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2.
J Immunother ; 43(4): 139-144, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134806

RESUMO

Immunotherapy has exhibited promising but controversial results in gastric cancer; determining criteria for choosing the appropriate target population is still problematic. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) exhibits distinctive genomic aberrations and clinicopathologic features, the positive status of EBV is a potential biomarker. We prospectively recruited 9 patients who were diagnosed with stage-IV EBVaGC, and all of the patients were treated by immune-checkpoint inhibitors. The median age of the patients was 62 years old. The clinicopathologic characteristics demonstrated a male predominance and poor differentiation status of EBVaGC. Lymph nodes were demonstrated to represent the most common metastatic site. Immunochemistry and polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that all of the patients were proficient mismatch repair, and microsatellite instability-stable and programmed cell death-ligand 1 were detected in 7 patients. Three patients with positive programmed cell death-ligand 1 showed partial response, 5 patients showed stable disease, 1 patient without measurable lesion showed decreasing ascites and tumor marker level after immunotherapy. The longest duration of response was 18 months by the time of the last follow-up. EBVaGC exhibits distinctive clinicopathologic characteristics, and EBV-positive status may be a potential biomarker for gastric cancer immunotherapy.

3.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(10): 2337-2345, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086343

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with recurrent or metastatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) had a poor prognosis and few treatment options. Toripalimab, a humanized IgG4 antibody specific for human PD-1 receptor, was first approved to treat second-line metastatic melanoma in China in 2018. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The multiple-center phase Ib trial enrolled patients with NENs (Ki-67 ≥ 10%) after failure of first-line therapy received 3 mg/kg toripalimab once every two weeks. The primary objective was objective response rate (ORR) and safety. PD-L1 expression and whole-exome sequencing were performed on tumor biopsies. Secondary objectives included duration of response (DOR), disease control rate (DCR), and progression-free survival and overall survival. RESULTS: Of 40 patients included from April 2017 to December 2018, 8 partial responses and 6 stable diseases were observed, for a 20% ORR and a 35% DCR. The median DOR was 15.2 months. Patients with PD-L1 expression (≥10%) or high tumor mutational burden (TMB) had better ORR than PD-L1 <10% (50.0% vs. 10.7%, P = 0.019) and TMB-low patients (75.0% vs. 16.1%, P = 0.03). Three of 8 (37.5%) responders harbored ARID1A mutations, whereas only 1 of 27 nonresponders had mutations (P = 0.03). Of note, 1 exceptional responder with TMB-L, microsatellite stable (MSS), and PD-L1-negative had multiple genomic arrangements with high prediction score for neoantigens. CONCLUSIONS: Toripalimab had antitumor activity and safety in treating recurrent or metastatic NENs. Patients with positive PD-L1 expression, TMB-H (top 10%), and/or microsatellite instable (MSI-H) might preferentially benefit from the treatment. The genomic mutation of ARID1A and high genomic rearrangements might be correlated with clinical benefit.

4.
Clin Immunol ; 212: 108345, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biomarkers in non-colorectal gastrointestinal (GI) cancer patients receiving immune checkpoint blockades (ICBs) are still limited. METHODS: Data were prospectively collected from a discovery cohort (n = 53) and a validation cohort (n = 107) in patients with non-colorectal GI cancer receiving ICB, as well as a chemotherapy-only cohort (n = 171). System inflammatory markers and derived neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (dNLR) were determined as biomarkers by univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: A higher level of dNLR (cutoff = 3) was associated with shorter overall survival (OS) in discovery and validation cohorts. In pooled cohort, disease control rate (DCR) (28% vs. 48.1%) was associated with dNLR (p = .017). In univariate analysis, original tumor site, tumor histopathology, number of metastases, and dNLR were correlated with OS. In multivariate analysis, higher dNLR level was correlated with reduced OS (10.43 months vs. 4.20 months, p < .001). In chemotherapy-only cohort, dNLR was also correlated with DCR and OS. CONCLUSION: Higher dNLR level was correlated with worse outcomes, suggesting that dNLR may help risk-group stratification and assist disease management strategies as a prognostic biomarker for non-colorectal GI patients receiving ICB.

