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1.
Pharm Biol ; 57(1): 555-563, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446815

RESUMO

Context: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is often used to induce immunoinflammatory reactions. TLR4/NFκB and NLRP3 signalling are major factors for inflammation. Dexamethasone (DXM) has an anti-immunoinflammatory effect. Objective: To investigate the inflammatory reaction in pathological changes of organs and the expression of inflammatory signalling during LPS infection. Materials and methods: ICR mice were divided into control group (n = 9), LPS group (n = 15) and LPS + DXM group (n = 14). LPS (10 mg/kg) was injected intravenously in LPS group and LPS + DXM group, normal saline was injected to the control group; DXM (0.5 mg/kg) was given by intragastric administration. 12 h after LPS, the blood was collected and the organs were isolated for biochemical analysis, protein expression, and morphological examination. Results: The results showed that BUN, Cre, ALT, AST in the LPS group increased distinctly by 81.42, 67.84, 40.53 and 36.05%, respectively, and CK, ALP, TP and ALB decreased by 71.37, 60.6, 12.57 and 19.73%, respectively, compared with the control group. In the morphologic observation, local necrosis in the liver, arterial vasodilation in the heart and kidney, alveolar secretions and pulmonary interstitial in the lungs, and mucosal shedding in the small and large intestines, the expression of TLR4-NFκB signalling were up-regulated distinctly whereas NLRP3 signalling was less broadly affected. DXM can decrease BUN and Cre, downregulate the expression of TLR4-NFκB signalling, but has no effect on the organ damage based on morphology. Conclusion: Acute injuries induced by LPS are extensive. The inflammatory damage in small and large intestines, liver and kidney was more severe than other organs. TLR4-NFκB signalling was the major response to LPS stress.

2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(5): 996-1003, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989861

RESUMO

In this study,in-depth systematic evaluation of rat of acute kidney injury(AKI) caused by renal arteriovenous ligation was conducted to better master and apply this model for drug research. Male SD rats of 2-3 months old were employed in this study.The left kidney was removed,and the right kidney received ligation for 40 min and reperfusion for 24 h. Serum creatinine(Crea),urea nitrogen(BUN) and the renal tissue sections were assayed as the basic indicators to evaluate their renal function. The mRNA expression of inflammatory necrosis factors and apoptotic factors was used to evaluate the mechanism of molecular pathophysiological changes. The results showed that the serum Crea and BUN caused by ligation of both renal arteries and veins were significantly higher than those of rats with renal artery ligation. After renal arteriovenous ligation for 40 min and reperfusion for 24 h in rats,the serum Crea of the rats varied from less than 100 µmol·L-1 to more than 430 µmol·L-1. Among them,5 rats showed less than 100 µmol·L-1 serum Crea,20 rats with 100-200 µmol·L-1 serum Crea and 12 rats with more than 430 µmol·L-1. Rats with serum Crea between 300-430 µmol·L-1 accounted for 66.3%(122/184) of the total number of the experiment rats. After 72 h reperfusion,serum Crea in the group of Crea 370-430 µmol·L-1 continued to increase,while the serum Crea in the group of Crea 200-300 µmol·L-1 and the group of Crea 300-370 µmol·L-1 recovered quickly. No matter serum Crea was elevated or decreased,the renal tubules showed pathological changes such as vacuolar degeneration or even necrosis. The mRNA expression levels of Toll-like receptor(TLR4),tumor necrosis factor(TNF-α) and interleukin(IL-6) in renal tissueswere significantly up-regulated,and the effect was most obvious in the group of serum Crea 370-430 µmol·L-1. The study indicated that the model for AKI caused by renal arteriovenous ligation and reperfusion is easy to operate,and the serum Crea and BUN have the characteristics of continuous increase,beneficial to the observation of drug effects. This acute kidney injury is mainly related to the pathophysiological response of inflammatory necrosis.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Creatinina/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Rim/patologia , Túbulos Renais/patologia , Ligadura , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Artéria Renal
3.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(3): 941-950, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912387

