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1.
Prev Vet Med ; 198: 105532, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34844124

RESUMO

In the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China, the yak is an animal of particular economic interest, which provides protein and income for herders in daily life. Brucellosis is a bacterial disease that can infect humans and animals, including yaks. It can damage the yak reproductive system, causing miscarriage and orchitis. At the same time, brucellosis threatens the health of herders. We performed this meta-analysis using R software to explore the combined prevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in yak in China. Variability was assessed by the I2 statistic and Cochran Q statistic. We identified 52 publications of related research from four databases (Wanfang Data, VIP Chinese Journal Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and of PubMed). The pooled prevalence of yak brucellosis was 8.39 %. Prevalence was highest in Southwestern China (11.1 %). The point estimate of brucellosis in yak from 2012 to 2016 was the highest (11.47 %). The point estimate of age ≤ 12 months (1.44 %) was lower than that of age > 12 months (15.6 %). This study shows that yak brucellosis is serious, and its incidence is higher than before 2012. We recommend carrying out large-scale yak brucellosis investigations in Western China and conducting comprehensive testing planning. The detection of brucellosis in adult animals should be strengthened to reduce the economic loss caused by brucellosis to herders and to improve public health.

2.
Microb Pathog ; 161(Pt A): 105170, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492305

RESUMO

Bluetongue is a viral disease transmitted by the bite of bloodsucking insects, which mainly occurs in sheep, goats, and cattle. Bluetongue is characterized by fever, leukopenia, and severe catarrhal inflammation of the oral and gastrointestinal mucosa. The present study aimed to evaluate and analyze the prevalence of bluetongue and its associated risk factors in sheep and goats in China. We collected 59 publications from 1988 to 2019 through searches at ScienceDirect, PubMed, the Chongqing VIP Chinese journal database, Wanfang database, and Chinese Web of knowledge. In these studies, a total of 123,982 sheep and goats across 7 regions of China were investigated, and the pooled prevalence of bluetongue in sheep and goats was 18.6%, as assessed using serological methods. The prevalence of bluetongue in Southern China was 30.3%, which was significantly higher than that in Northeastern China (4.7%). The prevalence of bluetongue between sheep (12.9%) and goats (28.1%) was significantly different (P < 0.05). Detection methods subgroup analysis showed that the prevalence of bluetongue was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the others group (43.8%) than in the agar immunodiffusion (15.9%) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay groups (20.5%). In addition, different geographical factors (latitude range, longitude range, altitude range, average precipitation, and average temperature) could affect the prevalence. Our results suggested that bluetongue is widespread in sheep and goats, and sheep and goats in contact with insect media, such as Culicoides, or in a warm and humid environment, could have an increased prevalence of bluetongue disease. Animal disease prevention and control departments should focus on continuous monitoring of the bluetongue epidemic in sheep and goats to prevent and control outbreaks.

3.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 21(9): 692-706, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491122

RESUMO

Cryptosporidiosis is an extensively contagious zoonotic waterborne disease caused by the genus Cryptosporidium and poses to be a danger to public health. Sheep and goats are an intermediate host of Cryptosporidium. Consequently, a first systematic review and meta-analysis are performed to assess the burden of the infection relative to the Cryptosporidium in sheep and goat flocks in China. Five databases were searched for relevant literature in accordance with the inclusion criteria until January 30, 2020. At last, a total of 33 qualified documents were included. We calculate the overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium (4.9%) in sheep and goats in China with the random-effects model. The prevalence after 2014 (4.6%) was higher than that before or in 2014 (2.8%). The pooled prevalence of Cryptosporidium in sheep and goats from Northern China (12.3%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than other regions. The infection rate of modified acid-fast staining (14.3%) was the highest among the detection methods. In age subgroups, the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in sheep and goats in 3 months or before was the highest (20.8%). Goats had a higher infection rate (5.9%) in species. The prevalence of large-scale farms (2.8%) was lower than free-ranging farms (4.4%). The medium quality level (6.4%) was the highest. Besides, geographical factors (such as latitude, longitude, height, precipitation, humidity, mean temperature, etc.) were further analyzed as potential risk factors of Cryptosporidium in sheep and goats. This meta-analysis indicates that the Cryptosporidium infection of Chinese sheep and goat flocks is general. Thus, it is necessary to further monitor the prevalence of Cryptosporidium, and the reasonable preventive strategy should be formulated on the basis of the geographical factors of different regions and the differences in sheep and goats' growth stages to reduce the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in sheep and goats.