5.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 705, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) were approved to have a significant antitumor activity in various tumor types. In practice, some patients do not seem to benefit from ICIs but rather to have accelerating disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate hyperprogression in patients with malignant tumors of digestive system treated with ICIs. METHODS: Medical records from consecutive patients with malignant tumors of digestive system treated with ICIs in Peking University Cancer Hospital were retrospectively collected. Tumor growth kinetics (TGK) on immunotherapy and TGK pre-immunotherapy were collected and TGK ratio (TGKR) was calculated. Hyperprogression was defined as TGKR≥2. RESULTS: From August 2016 to May 2017, 25 evaluable patients were identified from 45 patients with malignant tumors of digestive system. Five patients were considered as having hyperprogression. Three of 5 were neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) and the other 2 were adenocarcinomas. Four of 5 were treated with programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitor, the other one was treated with PD-L1 inhibitor combined with cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) inhibitor. Pseudoprogression was observed in 2 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperprogression was observed in a fraction of patients with malignant tumors of digestive system treated with ICIs. Further investigation is urgently needed.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/terapia , Neoplasias do Sistema Digestório/terapia , Progressão da Doença , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Quimioterapia Combinada , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(7): e197621, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339548

RESUMO

Importance: There are a limited number of predictive biomarkers for hyperprogressive disease (HPD), which is induced by immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy. Objective: To evaluate the association of biomarkers in serum with the response to ICB therapy in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal tract cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cohort study in which patients with metastatic gastrointestinal tract cancer treated with ICB were enrolled at the Department of Gastrointestinal Oncology, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing, China, from August 1, 2015, to July 31, 2017, with the last follow-up date on January 1, 2018. Serum samples were collected at baseline and during the first visit to the clinic after starting treatment. Data analysis was conducted from January 16, 2018, to September 1, 2018. Exposures: A total of 59 factors, including cytokines/chemokines, growth factors, and soluble checkpoint-related proteins in serum, were examined by multiplexed bead immunoassays. Main Outcomes and Measures: Tree-based estimators were used to evaluate the importance of serum protein levels to ICB treatment response. Progression-free survival and overall survival analyses were conducted with the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Results: In total, 56 patients were examined. All patients with HPD (5 [8.9%]) had significantly lower mean (SD) levels of serum monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 than patients without HPD at baseline (53.4 [17.3] pg/mL vs 106.4 [48.4] pg/mL; P = .02). All patients with HPD were also identified by lower leukemia inhibitory factor levels (<13.28 pg/mL) and higher cluster of differentiation 152 levels (≥31.81 pg/mL). Among the remaining 51 patients, responders with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) or colorectal cancer (CRC) showed larger decreases in interleukin 1 receptor antagonist levels than nonresponders (ESCC: -55.02% [95% CI, -86.52% to -23.51%] vs 43.44% [95% CI, 11.93% to 74.96%]; P < .001; CRC: -35.82% [95% CI, -67.38% to -4.26%] vs 59.14% [95% CI, -72.34% to 190.6%]; P = .04). Responders with gastric cancer (GC) had larger increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels than nonresponders (44.77% [95% CI, 10.76% to 78.79%] vs -26.2% [95% CI, -58.53% to 6.12%]; P = .003). Furthermore, early decreases in serum interleukin 1 receptor antagonist in patients with metastatic ESCC and CRC were associated with longer progression-free survival (ESCC: not reached vs 2.1 months; hazard ratio, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.95; P = .04; CRC: not reached vs 2.1 months; hazard ratio, 0.06; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.38; P < .001). Early increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in patients with metastatic GC were associated with longer progression-free survival (not reached vs 4.2 months; hazard ratio, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.84; P = .03). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, baseline serum levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, leukemia inhibitory factor, and cluster of differentiation 152 were associated with hyperprogressive metastatic gastrointestinal cancer among patients receiving ICB. An early decrease in serum interleukin 1 receptor antagonist levels in patients with metastatic ESCC or CRC and an early increase in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in patients with metastatic GC were better able to identify who would respond to ICB compared with microsatellite stability status or programmed cell death ligand 1 expression.