RESUMO

The accumulation of heavy metals in soil has serious influence on plant growth and ecosystem balance. It is of great importance to explore the mechanism of plant tolerance to heavy me-tals. Although spinach is supposed to have strong Cu tolerance, the effects of Cu on mineral element absorption and cell ultrastructure are still unclear. In this study, the growth of spinach seedlings, the absorption of mineral elements and the ultrastructure of leaf cells were examined in a pot experiment. The results showed that Cu2+ accumulation in the root of spinach seedling was less than that in the shoot when CuSO4 concentration was 100 mg·L-1, with root growth being increased and shoot growth being slightly decreased. When copper concentration continued to increase, the growth parameters continuously declined. When the CuSO4 concentrations were less than 400 mg·L-1, the foliar N, K, Ca, Mg and Fe concentrations of spinach seedling increased, and that of P decreased. The concentrations of N, P and K in roots went down and that of Ca, Mg and Fe went up. All organelles in leaf cells were clearly visible. The basal granule layer was arranged orderly, and the inner and outer membranes of chloroplasts were intact. When the CuSO4 concentrations exceeded 600 mg·L-1, foliar N concentration increased while that of P, K, Ca, Mg and Fe decreased. The concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Fe in roots declined. The cell ultrastructure of spinach seedlings substantially changed with the increases of CuSO4 treated concentrations. The chloroplast in leaf cells became rounder, the chloroplast membrane became thinner, the stroma and basal granule layer became less, and the layer accumulation height decreased. The nucleus was broken up and small black spots were found in vacuoles and cell walls, which might be attributed to the enhancement of intracellular swelling pressure caused by high accumulation of Cu2+. In conclusion, low concentration of CuSO4 had little negative effect on the life activities of spinach seedlings, and the high concentrations of CuSO4 did not terminate their growth, indicating that spinach seedlings had strong copper resistance.


Assuntos
Plântula , Spinacia oleracea , Cobre , Minerais , Nutrientes , Raízes de Plantas
4.
Mol Med Rep ; 19(4): 2537-2550, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30720084

RESUMO

Earthworms are useful indicator organisms of soil health and Eisenia fetida have been extensively used as test organisms in ecotoxicological studies. In order to gain insight into the gene expression profiles associated with physiological functions of earthworms, a full­length enriched cDNA library of the Eisenia fetida genome was successfully constructed using Switching Mechanism at 5'End of RNA Template technology. Construction of a cDNA library and analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) are efficient approaches for collecting genomic information and identifying genes important for a given biological process. Furthermore, analysis of the expression abundance of ESTs was performed with the aim of providing genetic and transcriptomic information on the development and regenerative process of earthworms. Phrep and Crossmatch were used to process EST data and a total of 1,140 high­quality EST sequences were determined by sequencing random cDNA clones from the library. Clustering analysis of sequences revealed a total of 593 unique sequences including 225 contiguous and 368 singleton sequences. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool analysis against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database resulted in 593 significant hits (P­value <1x10­8), of which 168 were annotated through Gene Ontology analysis. The STRING database was used to determine relationships among the 168 ESTs, identifying associated genes involved in protein­protein interactions and gene expression regulation. Based on nucleic acid and protein sequence homology, the mutual relationships between 287 genes could be obtained, which identified a portion of the ESTs as known genes. The present study reports on the construction of a high­quality cDNA library representative of adult earthworms, on a preliminary analysis of ESTs and on a putative functional analysis of ESTs. The present study is expected to enhance our understanding of the molecular basis underlying the biological development of earthworms.