4.
Parasite ; 28: 61, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374643

RESUMO

Eimeria spp. cause the disease coccidiosis, which results in chronic wasting of livestock and can lead to the death of the animal. The disease, common worldwide, has caused huge economic losses to the cattle industry in particular. This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of bovine Eimeria in China. Our search of five databases including PubMed, ScienceDirect, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chongqing VIP, and Wan Fang for articles published up to February 29, 2020 on the prevalence of Eimeria in cattle in mainland China yielded 46 articles, in which the prevalence of cattle ranged from 4.6% to 87.5%. The rate of bovine Eimeria infection has been decreasing year by year, from 57.9% before 2000 to 25.0% after 2015, but it is still high. We also analyzed the region, sampling years, detection methods, feeding model, seasons, and species of bovine Eimeria. We recommend that prevention strategies should focus on strengthening detection of Eimeria in calves in the intensive farming model.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose , Eimeria , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Fezes , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(6): e0009502, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria, mainly Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), is a major threat to public health and economic development. There has been no systematic epidemiological assessment concerning bTB in dairy cattle in China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Literature related to bTB in China was retrieved from China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), PubMed, ScienceDirect, VIP Chinese Journals Database, and Wan Fang Database to build the first meta-analysis for estimating the prevalence and infection moderators of bTB in dairy cattle in China. A total of 100 relevant studies published from 2010 to 2019 were included. We estimated the overall prevalence of bTB was 2.4% (95% CI: 2.1-2.8) during this decade. In the sampling year subgroup, the prevalence was lowest in 2017 or later at 0.8% (95% CI: 0.3-1.5). The lowest prevalence was 0.7% (95% CI: 0.5-1.0) in Northwestern China. The lowest prevalence was 2.1% (95% CI: 1.8-2.5) using SIT test. Heifer cows had the highest prevalence, which was 27.1% (95% CI: 9.7-49.2). The prevalence in scale farming was 3.7% (95% CI: 3.1-4.3), significantly higher than that in free-range farming (1.7%, 95% CI: 1.1-2.4). The prevalence of bTB was highest in summer at 4.0% (95% CI: 1.7-7.0). In addition, the influence of different geographical factors (altitude, longitude, latitude, precipitation, temperature, humidity) on the prevalence was analyzed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results showed that bTB was widespread in China but has been gradually reduced through concerted national intervention. It is suggested that different countries should formulate corresponding prevention and control measures according to the epidemic situation in its cattle industry. Enhanced monitoring of warm and humid areas may play an important role in reducing the incidence of bTB. In addition, when large-scale breeding is promoted, attention should be paid to standardizing breeding management and improving animal welfare to reduce the prevalence of bTB in cattle.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Clima , Indústria de Laticínios , Geografia , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Estações do Ano
6.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 649252, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34150882