7.
Clin Colorectal Cancer ; 18(3): 175-182, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Therapy targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, also known as ERBB2) is an effective approach for HER2-positive metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). HER2 status is typically determined using immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) enables noninvasive detection of gene mutations and copy number alterations including HER2 amplification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We screened 351 patients with mCRC and studied the clinicopathologic characteristics of HER2-positive mCRC. HER2 expression in tumor samples measured with immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization was compared with HER2 copy number variation in plasma ctDNA detected by targeted sequence capture covering exons of 170 genes. We also examined the correlation between changes in tumor burden in ctDNA and antitumor response by imaging evaluation during the treatment course. RESULTS: Positive HER2 status was observed in 12 (3.4%) patients (7 males and 5 females), with a median age of 56 years. The HER2 concordance rate between tumor samples and ctDNA was 66.7% (20/30). Changes in tumor burden in ctDNA during the treatment course correlated with responses on imaging. CONCLUSIONS: Detection of HER2 copy number variation in ctDNA may be an alternative option for noninvasive determination of HER2 status. Tumor burden changes in ctDNA were consistent with imaging evaluation.

8.
Cancer Med ; 8(10): 4766-4781, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the most abundant epigenetic modification on mRNAs and long non-coding RNAs, N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification extensively exists in mammalian cells. Controlled by writers (methyltransferases), readers (signal transducers), and erasers (demethylases), m6A influences mRNA structure, maturation, and stability, thus negatively regulating protein expression in a post-translational manner. Nevertheless, current understanding of m6A's roles in tumorigenesis, especially in gastric cancer (GC) remains to be unveiled. In this study, we assessed m6A's clinicopathological relevance to GC and explored the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: By referring to a proteomics-based GC cohort we previously generated and the TCGA-GC cohort, we merged expressions of canonical m6A writers (METTL3/METTL14), readers (YTHDF1/YTHDF2/YTHDF3), and erasers (ALKBH5/FTO), respectively, as W, R, and E signatures to represent m6A modification. We stratified patients according to these signatures to decipher m6A's associations with crucial mutations, prognosis, and clinical indexes. m6A's biological functions in GC were predicted by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and validated by in vitro experiments. RESULTS: We discovered that W and R were potential tumor suppressive signatures, while E was a potential oncogenic signature in GC. According to W/R/E stratifications, patients with low m6A-indications were accompanied with higher mutations of specific genes (CDH1, AR, GLI3, SETBP1, RHOA, MUC6, and TP53) and also demonstrated adverse clinical outcomes. GSEA suggested that reduced m6A was correlated with oncogenic signaling and phenotypes. Through in vitro experiments, we proved that m6A suppression (represented by METTL14 knockdown) promoted GC cell proliferation and invasiveness through activating Wnt and PI3K-Akt signaling, while m6A elevation (represented by FTO knockdown) reversed these phenotypical and molecular changes. m6A may also be involved in interferon signaling and immune responses of GC. CONCLUSIONS: Our work demonstrated that low-m6A signatures predicted adverse clinicopathological features of GC, while the reduction of RNA m6A methylation activated oncogenic Wnt/PI3K-Akt signaling and promoted malignant phenotypes of GC cells.