Assuntos
Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Biblioteca Gênica , Oligoquetos/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Animais , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Ontologia Genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 171: 771-780, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660970

RESUMO

Examination of plants with strong Cu tolerance and an understanding of their Cu-tolerance mechanisms are of considerable significance for the remediation of Cu-contaminated soil. Although spinach may be a plant with strong Cu tolerance, the threshold of Cu tolerance in this plant and its physiological response mechanisms to Cu are still unclear. In this study, we examined that the effects of different Cu concentrations on the growth parameters, antioxidant enzyme activities, and photosynthesis of spinach seedlings. The results showed that when treated with a low Cu concentration (100 mg L-1 CuSO4), the biomass of spinach seedlings increased, whereas the MDA content, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, Pn, gs and Tr were not significantly different from those in the control (P > 0.05), and Y(II), qP reached their maximum values, indicating that a low Cu concentration (100 mg L-1 CuSO4) had minimal negative effects on the life activities of spinach seedlings. In contrast, when treated with high Cu concentrations (800-1000 mg L-1 CuSO4), the total biomass of spinach seedlings was markedly decreased, the MDA contents increased, antioxidant enzyme activities initially increased and then decreased to varying degrees, the contents of chlorophyll, Pn, Tr, Fv/Fm, qP, NPQ, and Y(II) were all decreased. However the growth of spinach did not terminate, implying that the lethal threshold concentration of Cu for spinach is greater than 1000 mg L-1 CuSO4 used in this study. In summary, spinach exhibits a high tolerance to Cu and can be considered as an alternative plant for the remediation of Cu-contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Cobre/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Spinacia oleracea/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/fisiologia , Spinacia oleracea/fisiologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
6.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4993, 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478312

RESUMO

Signals arising from bacterial infections are detected by pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) and are transduced by specialized adapter proteins in mammalian cells. The Receptor-interacting-serine/threonine-protein kinase 2 (RIPK2 or RIP2) is such an adapter protein that is critical for signal propagation of the Nucleotide-binding-oligomerization-domain-containing proteins 1/2 (NOD1 and NOD2). Dysregulation of this signaling pathway leads to defects in bacterial detection and in some cases autoimmune diseases. Here, we show that the Caspase-activation-and-recruitment-domain (CARD) of RIP2 (RIP2-CARD) forms oligomeric structures upon stimulation by either NOD1-CARD or NOD2-2CARD. We reconstitute this complex, termed the RIPosome in vitro and solve the cryo-EM filament structure of the active RIP2-CARD complex at 4.1 Å resolution. The structure suggests potential mechanisms by which CARD domains from NOD1 and NOD2 initiate the oligomerization process of RIP2-CARD. Together with structure guided mutagenesis experiments at the CARD-CARD interfaces, we demonstrate molecular mechanisms how RIP2 is activated and self-propagating such signal.

7.
J Pain Res ; 11: 763-769, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29695928

RESUMO

Background: Previous studies suggested that single-nucleotide polymorphisms in dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) are the susceptibility loci for migraine. This study was aimed at evaluating the contribution of DRD2 rs1800497 and its expression to migraine risk in Han Chinese subjects. Methods: In total, 250 patients with migraine and 250 age- and sex-matched control subjects were included in this study. TaqMan allelic discrimination assay was used for DRD2 rs1800497 genotyping. Plasma DRD2 concentration was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Significant associations were observed for the rs1800497 genotype (c2=6.37, p=0.041) and allele (c2=4.69, p=0.03; odds ratio [OR]=1.33, 95% CI=1.03-1.72, power=58%) frequencies between the migraine and control groups. Sex analysis indicated a positive association for rs1800497 between female patients with migraine and control individuals (genotype: c2=7.84, p=0.019; allele: c2=6.60, p=0.010; OR=1.61, 95% CI=1.12-2.30, power=73.4%). Furthermore, a significant association was observed only in female patients with migraine without aura (MO) (genotype: c2=6.88, p=0.032; allele: c2=5.65, p=0.017; OR=1.59, 95% CI=1.08-2.36, power=65.1%). The mean plasma DRD2 levels in the control group (mean±SD: 24.20±2.78) were significantly lower than those in the migraine with aura (MA) (30.86±3.69, p<0.0001) and MO groups (31.88±4.99, p<0.0001). Additionally, there was a sex-based difference in DRD2 expression in the MA (male vs female: 29.46±3.59 vs 32.27±3.27, p<0.01) and MO groups (male vs female: 29.18±3.50 vs 34.58±4.84, p<0.0001). Moreover, plasma DRD2 levels in patients were significantly different among the three genotypes (CC vs CT vs TT: 24.76±3.76 vs 30.93±3.85 vs 37.06±3.95, p<0.0001). Similar results were observed both in the MA (CC vs CT vs TT: 25.09±3.84 vs 28.57±2.84 vs 33.37±1.58, p<0.0001) and MO groups (CC vs CT vs TT: 24.65±3.79 vs 31.65±3.86 vs 38.29±3.74, p<0.0001). Conclusion: Our case-control study suggested that the DRD2 polymorphism rs1800497 was significantly associated with the risk of migraine in Han Chinese females. Additionally, the plasma DRD2 level was high in patients with migraine. Females with migraine had considerably higher DRD2 levels than males with migraine. DRD2 expression may be regulated by DRD2 rs1800497 genotype in patients with migraine.