RESUMO

Background: Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. Brucellosis is widely distributed in more than 160 or 170 countries around the world, where it poses a huge threat to animal husbandry and human health. About 150 million head of water buffalo, distributed across more than 40 countries worldwide, are kept for the purposes of service, milk, and meat. High incidence of Brucella spp. in buffalo has negatively affected dairy products and meat products. Results: We searched all research related to seroprevalence of brucellosis in water buffalo anywhere in the world in PubMed, Science Direct, SpringerLink, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database, and VIP Chinese Journal Databases. A total of 26 articles published from 1985 to 2020 met the final selection criteria. The overall seroprevalence of buffalo brucellosis worldwide was 9.7%. The seroprevalence before 2010 (20.8%) (95% CI: 5.6-42.2) was much higher than the seroprevalence rate from 2010 to 2020 (4.2%) (95% CI: 1.8-7.5). Subgroup analysis by feeding mode found that the point estimate of seroprevalence in stock buffalo (11.5%) (95% CI: 3.6-23.0) was higher than that in captive buffalo (10.6%) (95% CI: 4.9-18.1). Subgroup analysis by farming mode found that the seroprevalence was higher in captive-bred buffalo (10.7%) (95% CI: 6.6-15.7) than in intensively farmed buffalo (8.5) (95% CI: 0.9-22.2). The seroprevalence in buffalo living in dry lands (6.4%) (95% CI: 2.0-12.9) is greater than that in buffalo living in wetlands (5.1%) (95% CI: 1.8-10.4) (P < 0.05). The seroprevalence in female buffalo (10.1%) (95% CI: 3.4-19.7) was higher than that in male buffalo (4.4%) (95% CI: 2.0-7.4). The seroprevalence in lactating buffalo was higher than that in buffalo of other ages (26.9%) (95% CI: 1.8-66.5). Subgroup analysis by detection method found that the seroprevalence detected by the complement fixation test (27.3%) (95% CI: 0.7-70.8) was much higher than that detected by other methods. Conclusion: The results of this meta-analysis showed that buffalo brucellosis infection is very common in buffalo herds around the world. Although the seroprevalence of brucellosis in buffalo and humans is relatively low, serious effects upon animal husbandry and public health make it necessary to take effective control and preventive measures to control the spread of this disease.

7.
Res Vet Sci ; 138: 19-29, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090203

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, which is widespread in warm-blooded animals and humans. Currently, many studies regarding T. gondii infection in sheep have been published worldwide. However, there is no meta-analysis of sheep infection in China. In this study, five databases were used to retrieve articles related to T. gondii in China. A total of 59 studies from 1987 to June 30, 2020, have been included. We estimated that the combined prevalence of T. gondii in the selected period was 8.5% (3197/28,099). In the analysis of publication year, the lowest positive rate after 2010 was 7.4% (1883/17,313). Geographically, the highest prevalence of T. gondii in sheep was recorded in Southwest China 19.2% (490/2080). Analysis according to age showed that the prevalence of infection in sheep older than 12 months was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that in younger animals. The prevalence of T. gondii in sheep farmed by farmers was 7.2% (566/6336), which was higher than 5.3% (660/3121) of large-scale farming, suggesting a role for the feeding and husbandry. We also analyzed the impact of different geographic and climatic factors on the prevalence of T. gondii infection in sheep. The results showed that the prevalence was higher in low altitude, warm, humid, and high rainfall areas. We suggest that appropriate control programs should be formulated according to the differences in reproduction patterns and geographical conditions in different regions to reduce the prevalence of T. gondii among sheep in China.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Carneiro Doméstico , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
8.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 630960, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34026886