9.
Gastric Cancer ; 22(6): 1183-1192, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989433

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach (HAS) is characterized by histological resemblance to hepatocellular carcinoma and a poor prognosis. The aim of this study is to elucidate the clinicopathological and molecular characteristics of HAS. METHODS: Forty-two patients with HAS who received gastrectomy were enrolled in this study. Based on a panel of 483 cancer-related genes, targeted sequencing of 24 HAS and 22 clinical parameter-matched common gastric cancer (CGC) samples was performed. Prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were analysed with the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: The most frequently mutated gene in both HAS and CGC was TP53, with a mutation rate of 30%. Additionally, CEBPA, RPTOR, WISP3, MARK1, and CD3EAP were identified as genes with high-frequency mutations in HAS (10-20%). Copy number gains (CNGs) at 20q11.21-13.12 occurred frequently in HAS, nearly 50% of HAS tumours harboured at least one gene with a CNG at 20q11.21-13.12. This CNG tended to be related to more adverse biobehaviour, including poorer differentiation, greater vascular and nerve invasion, and greater liver metastasis. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that the HIF-1 signalling pathway and signalling pathways regulating stem cell pluripotency were specifically enriched in HAS. The survival analysis showed that a preoperative serum AFP level ≥ 500 ng/ml was significantly associated with poorer OS (p = 0.007) and tended to be associated with poorer DFS (p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: CNGs at 20q11.21-13.12 happened frequently in HAS and tended to be related to more adverse biobehaviour. The preoperative serum AFP level was a sensitive prognostic biomarker for DFS and OS.

10.
J Cancer ; 10(6): 1409-1416, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031851

RESUMO

The effect of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor targeted treatment in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is still unclear. We conducted a prospective phase II study of paclitaxel, cisplatin, and nimotuzumab (TPN) as a first-line treatment for unresectable or metastatic ESCC and the objective response rate was 51.8%. Here, we report the long-term follow-up results of the initial trial. Fifty-nine patients were enrolled from Mar 2011 to Apr 2013 and were treated with the TPN regimen. Palliative sequential radiotherapy was given if all tumor lesions were confined to 1-2 radiation fields. Fifty-six patients were eligible for evaluation. After a median follow-up of 32.2months, the median progression-free survival (PFS) and the overall survival (OS) time were 18.1±4.2 months (95% CI: 9.8-26.4) and 26.2±10.0 months (95% CI: 6.6-45.8), respectively, in 29 patients with unresectable local-regional disease, while they were 6.6±0.4 months (95% CI: 5.8-7.5) and 11.5±3.7 months (95% CI: 4.2-18.8), respectively, in 27 patients with metastatic disease. Patients who were male, those with multiple station lymph node metastases, those with visceral metastasis, those who did not response to TPN treatment, and those who did not receive radiotherapy, had a worse OS. In 6 patients with multiple station lymph node metastasis and in 3 patients with recurrent disease and oligo-metastasis (local lymph nodes), TPN with sequential radiation resulted in a mean OS of 17.67±9.50 months and a mean OS of over 40 months, respectively. In conclusion, TPN is effective as a first-line treatment for patients with unresectable and metastatic ESCC. In addition, TPN treatment with sequential radiation might improve survival in patients with limited or oligo lymph node metastases.

11.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 140, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autophagy, a process for degrading intracellular substances to maintain basal metabolic turnover, is known to be perturbed in gastric cancer. Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) with its ligand (PD-L1) are important immune checkpoint proteins and their regulation by autophagy has been reported in mouse melanoma and human ovarian cancer. Here, we explored the interplay between autophagy and the PD1/PD-L1 axis in gastric cancer. METHODS: The expression of PD-L1 in gastric cancer cells was detected by Western blot and flow cytometry analysis. The effect of autophagy inhibition on PD-L1 expression was examined in vitro and in vivo. The molecular mechanisms of the regulation of PD-L1 by autophagy were evaluated in gastric cancer cell lines. The clinical relevance of autophagy-related markers p62/SQSTM1 and LC3 with PD-L1 was evaluated in 137 patients with gastric cancer. RESULTS: We found that inhibition of autophagy by pharmacological inhibitors or small interfering RNAs increased the levels of PD-L1 in cultured gastric cancer cells and in xenografts. Interferon (IFN)-γ also promoted PD-L1 gene transcription, whose action was enhanced by autophagy inhibition. Mechanistically, autophagy inhibition led to the accumulation of p62/SQSTM1 and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, in which NF-κB inhibition or p62/SQSTM1 knockdown attenuated PD-L1 induction by autophagy inhibition. Immunohistochemical staining of primary tumor tissues of 137 patients with gastric cancer showed that LC3 and p62/SQSTM1 protein levels were positively correlated with PD-L1 (LC3, p < 0.001; p62/SQSTM1, p < 0.05). The expression of PD-L1 was also positively correlated with tumor lymphocyte infiltration (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We discovered that autophagy regulates PD-L1 expression in gastric cancer through the p62/SQSTM1-NF-κB pathway. Pharmacological modulation of autophagy may thus influence the therapeutic efficacy of PD-L1 blockade in gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Transplante de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo
13.
Chin J Cancer Res ; 30(5): 553-563, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510367