8.
Neuroscience ; 373: 60-71, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29337239

RESUMO

Since sound perception takes place against a background with a certain amount of noise, both speech and non-speech processing involve extraction of target signals and suppression of background noise. Previous works on early processing of speech phonemes largely neglected how background noise is encoded and suppressed. This study aimed to fill in this gap. We adopted an oddball paradigm where speech (vowels) or non-speech stimuli (complex tones) were presented with or without a background of amplitude-modulated noise and analyzed cortical responses related to foreground stimulus processing, including mismatch negativity (MMN), N2b, and P300, as well as neural representations of the background noise, that is, auditory steady-state response (ASSR). We found that speech deviants elicited later and weaker MMN, later N2b, and later P300 than non-speech ones, but N2b and P300 had similar strength, suggesting more complex processing of certain acoustic features in speech. Only for vowels, background noise enhanced N2b strength relative to silence, suggesting an attention-related speech-specific process to improve perception of foreground targets. In addition, noise suppression in speech contexts, quantified by ASSR amplitude reduction after stimulus onset, was lateralized towards the left hemisphere. The left-lateralized suppression following N2b was associated with the N2b enhancement in noise for speech, indicating that foreground processing may interact with background suppression, particularly during speech processing. Together, our findings indicate that the differences between perception of speech and non-speech sounds involve not only the processing of target information in the foreground but also the suppression of irrelevant aspects in the background.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Fonética , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Reconhecimento Fisiológico de Modelo/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; : 1-8, 2018 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29327607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurotoxicity induced by the local anaesthetics has aroused concern. A previous study has shown that an overload of intracellular calcium was involved in the neurotoxic effect. Cav3.1 is one of the low-voltage-activated (LVA) calcium channels which play a key point to regulate the intracellular calcium ion level. This study aimed to investigate the changes of the Cav3.1 expression in the SH-SY5Y cells treated with lidocaine hydrochloride. METHODS: The SH-SY5Y cells were treated with different concentrations of lidocaine hydrochloride(1 mM, 5 mM and 10 mM, namely L1 group, L5 group and L10 group) and different exposure times (1 h,12 h and 24 h), respectively. Cell viability, Cav3.1 protein and mRNA expression were detected. RESULTS: The results showed that cell viability decreased and Cav3.1 mRNA and protein expression increased with the concentration (from 1 mM to 10 mM) of the lidocaine hydrochloride and exposure time (from 1 h to 24 h) to the SH-SY5Y cell line increased. CONCLUSION: Those data showed that lidocaine hydrochloride induced SH-SY5Y cell toxicity and up-regulated Cav3.1mRNA and protein expression.