RESUMO

Background: Brucellosis, a zoonotic disease, infects various hosts, including swine and humans. It has reemerged in recent years as a public health concern, and current studies on brucellosis infection in swine have been conducted worldwide. However, no meta-analyses of global brucellosis infection in swine have been published. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of Brucella species (spp.) in swine worldwide and the factors associated with its persistence. Results: We searched seven databases for published epidemiological studies on brucellosis in pigs, including the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data, SpringerLink, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, the VIP Chinese Journal Database and PubMed. We selected 119 articles published from January 1, 2000 to January 3, 2020 for inclusion in the meta-analysis and analyzed the data using a random-effects model. Funnel plots and Egger's test showed significant publication bias in the included studies. The results of the sensitivity analysis showed that our study was relatively stable and reliable. The prevalence of brucellosis in swine was 2.1% (95% CI: 1.6-2.6), of which the highest infection rate, which was found in Europe, was 17.4% (95% CI: 11.1-24.9). The prevalence in feral pigs (15.0%, 95% CI: 8.4-23.2) was higher than that in domestic pigs (1.1%, 95% CI 0.2-2.5). The prevalence in high-income countries (15.7%, 95% CI 8.0-25.3) was significantly higher than that in middle- (0.8%, 95% CI 0.5-1.1), and low-income countries (0.1%, 95% CI 0.0-0.2). The prevalence was highest in finishing pigs at 4.9% (95% CI 0.9-11.0), and lowest among suckling pigs at 0% (95% CI 0.0-0.5). Conclusion: The Brucella prevalence in pig herds currently is distributed widely throughout the world. In some countries, swine brucellosis may be a neglected zoonotic disease. We recommend long-term monitoring of the prevalence of brucellosis in domestic and wild pig herds. Attention should also be paid to animal welfare on intensive pig farms; controlling the breeding density may play an important role in reducing the spread of brucellosis among pigs.

10.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 248, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Swine coccidiosis, a protozoan disease caused by coccidia, can result in diarrhoea and weight loss in piglets and even economic losses in the pig industry. Here, we report the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of coccidia (including Eimeria spp. and Cystoisospora suis) in pigs in China. METHODS: Five databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wanfang, and Chongqing VIP) were searched and 50 studies (46,926 domestic pigs, 22 provinces) ultimately identified pertaining to the prevalence of coccidia infection from 1980 to 2019. We incorporated the effect size using the random-effects model in the "meta" package in R software and conducted univariate and multivariate meta-regression analyses using a mixed-effects model. RESULTS: The pooled prevalence rate of coccidia in pigs was 21.9%, including the C. suis infection rate of 9.1%. The highest prevalence of coccidia (39.6%) was found in northwest China, and this region also presented the lowest prevalence of C. suis (4.7%). In the subgroup analysis based on sampling year, the highest prevalence of coccidia was detected in 2001 or earlier (32.6%), whereas the lowest rate was found in 2012 or later (14.3%). An opposite trend was observed for C. suis (5.5% in 2000 or earlier vs 14.4% in 2000 or later). The prevalence of coccidia in extensive farming systems (29.5%) was higher than that in intensive farming systems (17.3%). In contrast, the point estimate of C. suis prevalence was lower in the extensive farming systems (5.1%) than in the intensive farming systems (10.0%), but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Among the four age categories, the highest total coccidia prevalence (26.2%) was found in finishing pigs, followed by suckling piglets (19.9%), whereas the highest prevalence of C. suis (14.9%) was observed in suckling piglets. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that coccidia infection in Chinese pigs is common, although the prevalence of C. suis in pigs does not receive sufficient attention. We recommend the rational use of anticoccidial drugs to avoid drug resistance and the development of preventive and control measures for C. suis to reduce the incidence of swine coccidiosis.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Coccídios/classificação , Coccídios/genética , Coccídios/isolamento & purificação , Coccídios/fisiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Prevalência , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(4): e0009268, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Echinococcosis (canine Echinococcus disease) is a neglected tropical disease that causes serious public harm. Dogs, as a terminal host of Echinococcus spp., are a key part of the Echinococcus epidemic. Echinococcosis spreads easily in humans and animals in some areas of China and it is therefore necessary to fully understand the prevalence of Echinococcus spp. in dogs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PubMed, ScienceDirect, Chongqing VIP, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and WanFang databases were searched for relevant articles published in the past 10 years. A final total of 108 studies were included. The overall prevalence of Echinococcus spp. in dogs in China was 7.3%, with the highest point estimate found in sampling year 2015 (8.2%) and publication year 2015 (16.5%). Northwestern China (7.9%) had the highest infection rate in China. Qinghai Province (13.5%) showed the highest prevalence among the 11 provinces we included. We also found that geographical and climatic factors are related to the incidence of canine echinococcosis. We further investigated the source of heterogeneity by analysis of subgroups (sampling district, detection method, dog type, season, parasite species, medication, and study quality level). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our research indicated that Echinococcus spp. were still prevalent in some areas in China. More localized prevention and control policies should be formulated, including improving drinking water hygiene and strengthening hygiene promotion. We recommend the rational use of anti-Echinococcus drugs. In addition, treatment of livestock offal and feces and improving the welfare of stray dogs may play an important role in reducing canine Echinococcus infections.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Echinococcus/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
12.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 21(7): 517-533, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887161

