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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548492

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Amygdala-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) circuitry is disrupted in pediatric anxiety disorders, yet how selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), impact this circuitry is unknown. We examined the impact of SSRI on functional connectivity (FC) within this circuit, and whether early FC changes predict treatment response in adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). METHOD: Resting-state functional MR images were acquired before and after 2-weeks of treatment in 41 adolescents with GAD (age: 12-17) who received double-blind escitalopram or placebo over 8 weeks. Change in amygdala-based whole-brain FC and anxiety severity were analyzed. RESULTS: Controlling for age, sex and pretreatment anxiety, escitalopram increased amygdala-VLPFC connectivity compared to placebo (F=17.79, p=0.002 FWE-corrected). This early FC change predicted 76.7% of the variability in improvement trajectory in patients who received escitalopram (p<0.001) but not placebo (p=0.169); the predictive power of early amygdala-VLPFC FC change significantly differed between placebo and escitalopram (p=0.013). Further, this FC change predicted improvement better than baseline FC or demographics. Exploratory analyses of amygdala subfields' FC revealed connectivity of left basolateral amygdala (BLA)-VLPFC (F=19.64, p<0.001 FWE-corrected) and superficial amygdala-posterior cingulate cortex (F=22.92, p=0.001 FWE-corrected) were also increased by escitalopram, but only BLA-VLPFC FC predicted improvement in anxiety over 8 weeks of treatment. CONCLUSION: In adolescents with GAD, escitalopram increases amygdala-prefrontal connectivity within the first 2 weeks of treatment, and the magnitude of this change predicts subsequent clinical improvement. Early normalization of amygdala-VLPFC circuitry might represent a useful tool for identifying future treatment responders as well as a promising biomarker for drug development.

2.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522660

RESUMO

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating and disabling neuropsychiatric disorder, whose neurobiological basis remains unclear. Although traditional static resting-state magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) studies have found aberrant functional connectivity (FC) in OCD, alterations in whole-brain FC and topological properties in the context of brain dynamics remain relatively unexplored. The rfMRI data of 29 patients with OCD and 40 healthy controls were analyzed using group independent component analysis to obtain independent components (ICs) and a sliding-window approach to generate dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) matrices. dFC patterns were clustered into three reoccurring states, and state transition metrics were obtained. Then, graph-theory methods were applied to dFC matrices to calculate the variability of network topological organization. The occurrence of a state (State 1) with the highest modularity index and lowest mean FC between networks was increased significantly in OCD, and the fractional time in brain State 1 was positively correlated with anxiety level in patients. State 1 was characterized by having positive connections within default mode (DMN) and salience networks (SAN), and negative coupling between the two networks. Additionally, ICs belonging to DMN and SAN showed lower temporal variability of nodal degree centrality and efficiency in patients, which was related to longer illness duration and higher current obsession ratings. Our results provide evidence of clinically relevant aberrant dynamic brain activity in OCD. Increased functional segregation among networks and impaired functional flexibility in connections among brain regions in DMN and SAN may play important roles in the neuropathology of OCD.

3.
J Affect Disord ; 284: 217-228, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Functional specialization is a feature of human brain for understanding the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). The degree of human specialization refers to within and cross hemispheric interactions. However, most previous studies only focused on interhemispheric connectivity in MDD, and the results varied across studies. Hence, brain functional connectivity asymmetry in MDD should be further studied. METHODS: Resting-state fMRI data of 753 patients with MDD and 451 healthy controls were provided by REST-meta-MDD Project. Twenty-five project contributors preprocessed their data locally with the Data Processing Assistant State fMRI software and shared final indices. The parameter of asymmetry (PAS), a novel voxel-based whole-brain quantitative measure that reflects inter- and intrahemispheric asymmetry, was reported. We also examined the effects of age, sex and clinical variables (including symptom severity, illness duration and three depressive phenotypes). RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, patients with MDD showed increased PAS scores (decreased hemispheric specialization) in most of the areas of default mode network, control network, attention network and some regions in the cerebellum and visual cortex. Demographic characteristics and clinical variables have significant effects on these abnormalities. LIMITATIONS: Although a large sample size could improve statistical power, future independent efforts are needed to confirm our results. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the idea that many brain networks contribute to broad clinical pathophysiology of MDD, and indicate that a lateralized, efficient and economical brain information processing system is disrupted in MDD. These findings may help comprehensively clarify the pathophysiology of MDD in a new hemispheric specialization perspective.