10.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 180: 79-87, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28918225

RESUMO

The aim of the current study is to provide new insights into the relationship between executive functions and intelligence measures in considering the item-position effect observed in intelligence items. Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) and Horn's LPS reasoning test were used to assess fluid intelligence which served as criterion in investigating the relationship between intelligence and executive functions. A battery of six experimental tasks measured the updating, shifting, and inhibition processes of executive functions. Data were collected from 205 university students. Fluid intelligence showed substantial correlations with the updating and inhibition processes and no correlation with the shifting process without considering the item-position effect. Next, the fixed-link model was applied to APM and LPS data separately to decompose them into an ability component and an item-position component. The results of relating the components to executive functions showed that the updating and shifting processes mainly contributed to the item-position component whereas the inhibition process was mainly associated with the ability component of each fluid intelligence test. These findings suggest that improvements in the efficiency of updating and shifting processes are likely to occur during the course of completing intelligence measures and inhibition is important for intelligence in general.


Assuntos
Função Executiva/fisiologia , Inteligência/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Resolução de Problemas/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Inibição (Psicologia) , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 12(5): e0178385, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28562624

RESUMO

A promising approach for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) employs the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) for extracting control information. Main advantages of these SSVEP BCIs are a simple and low-cost setup, little effort to adjust the system parameters to the user and comparatively high information transfer rates (ITR). However, traditional frequency-coded SSVEP BCIs require the user to gaze directly at the selected flicker stimulus, which is liable to cause fatigue or even photic epileptic seizures. The spatially coded SSVEP BCI we present in this article addresses this issue. It uses a single flicker stimulus that appears always in the extrafoveal field of view, yet it allows the user to control four control channels. We demonstrate the embedding of this novel SSVEP stimulation paradigm in the user interface of an online BCI for navigating a 2-dimensional computer game. Offline analysis of the training data reveals an average classification accuracy of 96.9±1.64%, corresponding to an information transfer rate of 30.1±1.8 bits/min. In online mode, the average classification accuracy reached 87.9±11.4%, which resulted in an ITR of 23.8±6.75 bits/min. We did not observe a strong relation between a subject's offline and online performance. Analysis of the online performance over time shows that users can reliably control the new BCI paradigm with stable performance over at least 30 minutes of continuous operation.


Assuntos
Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Navegação Espacial , Adulto , Feminino , Fusão Flicker , Humanos , Masculino , Jogos de Vídeo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Neuroreport ; 28(13): 775-778, 2017 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28538522

RESUMO

The medial olivocochlear (MOC) bundle is an auditory nucleus that projects efferent nerve fibers to the outer hair cells (OHCs) for synaptic innervation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible existence of frequency and ear specificity in MOC efferent modulation, as well as how MOC activation influences cochlear tuning. Stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) were used to study MOC efferent modulation. Therefore, the current experiment was designed to compare the degree of SFOAE suppression in the both ears of 20 individuals at 1, 2, 4, and 8 kHz. We also compared changes in Q10 values of SFOAE suppression tuning curves at 1, 2, and 4 kHz under contralateral acoustic stimulation (CAS) and no-CAS conditions. We observed a significant reduction in SFOAE magnitude in the CAS condition compared with the no-CAS condition at 1 and 2 kHz in the left ear. A significant difference in CAS suppression was also found between the left and right ears at 1 and 2 kHz, with larger CAS suppression in the left ear. CAS further produced a statistically significant increase in the Q10 value at 1 kHz and a significant reduction in Q10 values at 2 and 4 kHz. These findings suggest a left-ear advantage in terms of CAS-induced MOC efferent SFOAE suppression, with larger MOC efferent modulation for lower frequencies, and cochlear tuning was sharpened by means of MOC activation at lower frequencies and broadened at higher frequencies.


Assuntos
Vias Auditivas/fisiologia , Cóclea/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Núcleo Olivar/fisiologia , Emissões Otoacústicas Espontâneas/fisiologia , Adulto , Limiar Auditivo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicoacústica , Adulto Jovem
13.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 52: 121-128, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28411582