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the safety of ultrasound and microbubbles for enhancing the chemotherapeutic sensitivity of malignant tumors in the digestive system in a clinical trial, as well as its efficacy. Methods: From October 2014 to June 2016, twelve patients volunteered to participate in this study. Eleven patients had hepatic metastases from tumors of the digestive system, and one patient had pancreatic carcinoma. According to the mechanical index (MI) in the ultrasound field, patients were classified into four groups with MIs of 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0. Within half an hour after chemotherapy, patients underwent ultrasound scanning with ultrasound microbubbles (SonoVue) to enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy. All adverse reactions were recorded and were classified in 4 grades according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.03 (CTCAE V4.03). Tumor responses were evaluated by the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1 criteria. All the patients were followed up until progression. Results: All the adverse reactions recorded were level 1 or level 2. No local pain occurred in any of the patients. Among all the adverse reactions, fever might be related to the treatment with ultrasound combined with microbubbles. Six patients had stable disease (SD), and one patient had a partial response (PR) after the first cycle of treatment. At the end of follow-up, tumor progression was restricted to the original sites, and no new lesions had appeared. Conclusions: Our preliminary data showed the potential role of a combined treatment with ultrasound and microbubbles in enhancing the chemotherapeutic sensitivity of malignant tumors of the digestive system. This technique is safe when the MI is no greater than 1.0.

14.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 811, 2018 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30103713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the performance of quantitative indicators of MRI in early prediction of the response of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) to targeted therapy in a patient-based study. METHODS: MRI examinations were performed on 62 patients with GIST using 1.5 T scanners before and at two and 12 weeks after treatment with targeted agents. The longest diameter (LD) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the tumors were measured by T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was determined using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). The pre-therapy and early percentage changes (%Δ) of the three parameters were compared with regard to their abilities to differentiate responder and non- responder patients, using ROC curves. RESULTS: There were 42 patients in responder and 20 in non-responder group. After two weeks of therapy, the percentage changes in the ADC and LD were significantly different between the two groups (ADC: responder 30% vs. non- responder 1%, Z = - 4.819, P < 0.001; LD: responder - 7% vs. non- responder - 2%, Z = - 3.238, P = 0.001), but not in T2WI-CNR (responder - 3% vs. non-responder 9%, Z = - 0.663, P = 0.508). The AUCs on ROC for %ΔLD, %ΔT2WI-CNR and %ΔADC after two weeks of therapy were 0.756, 0.552 and 0.881, respectively, for response differentiation. When %ΔADC ≥15% was used to predict responder, the PPV was 93.3%. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage change of the ADC after two weeks of therapy outperformed T2WI-CNR and longest diameter in predicting the early response of GIST to targeted therapy.


Assuntos
Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/patologia , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/administração & dosagem , Mesilato de Imatinib/efeitos adversos , Indóis/administração & dosagem , Indóis/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pirróis/administração & dosagem , Pirróis/efeitos adversos , Sunitinibe , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(21): 5261-5271, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012565

