically protected beam splitters, low-loss waveguides, and robust delay lines.

15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(7)2022 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408230

RESUMO

In this study, a feature analysis and extraction method was proposed for specific emitter identification based on the signal generation mechanisms of radar transmitters. The generation of radar signals by radar transmitters was analyzed theoretically and experimentally. In the analysis, the main source of unintentional modulation in radar signals was identified, and the frequency stabilization of the solid-state frequency source, the nonlinear characteristics of the radio frequency amplifier chain, and the envelope of the pulse front edge were extracted as features for specific emitter identification. Subsequently, these characteristics were verified through simulation. The results revealed that the features extracted by this method exhibit "fingerprint characteristics" and can be used to identify specific radar emitters.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Radar , Simulação por Computador , Ondas de Rádio
17.
Genomics ; 114(3): 110360, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35378241

RESUMO

This research focused on novel molecular mechanisms underlying microRNA (miR)-182-5p in ulcerative colitis (UC). Colon tissues were obtained from UC patients, and dextrose sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced mouse and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß)-induced Caco-2 cell models were generated. Then, miR-182-5p, SMARCA5, and the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway were altered in IL-1ß-stimulated Caco-2 cells and DSS-treated mice to assess their function. MiR-182-5p and SMARCA5 were upregulated and DNMT3A, ß-catenin, and Cyclin D1 were downregulated in UC patients, IL-1ß-stimulated Caco-2 cells, and DSS-treated mice. Mechanistically, miR-182-5p targeted DNMT3A to upregulate SMARCA5, thus blocking the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. Moreover, SMARCA5 silencing or Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway activation repressed apoptosis and augmented proliferation and epithelial barrier function of IL-1ß-stimulated Caco-2 cells. SMARCA5 silencing annulled the impacts of miR-182-5p overexpression on IL-1ß-stimulated Caco-2 cells. SMARCA5 silencing or miR-182-5p inhibition ameliorated intestinal barrier dysfunction in DSS-treated mice. Collectively, miR-182-5p aggravates UC by inactivating the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway through DNMT3A-mediated SMARCA5 methylation.

18.
Water Res ; 217: 118449, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35429875

RESUMO

The up-concentration process has been demonstrated as an attractive approach to carbon-neutral wastewater treatment. Innovation in the separation processes can help eliminate the current heavy dependence on gravity, and credible pilot-scale verification is crucial for application promotion. We hereby proposed a pilot-scale enhanced magnetic separation (EMS) system as an up-concentration step to maximize energy recovery from municipal wastewater. The design of EMS was based on the hypothesis that magnetic-driven separation could be a breakthrough in separation speed, and adsorption could further enhance the separation efficiency by capturing soluble substances. Jar tests confirmed the feasibility of activated carbon adsorption, which could also roughen the surface of aggregates. Further, over one-year operation of a 300 m3/d EMS equipment provided optimum operation strategies and evidence of system effectiveness. More than 80% of particulate organics and 60% of soluble organics were removed within 10 min at an energy consumption of only 0.036 kWh/m3. The characteristics of sludge were clarified in terms of organic concentration, extracellular polymeric substances composition, and micro-community analysis. The anaerobic experiments further demonstrated the potential value of the concentrated products. Surprisingly, the developed EMS system exhibited significant advantages in time consumption and space occupation, with competitive operating cost and energy consumption. Overall, the results of this study posed the EMS process for up-concentration as a potential approach to organics recovery from municipal wastewater.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/análise
19.
Int J STD AIDS ; 33(6): 575-583, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35384775