RESUMO

Recent studies have demonstrated that propofol causes neurodegeneration in developing brains. Evidence has shown that dexmedetomidine has neuroprotective effects. However, whether dexmedetomidine can reduce propofol-induced neuroapoptosis and by what mechanisms it acts remain unclear. We investigated whether dexmedetomidine can attenuate propofol-induced neuroapoptosis by disturbing the PI3K/Akt/GSK3ß pathway during brain development. Seven-day-old rats were randomly exposed to 100mg/kg propofol and 100mg/kg propofol plus different doses of dexmedetomidine or 100mg/kg propofol and 75µg/kg dexmedetomidine plus PI3K inhibitor LY294002 or GSK3ß inhibitor TDZD-8. TEM and TUNEL were used to detect neuronal structure changes and apoptosis. The expression of phospho-Akt, phospho-GSK3ß, Akt and GSK3ß were quantified using western blots and immunofluorescence. Pretreatment with different doses of dexmedetomidine protected against propofol-induced neuroapoptosis. Furthermore, propofol decreased the levels of phospho-Akt and phospho-GSK3ß, whereas dexmedetomidine partially reversed this inhibition. In addition, treatment with LY294002 inhibited the neuroprotection of dexmedetomidine, whereas TDZD-8 enhanced neuroprotection. Our results indicate that dexmedetomidine prevents propofol-induced neuroapoptosis by increasing the levels of phospho-Akt and phospho-GSK3ß.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Intravenosos/toxicidade , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Propofol/toxicidade , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromonas/farmacologia , Feminino , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Masculino , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/patologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia
14.
Hear Res ; 344: 255-264, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27956352

RESUMO

Subcortical phase locking tends to reflect performance differences in tasks related to pitch perception across different types of populations. Enhancement or attenuation in its strength may correspond to population excellence or deficiency in pitch perception. However, it is still unclear whether differences in perceptual capability among individuals with normal hearing can be predicted by subcortical phase locking. In this study, we examined the brain-behavior relationship between frequency-following responses (FFRs) evoked by pure/sweeping tones and frequency difference limens (FDLs). FFRs are considered to reflect subcortical phase locking, and FDLs are a psychophysical measure of behavioral performance in pitch discrimination. Traditional measures of FFR strength were found to be poorly correlated with FDL. Here, we introduced principal component analysis into FFR analysis and extracted an FFR component that was correlated with individual pitch discrimination. The absolute value of the score of this FFR principal component (but not the original score) was negatively correlated with FDL, regardless of stimulus type. The topographic distribution of this component was relatively constant across individuals and across stimulus types, and the inferior colliculus was identified as its origin. The findings suggest that subcortical phase locking at certain but not all FFR generators carries the neural information required for the prediction of individual pitch perception among humans with normal hearing.


Assuntos
Vias Auditivas/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Eletroencefalografia , Audição , Colículos Inferiores/fisiologia , Nível de Percepção Sonora , Análise de Componente Principal , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Estimulação Acústica , Adolescente , Audiometria de Tons Puros , Limiar Auditivo , Sinais (Psicologia) , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos do Tronco Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Periodicidade , Psicoacústica , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Neuroreport ; 27(15): 1147-52, 2016 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27563737

RESUMO

The auditory steady-state response (ASSR) is an auditory evoked potential that occurs in response to periodically presented auditory stimuli. The ASSR has drawn attention as a biomarker of psychiatric disorders owing to its connection with neural oscillations as well as its easy and noninvasive recording. Abnormalities in the γ band ASSR have been found consistently in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, although major depressive disorder (MDD) is also part of the common psychiatric diseases, the relationship between the ASSR and MDD has not been characterized sufficiently. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the ASSRs from patients with MDD and compare them with those from healthy control (HC) participants. The experiment was designed to obtain the ASSRs elicited by 20-, 30-, and 40-Hz click trains. Patients and HCs were evaluated separately. The response power and phase synchronization were measured at each stimulation frequency. Patients with MDD showed significantly reduced ASSR power for 30-Hz stimuli compared with HC participants, whereas no significant differences in the power were observed at 20 and 40 Hz for patients with MDD. In addition, no significant difference in the phase synchronization was observed for 20-, 30-, and 40-Hz stimuli. Conclusively, patients with MDD were characterized by deficits in 30-Hz ASSR power, which may be associated with spontaneous γ activity dysfunction. The present findings suggest that ASSR could potentially be used as a biomarker for MDD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicoacústica , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Neuroreport ; 27(10): 769-73, 2016 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27203294