RESUMO

Chlamydia is a small gram-negative (G-) microorganism that can be dangerous to human and animals. In this study, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of Chlamydia infection in swine in China. From PubMed, ScienceDirect, Chinese Web of knowledge (CNKI), VIP Chinese journal database, and Wanfang database, we collected a total of 72 publications reported in 1985-2020. The prevalence of Chlamydia was 22.48% in China. In the sampling year subgroup, the prevalence after 2011 was the highest (26.14%). In southern China, the prevalence was 30.97%. By contrast, the prevalence in northern China was only 10.79%. Also the difference was significant (p < 0.05). In the provincial level, Hubei had the highest rate of 36.23%. Boars had a higher prevalence (29.47%). The prevalence of Chlamydia detection in pigs with reproductive disorders (21.86%) was higher than that without reproductive disorders. Among the three age groups, finishing pigs (21.43%) had the highest prevalence. The prevalence in large-scale farmed pigs (28.58%) was the highest in the subgroup of feeding methods. The prevalence in farms was 24.29%, which was the highest in the survey areas. The prevalence in spring was the highest with 40.51%. Other methods had the highest prevalence (39.61%) than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect hemagglutination assay. The prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci 18.41% was lower than the prevalence of Chlamydia abortus (41.35%). We also analyzed the impact of different climate factor subgroups (rainfall, temperature, and humidity) on the probability of pigs suffering from the disease. The results showed that Chlamydia was widespread in pigs in China. We suggest that we should strengthen the detection of Chlamydia in the semen of breeding pigs and pigs with reproductive disorders, and reasonably control the environment of large-scale pig farms, so as to reduce further infection of Chlamydia in pigs.

13.
Parasitol Res ; 120(4): 1481-1487, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537839

RESUMO

Protists of the Blastocystis genus are distributed worldwide and can infect a range of hosts. However, data concerning Blastocystis infection are limited for sika deer and are not available for black bears. Therefore, in the present study, a total of 312 black bears (Ursus thibetanus) from Heilongjiang Province and 760 sika deer (Cervus nippon) from four different northern Chinese provinces were investigated. Blastocystis infection in these animals was detected via PCR amplification of the small subunit rRNA gene in fecal samples. The prevalence of Blastocystis infection in black bears and sika deer was 14.4% (45/312 positive samples) and 0.8% (6/760 positive samples), respectively. Young black bears (18.3%) had a significantly higher Blastocystis prevalence than adult bears (9.1%). The prevalence of Blastocystis was significantly higher in black bears raised outdoors (24.6%) than in bears raised indoors (12.2%). Blastocystis-positive sika deer were only found in Jilin Province (1.3%, 6/480). Female sika deer (0%, 0/61) had a significantly lower Blastocystis prevalence than males (0.9%, 6/699). Sanger sequencing was used to determine the small subunit rRNA gene sequences of the Blastocystis-positive PCR products. A neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree based on the small subunit rRNA gene sequences showed that only Blastocystis subtype (ST)1 was identified in black bears, whereas ST10 and ST14 were found in sika deer. This is the first report of Blastocystis ST1 infection in black bears. These findings also extend the distribution information of Blastocystis subtypes, which will provide a foundation for further study of Blastocystis in different hosts in China.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Cervos/parasitologia , Ursidae/parasitologia , Animais , Blastocystis/classificação , Blastocystis/genética , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , China/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico/genética
14.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(3): 1400-1413, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815651