RESUMO

Purpose: Previous human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-derived resistance studies were based on ex vivo models, which could not mirror evolutionary expression of HER2 during therapy. To investigate dynamic expression of HER2 and its contribution to developing therapeutic resistance conferred by chromosome aneuploidy, both the HER2 phenotype and chromosome 8 (Chr 8) aneuploidy on circulating tumor cells (CTC) were coexamined in advanced gastric cancer (AGC) patients.Experimental Design: A total of 115 AGC patients, including 56 of histopathologic HER2+ (hHER2+) subjects who received first-line HER2-targeted therapy plus chemotherapy, and 59 of hHER2- patients who received chemotherapy alone, were prospectively enrolled. Both HER2 phenotype and Chr8 aneuploidy of CTCs in patients were coexamined by HER2-iFISH during therapy.Results: A fluctuated positive HER2 phenotype on CTCs (cHER2+) was revealed, showing cHER2+ at different time intervals during treatment. Acquisition of the cHER2+ phenotype in 91.0% of hHER2+ and 76.2% hHER2- patients was demonstrated to correlate with development of resistance to trastuzumab-targeted therapy for hHER2+ patients and chemotherapy alone for hHER2- patients. Aneuploid Chr8 was demonstrated to participate in the acquisition of the cHER2+ phenotype, which provides a growth advantage to HER2+ CTCs against therapeutic pressure, leading to the development of therapeutic resistance.Conclusions: Compared with low positivity of conventional histopathologic hHER2 examination routinely performed once, significant higher positivity of cHER2+ on CTCs was observed. Continuously examining cHER2 shows unique advantages with respect to monitoring therapeutic resistance in real time in carcinoma patients. Moreover, contribution of chromosome aneuploidy to the phenotypic evolution of HER2 expression on CTCs may help elucidate underlying mechanisms of developing therapeutic resistance. Clin Cancer Res; 24(21); 5261-71. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Aneuploidia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8 , Citometria de Fluxo , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Trastuzumab/farmacologia , Trastuzumab/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Eur J Cancer ; 88: 92-100, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29207318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HER2 status is significant to trastuzumab therapy; however, it is difficult to determine HER2 status accurately with few pieces of biopsies from advanced gastric cancer (AGC) due to highly heterogeneity and invasive behaviour, which will be investigated in this study. METHODS: Fifty-six patients with AGC were included in this study. Primary tumour tissues and matched plasmas before medication from 36 patients were retrospectively collected, and the other 20 patients with primary tumour tissues and paired plasmas were prospectively collected. HER2 expression and amplification in 56 tumour tissues were determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and dual in situ hybridisation (DISH), and HER2 copy number in 135 circulating tumour DNAs (ctDNAs) was judged by next-generation sequencing. RESULTS: For tumour tissues, HER2 amplification by DISH was most commonly found in patients with HER2 score 3+by IHC. For plasmas, HER2 amplification defined as HER2 copy number >2.22 was identified in 26 of 56 patients. There was a high concordance of HER2 amplification between ctDNA and tumour tissues, suggesting that ctDNA could function as an alternative to screen HER2-targeted population. Moreover, the changes of HER2 copy number in ctDNA could efficiently monitor trastuzumab efficacy, the power of which was superior to commonly used markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA199, suggesting its potential role in clinical practice. CONCLUSION: ctDNA for HER2 analysis was strongly recommended to serve as a surrogate to screen trastuzumab-suitable population and monitor trastuzumab efficacy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , DNA Tumoral Circulante/genética , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Trastuzumab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , Feminino , Amplificação de Genes , Dosagem de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 20(11): 1293-1299, 2017 Nov 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29178102