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate both the encoding mechanism and the process of deviance detection when deviant stimuli were presented in various patterns in an environment featuring repetitive sounds. In adults with normal hearing, middle latency responses were recorded within an oddball paradigm containing complex tones or speech sounds, wherein deviant stimuli featured different change patterns. For both complex tones and speech sounds, the Na and Pa components of middle latency responses showed an increase in the mean amplitude and a reduction in latency when comparing rare deviant stimuli with repetitive standard stimuli in a stimulation block. However, deviant stimuli with a rising frequency induced signals with smaller amplitudes than other deviant stimuli. The present findings indicate that deviant stimuli with different change patterns induce differing responses in the primary auditory cortex. In addition, the Pa components of speech sounds typically feature a longer latency and similar mean amplitude compared with complex tones, which suggests that the auditory system requires more complex processing for the analysis of speech sounds before processing in the auditory cortex.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Discriminação (Psicologia)/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fonética , Adulto Jovem
17.
Biomed Eng Online ; 15(1): 51, 2016 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27160830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frequency selectivity (FS) of the auditory system is established at the level of the cochlea and it is important for the perception of complex sounds. Although direct measurements of cochlear FS require surgical preparation, it can also be estimated with the measurements of otoacoustic emissions or behavioral tests, including stimulus frequency otoacoustic emission suppression tuning curves (SFOAE STCs) or psychophysical tuning curves (PTCs). These two methods result in similar estimates of FS at low probe levels. As the compressive nonlinearity of cochlea is strongly dependent on the stimulus intensity, the sharpness of tuning curves which is relevant to the cochlear nonlinearity will change as a function of probe level. The present study aims to investigate the influence of different probe levels on the relationship between SFOAE STCs and PTCs. METHODS: The study included 15 young subjects with normal hearing. SFOAE STCs and PTCs were recorded at low and moderate probe levels for frequencies centred at 1, 2, and 4 kHz. The ratio or the difference of the characteristic parameters between the two methods was calculated at each probe level. The effect of probe level on the ratio or the difference between the parameters of SFOAE STCs and PTCs was then statistically analysed. RESULTS: The tuning of SFOAE STCs was significantly positively correlated with the tuning of the PTCs at both low and moderate probe levels; yet, at the moderate probe level, the SFOAE STCs were consistently broader than the PTCs. The mean ratio of sharpness of tuning at low probe levels was constantly around 1 while around 1.5 at moderate probe levels. CONCLUSIONS: Probe level had a significant effect on the sharpness of tuning between the two methods of estimating FS. SFOAE STC seems a good alternative measurement of PTC for FS assessment at low probe levels. At moderate probe levels, SFOAE STC and PTC were not equivalent measures of the FS in terms of their bandwidths. Because SFOAE STCs are not biased by higher levels auditory processing, they may represent cochlear FS better than PTCs.


Assuntos
Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Emissões Otoacústicas Espontâneas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
Virol J ; 12: 197, 2015 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26596706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, a diverse group of viruses with circular, replication initiator protein(Rep) encoding, single stranded DNA (CRESS-DNA) genomes, were discovered from wide range of eukaryotic organisms ranging from mammals to fungi. Gemycircularvirus belongs to a distinct group of CRESS-DNA genomes and is classified under the genus name of Gemycircularvirus. FINDINGS: Here, a novel gemycircularvirus named GeTz1 from cerebrospinal fluid sample of a child with unexplainable encephalitis was characterized. The novel gemycircularvirus encodes two major proteins, including a capsid protein (Cap) and a replication-associated protein (Rep). Phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequence of Rep indicated that GeTz1 clusters with one gemycircularvirus discovered from bird (KF371633), sharing 46.6 % amino acid sequence identity with each other. CONCLUSION: A novel gemycircularvirus was discovered from cerebrospinal fluid sample of a child with unexplainable encephalitis. Further studies, such as testing human sera for specific antibodies, should be performed to investigate whether gemycircularvirus infects human and is associated with encephalitis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus de DNA/diagnóstico , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/virologia , Vírus de DNA/isolamento & purificação , Encefalite Viral/diagnóstico , Encefalite Viral/virologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/virologia , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Helicases/genética , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/patologia , Vírus de DNA/genética , DNA Viral/química , DNA Viral/genética , Encefalite Viral/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Transativadores/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética
19.
Endocr J ; 62(9): 817-34, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26194272