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is an important zoonotic parasite that can infect a variety of hosts, including pigs and humans, through water and food. Many studies on Cryptosporidium infection in pigs have been reported worldwide. However, the meta-analysis of Cryptosporidium infection in pigs in China has not been published. This study retrieved articles related to Cryptosporidium in pigs in China by using four databases: Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), PubMed, VIP Chinese journal database and Wanfang Data. We retrieved 40 studies related to Cryptosporidium infection in China, and those articles were harvested from the inception to 1 January 2020. We estimated that the overall prevalence of pigs with Cryptosporidium in the selected period was 12.2% (4,349/30,404). In the sampling year subgroup, the prevalence rate after 2010 was the lowest at 8.7% (2,087/18,100). In Northern China, the Cryptosporidium prevalence was 47.9% (34/71). By contrast, the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in Southwestern China was only 6.9% (778/6,445). The infection rate of Cryptosporidium in diarrhoea pigs of 15.6% (74/384) was higher than that in non-diarrhoea pigs at 10.8% (378/2,840). Among the four age groups, the prevalence of weaning pigs of 16.2% (530/3,243) was the highest, and the difference was significant (p < .05). The prevalence of Cryptosporidium in extensive farming was 25.7% (660/3,121), which was significantly higher than in intensive farming 8.7% (566/6,336), and the prevalence of infection was related to the farming modes (p < .05). We also analysed the impact of different geographic factor subgroups (longitude, latitude, precipitation, temperature, humidity, climate and altitude) on the prevalence of pigs. The results showed that cryptosporidiosis was widespread in pigs in China. We suggest that appropriate control schemes should be developed according to the differences in breeding patterns and geographic conditions in different regions, and effective management measures should be developed to reduce the spread between pigs.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/microbiologia , Prevalência , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
15.
Microb Pathog ; 150: 104681, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296716

RESUMO

Bovine leukemia is a chronic, progressive, contagious tumor disease characterized by malignant lymphoid cell hyperplasia and systemic lymphadenopathy, and is caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). The disease affects almost all countries and regions where livestock are raised, and may even be a potential zoonotic disease. Monitoring and early prevention of bovine leukemia is very important. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis, the first of its type in the country, to estimate the prevalence of bovine leukemia in 1983-2019 in China. We included a total of 35 publications reported in 1983-2019 from the PubMed, ScienceDirect, Chinese Web of Knowledge (CNKI), VIP Chinese, and Wan Fang databases. In those articles, a total of 34,954 cattle had been tested, of which 4701 were positive for BLV infection. The estimated pooled BLV prevalence was 10.0% (4701/34,954). Subgroup analysis showed that there were significant differences for sampling years, detection methods, and age. BLV prevalence was highest in the following subgroups: sampled before 1985 (38.5%, 437/1134), age 3-5 years (22.5%, 231/1044), and detected by PCR (17.9%, 1228/5100). Regarding geographic factors, there were significant differences in the latitude and elevation subgroups. BLV prevalence was lowest in the subgroups of 20-30° latitude (3.3%, 255/5069) 200-1000 m altitude (2.2%, 560/11,990). We also analyzed other subgroups such as region, variety, breeding method, precipitation, humidity, and temperature, however, the differences were not significant. Our research indicated that the BLV was still prevalent in some of areas in China. We recommend strengthening the testing of cattle aged >1 year and using flexible testing methods such as PCR to control the prevalence of bovine leukemia and to prevent persistent infection.