RESUMO

Serology is the mainstay for syphilis treatment monitoring. Baseline rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titre, HIV status, and syphilis stage have been found to be associated with the time to serological response among syphilis patients. This study mainly aims to evaluate the time to serological response, and to identify factors affecting the serological outcome. Medical records of syphilis cases diagnosed in Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) between 2008 and 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to evaluate the median time to serologic response and cumulative probability of serologic response over time according to different variables. Cox regression model was conducted to find factors associated with serological response. There were 984 patients diagnosed with primary, secondary, or latent syphilis cases and receiving injections of benzathine penicillin G (BPG) as initial treatment at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) between 2008 and 2018. Finally, data on 571 patients, including 49 (8.6%) primary syphilis, 261 (45.7%) secondary syphilis, and 261 (45.7%) latent syphilis, were used for analysis. It took longer time to achieve serological response for subjects aged ≥45 years than younger individuals (89 days versus 58 days; p=0.008). Males achieved serological response more quickly than females (71 days versus 83 days; p = 0.011). There was a significant difference in the time to serological response according to different syphilis stages (p < 0.001), with 55 days (95% CI, 43-67 days) for primary, 57 days (95% CI, 51-63 days) for secondary, and 117 days for latent syphilis. In addition, patients with lower baseline RPR titre had longer period to achieve serological response (252 days [95% CI, 129-375 days] for RPR titre ≤1:8, 78 days [95% CI, 63-93 days] for RPR titres from 1:16 to 1:32, and 53 days [95% CI, 49-57 days] for RPR titres ≥1:64, respectively; p<0.001). However, no significant difference in time to serological response to treatment was found according to HIV coinfection status. The result of multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that being older than 45 years with latent syphilis, HIV coinfection, or with baseline RPR titre ≤1:8 was associated with slow response. Among patients followed for at least 1 year or seroreverted, 128 (36.9%) had seroreverted within a year, and 219 (63.1%) still had a positive RPR after 1 year. For multiple logistical regression, being female and HIV coinfection were significantly associated with the failure of seroreversion (OR, 0.42 [95% CI, 0.26-0.68]; p <0.001). This study revealed that younger age, higher initial RPR titre, early syphilis stage, and HIV-negative status were associated with faster serological cure. Female sex, individuals with HIV coinfection, and latent syphilis were significantly associated with the failure of seroreversion.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Sífilis Latente , Sífilis , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Penicilina G Benzatina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/tratamento farmacológico , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sorodiagnóstico da Sífilis , Sífilis Latente/tratamento farmacológico , Sífilis Latente/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Treponema pallidum
20.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 26, 2022 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35256001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) remains a major public health concern in China. Despite a growing body of research on transgender women worldwide, little is known about Chinese transgender women within MSM. We sought to estimate HIV incidence and distinguish risk factors of HIV acquisition among them from that among cisgener (non-transgender) MSM (cis-MSM). METHODS: We conducted an open cohort study among Chinese MSM, including those who were identified as transgender in Shanghai and Tianjin. Participants were initially recruited by local community-based organizations from January to June, 2016, and were followed up approximately every 6 months until June 2018. At each visit, a structured questionnaire was used to gather information on demographics, sexual risk behaviors, and HIV status. HIV incidence was calculated as the number of seroconversions divided by total number of person-years of follow-up among HIV-negatives at baseline. Risk factors of HIV acquisition were assessed by univariate and multivariate Cox regression models with time-dependent variables. RESULTS: A total of 1056 participants contributed 1260.53 person-years (PYs) of follow-up, 33 HIV seroconversions occurred during the follow-up period, yielding an estimated HIV incidence of 2.62 (95% CI 1.80-3.68) per 100 PYs. HIV incidence among transgender women was 4.42 per 100 PYs, which was significantly higher than that of 1.35 per 100 PYs among cis-MSM, demonstrating a threefold higher odds of HIV infection than cis-MSM. For transgender women, those lived locally ≤ 2 years (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.76, 95% CI 1.13-2.76) and unprotected anal sex last time (aHR = 4.22, 95% CI 1.82-9.79) were more likely to acquire HIV. For cis-MSM, factors associated with HIV acquisition were frequency of anal sex ≥ 3 times in past one month (aHR = 4.19, 95% CI 1.06-16.47) and unprotected anal sex last time (aHR = 5.33, 95% CI 1.52-18.73). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to cis-MSM, transgender women were at higher risk of HIV acquisition, highlighting an urgent need of tailored prevention. Future HIV program should consider to include them to ensure that this population in China are not left behind.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Pessoas Transgênero , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual
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