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the correlation between serum human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 extracellular domain (HER2 ECD) and circulating tumor cells (CTC), as well as the dynamic variation of HER2 ECD and its correlation to the therapeutic efficacy. METHODS: Fifty-three advanced gastric cancer (AGC) patients who treated in Peking University Cancer Hospital and ever enrolled into CTC study (ClinicalTrial gov. ID: NCT01625702) were retrospectively included in this study. INCLUSION CRITERIA: the patients were histologically confirmed as locally advanced or recurrent and/or metastatic adencarcinoma; they received two or more cycles of fluorouracil-based chemotherapy or combination targeted therapy; serum CTC was counted before and after therapy; the clinical response was evaluated every 2 cycles of treatment by the presence of at least one measurable lesion according to RECIST version 1.1 criteria. This study was approved by Ethics Committee of Peking University Cancer Hospital, and informed consents were signed by patients. The sera before and after two cycles of treatment were collected for CTC enumeration and HER2 ECD detection, in which the levels of HER2 ECD were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassays method. The positive threshold value of HER2 ECD and CTC number were ≥15 µg/L and ≥3 CTCs/7.5 ml respectively. The progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared among different groups using Log-rank tests. RESULTS: In 53 enrolled patients, 39 were histologically identified as negative HER2, 9 as positive HER2 and another 5 cases were unknown. All the patients received fluorouracil-based chemotherapy, and 9 positive HER2 patients received combined anti-HER2 targeted therapy. Before therapy, the median HER2 ECD concentration of 53 cases was 10.45 (8.0 to 83.2) µg/L. Seven patients exhibited positive HER2 ECD levels, in whom 4 were histologically HER2 positive, but 3 were histologically HER2 negative. The median CTC number of 53 cases was 2 (0 to 668) CTCs/7.5 ml, and the positive rate of CTC was 47.2%(25/53). Following 2 cycles of therapy, a total of 10 histologically HER2 negative patients exhibited positive HER2 ECD levels, in whom 2 also possessed positive HER2 ECD levels, 83.3 µg/L and 46.9 µg/L before therapy, and 22.4 µg/L and 20.4 µg/L after therapy respectively, whereas another 8 patients (10.3 to 14.5 µg/L before therapy) acquired the elevated expression of HER2 ECD following therapy (15.1 to 19.5 µg/L). It seems that the increased level of HER2 ECD after therapy was, though not statistically significant, correlated to low number of CTCs. In histologically HER2 negative patients, pretherapeutic HER2 ECD level (positive vs. negative) was not significantly correlated to PFS (7.6 months vs. 4.4 months, P=0.328) and OS (13.6 months vs. 10.9 months, P=0.679). However, in histologically HER2 positive patients, patients with positive HER2 ECD level before therapy exhibited longer PFS (10.7 months vs. 4.2 months, P=0.025) and OS (16.5 months vs. 8.9 months, P=0.015) compared to those with negative HER2 ECD level. Additionally, CTC number was significantly correlated to prognosis in histologically HER2 negative patients. Patients with positive pretherapeutic CTC number showed longer PFS (5.3 months vs. 3.3 months, P=0.049) and OS (14.3 months vs. 7.6 months, P=0.001) as well. While in histologically HER2 positive patients, CTC number was not obviously correlated to the PFS and OS. In above 8 negative HER2 patients acquiring elevated expression of HER2 ECD following therapy, the increased HER2 ECD level was not correlated to PFS and OS (all P>0.05). In 9 histologically HER2 positive patients, 4 patients who exhibited decreased HER2 ECD level and reduced or constant CTC number had longer PFS (7.5 to 15.3 months) and OS (11.0 to 26.3 months) compared with those 2 patients who suffered from acquired HER2 ECD level following therapy (PFS 3.0 to 4.8 months and OS 7.3 to 8.6 months). CONCLUSIONS: In histologically HER2 positive patients, increased pretherapeutic HER2 ECD level predicts better prognosis. The acquired elevated HER2 ECD level following therapy is correlated to inefficient therapeutic response. The acquirement of elevated HER2 ECD level can also be found in histologically HER2 negative patients, which may be correlated to the corresponding variation of CTC number.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes , Receptor ErbB-2/sangue , Neoplasias Gástricas/terapia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Prognóstico , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/sangue
18.
Chin J Cancer ; 36(1): 81, 2017 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29037218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognostic role of the V600E mutation of v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is well established, but the therapeutic regimen targeting this disease is lacking. This study aimed to analyze the clinicopathologic features of and treatment efficacy of commonly used regimens on BRAF-mutated mCRCs. METHODS: We collected and reviewed the medical records of mCRC patients treated at Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute (Beijing, China) between July 2011 and July 2016. Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS), neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog (NRAS), and BRAF mutational status was assayed using direct sequencing. The details of clinicopathologic characteristics of patients and their responses to FOLFOXIRI regimen or standard therapy were obtained by reviewing the medical records. The progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis and compared using the log-rank test. RESULTS: Of 1694 patients studied, 75 had BRAF exon 15 mutations. Of these 75 patients, 71 had V600E mutation, 1 had D594G mutation, 2 had K601E mutation, and 1 had a novel T599_V600insAGA alteration. No patients had KRAS or NRAS mutations. Of 63 patients with BRAF V600E-mutated mCRC and sufficient clinical data, 27 (42.9%) had right-sided colon tumors, 19 (30.2%) had left-sided colon tumors, and 17 (26.9%) had rectal tumors; 26 (41.3%) had peritoneal metastases, and 50 (79.4%) had distant lymph node metastases. The patients with BRAF K601E- and T599_V600insAGA-mutated tumors had similar clinicopathologic features to those with BRAF V600E-mutated tumors. Patients with the BRAF V600E mutation benefited more from FOLFOXIRI regimen compared with patients who underwent standard therapy (overall response rate 83.3% vs. 14.0%; median PFS 6.4 months vs. 2.8 months, P = 0.220; median OS 11.0 months vs. 6.9 months, P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS: BRAF V600E mutations were commonly identified in right-sided tumors and showed a high incidence of peritoneal and distant lymph nodes metastases. This subtype of mCRC was characterized by short OS and unique patterns of metastasis. Compared with standard treatment regimens, the FOLFOXIRI regimen had acceptable and manageable toxicities and favorable efficacy on patients with BRAF-mutated mCRC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Camptotecina/efeitos adversos , Camptotecina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Genes ras/genética , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Compostos Organoplatínicos/efeitos adversos , Compostos Organoplatínicos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Future Oncol ; 13(23): 2035-2043, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28685593