Assuntos
Leucose Enzoótica Bovina , Vírus da Leucemia Bovina , Animais , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Leucose Enzoótica Bovina/epidemiologia , Vírus da Leucemia Bovina/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência
16.
Microb Pathog ; 150: 104687, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301857

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic pathogen that has spread worldwide. The HEV reservoir associated with livestock hepatitis E poses a huge threat to public health. Awareness of the prevalence and spatial distribution of livestock hepatitis E is valuable to prevent and control diseases caused by HEV, especially human hepatitis E infection. Currently, swine, including pigs (Sus scrofa), are recognized as the major reservoir of HEV. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the pooled prevalence of HEV among swine in China. A total of 71 published papers on HEV infection in swine in China (including data from 49,523 animals) from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2019 met the standard after searching five databases including the Technology Periodical Database, the Wan Fang Database, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, PubMed, and ScienceDirect. A random effects model was used to calculate the pooled prevalence of HEV in swine. The results showed that the seroprevalence was 48.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) 39.6-56.9) and the prevalence of HEV RNA was 14.4% (95% CI 10.7-18.5). The estimated overall prevalence was 34.1% (95% CI 27.2-41.4). Central China (68.0%, 95% CI 42.2-89.1) had a significantly higher prevalence than other regions. In the publication year subgroup, the prevalence in 2016 or later (27.2%, 95% CI 19.3-36.0) was significantly lower than that in 2011 or earlier (49.0%, 95% CI 36.2-61.8). The prevalence of IgG (42.9%, 95% CI 31.7-54.6) was significantly higher than that of IgM (4.9%, 95% CI 1.6-9.7). Suckling piglets (15.6%, 95% CI 6.6-27.1) had a lower prevalence compared with that in other age groups. In all sample types, body fluids showed the highest prevalence (50.5%, 95% CI 41.7-59.3). Moreover, the pooled prevalence of HEV in boars was higher than that in sows (35.4% > 17.3%). The analysis suggested that HEV infection is common among swine in China. Further strengthening HEV testing in boars, controlling environmental pollution, and reducing the mixed feeding of different stages could contribute to reducing HEV infection in pigs in China and the risk of porcine HEV infection in humans.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E , Hepatite E , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Hepatite E/veterinária , Gado , Masculino , Filogenia , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
17.
Microb Pathog ; 150: 104699, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383150

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most successful intracellular protozoan parasites in the world, which can infect most warm-blooded animals including foxes in the world and cause toxoplasmosis. This is the first meta-analysis to assess the overall prevalence and potential risk factors of T. gondii among foxes in the world. Relevant studies were comprehensively collected from ScienceDirect, Springer-Link, PubMed, VIP Chinese Journal Databases (VIP), WanFang, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. The random-effect model was used to calculate pooled prevalence with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and analyzed data were from 20 countries. The pooled T. gondii prevalence in foxes was estimated to be 39.6%. T. gondii has the highest prevalence in North America (51.2%), and lowest in Asia (8.3%). The prevalence in the sub-group after 2006 (44.7%) was lower than 2006 or before (48.5%). The prevalence in female foxes was 46.1%, which was higher than that in male foxes (19.7%). In species subgroup, red fox has the highest prevalence (46.8%). Wild foxes have a higher rate of infection (40.8%) than captive foxes (8.4%). Genotype Ⅱ of T. gondii is the most prevalent in foxes. We also evaluated the effects of geographical and climate variables on pooled prevalence of T. gondii in foxes. Our research indicated that toxoplasmosis widely existed in the world. The investigation of T. gondii infection in wild animals can provide an estimate of environmental pollution and T. gondii circulation in the ecosystem. It is essential for us to prevent and control T. gondii infection in foxes in order to reduce the risk of human infection.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Ásia , China , Ecossistema , Feminino , Raposas , Humanos , Masculino , América do Norte , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
18.
Prev Vet Med ; 186: 105230, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348304