RESUMO

Glycemic variability (GV) has been proposed as contributor to diabetes-related macrovascular complications. This randomized control trial evaluated a new combination therapy with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) plus sitagliptin (CSII + sitagliptin) vs. CSII only in terms of metabolic control, GV and ß-cell function in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2DM). 217 patients were randomized to two weeks of CSII (n = 108) or CSII + sitagliptin (n = 109) therapy. As a measure of GV, the coefficient of variation (CV) was computed from capillary blood glucose during the first and second week, respectively. ß-cell function before and after treatment was determined with the Insulin Secretion-Sensitivity Index-2 (ISSI-2). Good metabolic controls were established with both therapies. CSII + sitagliptin therapy resulted in greater improvements in CV and ISSI-2 than CSII alone (all P = 0.000). For each group, change in CV was inversely correlated with change in ISSI-2 (r = -0.529, P = 0.000 and r = -0.433, P = 0.000, respectively). The multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that improved ISSI-2 was the only independent contributor to reduced CV in both groups (standardized ß = -0.388, P = 0.004 and standardized ß = -0.472, P = 0.000, respectively). Correction of ß-cell function in newly diagnosed T2DM patients via use of either CSII or CSII + sitagliptin therapy was feasible in controlling GV to prevent secondary complications of T2DM. Moreover, CSII + sitagliptin therapy was superior to CSII monotherapy in terms of GV.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Infusões Subcutâneas , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Biomed Eng Online ; 13: 171, 2014 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25522838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frequency selectivity (FS) is an important aspect of auditory function, and is typically described by a tuning curve function. Sharply tuned curves represent a higher acuity in detecting frequency differences, and conversely, broadly tuned curves demonstrate a lower acuity. One way of obtaining tuning curves is from techniques based on subjective behavioral responses, which yields psychophysical tuning curves (PTCs). In contrast, other methods rely on objective auditory responses to sound, such as neuron responses and otoacoustic emissions, amongst others. The present study introduces an objective method that uses stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) to assemble suppression tuning curves (STCs). Finding an objective method of accurately measuring human FS is very important, as it would permit the FS to be assayed in non-responsive patients (e.g., neonates or comatose patients). However, before the objective method can be applied, it must be demonstrated that its ability to estimate the FS, gives comparable results to those obtained by subjective procedures i.e. PTCs. METHODS: SFOAEs responses, generated in the peripheral auditory system, were used to produce STCs. PTCs were measured by behavioral responses. The validity of the objective measures of human FS were determined by comparing stimulus frequency otoacoustic emission suppression tuning curves (SFOAE STCs) to PTCs at common stimulus parameters in 10 individuals with normal hearing, at low probe-tone levels. RESULTS: The average Q10 ratios measured between PTCs and SFOAE STCs from subjects were close to 1 at various center frequencies (F2,24 = .15, p = .858). The estimates of FS provided by SFOAE STCs and PTCs were similar. CONCLUSIONS: This system could be used to estimate auditory FS by both objective and subjective methods. SFOAE STCs have the potential to provide an objective estimate of auditory FS.


Assuntos
Audição/fisiologia , Emissões Otoacústicas Espontâneas/fisiologia , Acústica , Adulto , Calibragem , Cóclea/fisiologia , Feminino , Análise de Fourier , Humanos , Masculino , Psicofísica , Som , Adulto Jovem
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