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the efficacy of second-line sunitinib therapy in gastrointestinal stromal tumor patients with different exon 11 mutation genotypes. PATIENTS & METHODS: Thirty eight of the 75 patients received imatinib (IM) dose escalation followed by sunitinib (IM escalation group), while 37 were switched to sunitinib directly after the failure of first-line IM treatment (sunitinib group). Progression-free survival and overall survival were compared. RESULTS: The median progression-free survival in the sunitinib group was significantly longer than in the IM escalation group (14 vs 4 months; p < 0.001), so was in patients with exon 11 deletions (16 vs 3 months; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Patients who have an exon 11 deletion mutation are more likely to benefit from switching to sunitinib directly than from IM dose escalation.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Éxons , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/genética , Genótipo , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Mutação , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Angiogênese/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Terapia Combinada , Progressão da Doença , Substituição de Medicamentos , Feminino , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/mortalidade , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/patologia , Humanos , Indóis/administração & dosagem , Indóis/efeitos adversos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Prognóstico , Pirróis/administração & dosagem , Pirróis/efeitos adversos , Sunitinibe , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Oncotarget ; 8(15): 25669-25678, 2017 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27788498

RESUMO

There have been very few prospective studies of first-line chemotherapy on advanced gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma (GEP-NEC). This phase II study assessed the activity and safety of irinotecan plus cisplatin (IP) followed by octreotide long-acting release (LAR) maintenance treatment in advanced GEP-NEC. Forty patients were treated and eighteen patients (45.0%) had a partial response. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 5.7 months and 12.9 months, respectively. Because GEP-NECs are heterogeneous, a subgroup analysis was conducted by dividing all patients into a high proliferation neuroendocrine tumor (NET) group (well differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms with a Ki-67 level between 20-60%) or a poorly differentiated NEC (PDNEC) group. Compared with the PDNEC group, the patients in high proliferation NET group had a lower response rate (0% versus 51.4%) but longer PFS (8.9 versus 5.7 months) and received more octreotide LAR treatment (median cycles, 7 versus 3). The most common toxicities included grade 3/4 leukopenia/neutropenia (60%), nausea/vomiting (17.5%) and diarrhea (12.5%). Therefore, IP is an active regimen in patients with advanced GEP-PDNEC and should probably not be given to patients with advanced high proliferative NET. The benefit of octreotide LAR maintenance therapy on high proliferation NETs requires further study.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/tratamento farmacológico , Octreotida/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores , Camptotecina/administração & dosagem , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução , Neoplasias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Intestinais/mortalidade , Irinotecano , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/diagnóstico , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/mortalidade , Octreotida/administração & dosagem , Octreotida/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
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