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is a widely distributed protozoan parasite that can infect a variety of warm-blooded animals including humans and goats. This is the first meta-analysis to assess the overall seroprevalence and potential risk factors of T. gondii infection among goats in China. Databases including the VIP Chinese Journal Databases (VIP), the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database, WanFang, ScienceDirect, and PubMed were searched comprehensively for relevant studies published from 2010 to date. A random-effects model was used to calculate pooled seroprevalence estimates with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) and data were analyzed from 13 provinces in China. The pooled T. gondii seroprevalence in goats was estimated as 9.9 %. Goats T. gondii had the highest seroprevalence in Southwestern China (13.3 %) and the lowest in Northeastern China (7.3 %). The seroprevalence in the sub-group before 2012 (8.0 %) was lower than that in 2012-2015 (15.2 %) and 2016 or later (9.2 %). Goats aged > 12-months had a higher seroprevalence (11.7 %) than ≤ 12-months (10.7 %). The seroprevalence in female goats was 12.5 % and 12.2 % in male goats. In season subgroups, the seroprevalence was lowest in autumn (6.1 %). Naturally grazed goats had a seroprevalence of 8.1 % of infection and 7.8 % in intensively fed goats. We also evaluated the effects of geographical and climate variables on the pooled seroprevalence of T. gondii in goats in China. The results indicated that toxoplasmosis is widely distributed in goats in China. In the context of ensuring animal welfare, we suggest the continued promotion of the transition from natural grazing to intensive agriculture to strengthen disease prevention. Prevention would be better carried out in areas suitable for the survival and reproduction of T. gondii. Breeders need to regularly disinfect the feeding areas and pens or other areas of goat activity thoroughly to reduce the impact of environmental factors responses on the infection of goats to T. gondii.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/fisiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Fatores Sexuais , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
19.
Microb Pathog ; 149: 104490, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956791

RESUMO

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) causes infectious diseases in pigs leading to considerable economic losses in the pig industry. To prevent and control PCV2 infections, is important to understand the prevalence and geographical distribution of the virus. We performed the first systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of PCV2 in China. From PubMed, ScienceDirect, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wanfang, and VIP Chinese Journal, we extracted 53 studies published in China between 2015 and 2019. There were 29,051 samples, 14,230 of which were positive for PCV2. The pooled prevalence of PCV2 was 46.0%, with the highest in Northeastern China (58.1%). The highest prevalence was 86.3% in Xinjiang province. Nursery pigs had the highest prevalence of PCV2 (50.9%), and the serological test detected the highest number of cases (58.5%). PCV2 prevalence was 50.1% in intensive farms and 37.5% in extensive farms. Our findings showed that PCV2 is common throughout China. Effective control measures are necessary to reduce PCV2 infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Circoviridae , Circovirus , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Prevalência , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
20.
J Fish Dis ; 43(11): 1409-1418, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880984

RESUMO

Clonorchis sinensis, an important fish-borne zoonotic trematode, is widely distributed in South-East Asia, especially in China. Infections from human and animal reservoir hosts occur due to the consumption of raw or undercooked fish with C. sinensis metacercariae. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of C. sinensis metacercariae in fish in South-East Asia via systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, ScienceDirect, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang and Chongqing VIP databases for studies published between 1976 and 2020 that are related to the prevalence of C. sinensis metacercariae in fish. Studies were screened with keywords based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Seventy-one eligible articles were identified, covering three countries: China, Korea and Vietnam. The pooled prevalence of C. sinensis metacercariae in fish from South-East Asia was 30.5%, with 35.1% in China, 29.7% in Korea and 8.4% in Vietnam. In subgroup analyses of climate, season, water source and publication date, the highest prevalence was identified in the Dwb climate type (43.3%), summer (70.2%), river (34.5%) and pre-2001 publications (38.9%), respectively. In comparison, the lowest prevalence was found in the Dfa climate type (14.5%), winter (19.5%), lake (8.0%) and post-2001 publications (23.8%). Meta-regression results indicated that country (p = .009), the published time (p = .035) and water source subgroups (p = .003) may be the source of heterogeneity. Overall, our study indicates that a high prevalence of C. sinensis infections occurs in fish in China, Korea and Vietnam, illuminating a significant public health concern in these countries.


Assuntos
Clonorquíase/veterinária , Clonorchis sinensis/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Clima , Clonorquíase/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Peixes , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia
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