4.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625212

RESUMO

Morphology genetic biomedical materials (MGBMs), referring to fabricating materials by learning from the genetic morphologies and strategies of natural species, hold great potential for biomedical applications. Inspired by the cargo-carrying-bacterial therapy (microbots) for cancer treatment, a MGBM (artificial microbots, AMBs) was constructed. Rather than the inherent bacterial properties (cancerous chemotaxis, tumor invasion, cytotoxicity), AMBs also possessed ingenious nitric oxide (NO) generation strategy. Mimicking the bacterial construction, the hyaluronic acid (HA) polysaccharide was induced as a coating capsule of AMBs to achieve long circulation in blood and specific tissue preference (tumor tropism). Covered under the capsule-like polysaccharide was the combinatorial agent, the self-assembly constructed by the amphiphilic dendrons with abundant l-arginine residues peripherally (as endogenous NO donor) and hydrophobic chemotherapeutic drugs at the core stacking on the surface of SWNTs (the photothermal agent) for a robust chemo-photothermal therapy (chemo-PTT) and the elicited immune therapy. Subsequently, the classic inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) pathway aroused by immune response was revolutionarily utilized to oxidize the l-arginine substrates for NO production, the process for which could also be promoted by the high reactive oxygen species level generated by chemo-PTT. The NO generated by AMBs was intended to regulate vasodilation and cause a dramatic invasion (as the microbots) to disperse the therapeutic agents throughout the solid tumor for a much more enhanced curative effect, which we defined as "self-propulsion". The self-propelled AMBs exhibiting impressive primary tumor ablation, as well as the distant metastasis regression to conquer the metastatic triple negative breast cancer, provided pioneering potential therapeutic opportunities, and enlightened broad prospects in biomedical application.

5.
Nanoscale ; 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625408

RESUMO

Combinatorial short interference RNA (siRNA) technology for the silencing of multiple genes is expected to provide an effective therapeutic approach for cancer with complex genetic mutation and dysregulation. Herein we present a tumor-activatable supramolecular nanoplatform for the delivery of siRNAs to target telomerase and telomeres for paclitaxel-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer (A549/PTX) treatment. Two different sequences of siRNA are incorporated in a single nanoparticle, which is obtained by self-assembly from a peptide dendrimer. The siRNA stability is improved by the nanoparticle in the presence of serum compared to free siRNA, and these siRNAs are protected from RNA enzyme degradation. In the tumor extracellular acid environment, the PEG corona of the nanoparticle is removed to promote the internalization of siRNAs into tumor cells. The disulfide linkages between the nanoparticle and siRNAs are cleared in the reductive environment of the tumor cells, and the siRNAs are released in the cytoplasm. In vitro experiments show that the gene expression of hTERT and TRF2 at the mRNA and protein levels of A549/PTX tumor cells is down-regulated, which results in cooperative restraining proliferation and invasion of A549/PTX tumor cells. For the tumor cell-targeting function of the MUC1 aptamer and the EPR effect, sufficient tumor accumulation of nanoparticles was observed. Meanwhile, a shift of negative surface charge of nanoparticles to positive charge in the tumor extracellular microenvironment enhances deep penetration of siRNA-incorporating nanoparticles into tumor tissues. In vivo animal studies support that successful down-regulation of hTERT and TRF2 gene expression achieves effective inhibition of the growth and neovascularization of drug-resistant tumor cells. This work has provided a new avenue for drug-resistant cancer treatment by designing and synthesizing a tumor-activatable nanoplatform to achieve the delivery of dual-gene targeted combinatorial siRNAs.

6.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566375

RESUMO

The hippocampus and amygdala are important structures in the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, the exact relationship between these structures and stress or PTSD remains unclear. Moreover, they consist of several functionally distinct subfields/subregions that may serve different roles in the neuropathophysiology of PTSD. Here we present a subregional profile of the hippocampus and amygdala in 145 survivors of a major earthquake and 56 non-traumatized healthy controls (HCs). We found that the bilateral hippocampus and left amygdala were significantly smaller in survivors than in HCs, and there was no difference between survivors with (n = 69) and without PTSD (trauma-exposed controls [TCs], n = 76). Analyses revealed similar results in most subfields/subregions, except that the right hippocampal body (in a head-body-tail segmentation scheme), right presubiculum, and left amygdala medial nuclei (Me) were significantly larger in PTSD patients than in TCs but smaller than in HCs. Larger hippocampal body were associated with the time since trauma in PTSD patients. The volume of the right cortical nucleus (Co) was negatively correlated with the severity of symptoms in the PTSD group but positively correlated with the same measurement in the TC group. This correlation between symptom severity and Co volume was significantly different between the PTSD and TCs. Together, we demonstrated that generalized smaller volumes in the hippocampus and amygdala were more likely to be trauma-related than PTSD-specific, and their subfields/subregions were distinctively affected. Notably, larger left Me, right hippocampal body and presubiculum were PTSD-specific; these could be preexisting factors for PTSD or reflect rapid posttraumatic reshaping.

7.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599347

RESUMO

Trait impulsivity is a multifaceted personality characteristic that contributes to maladaptive life outcomes. Although a growing body of neuroimaging studies have investigated the structural correlates of trait impulsivity, the findings remain highly inconsistent and heterogeneous. Herein, we performed a systematic review to depict an integrated delineation of gray matter (GM) substrates of trait impulsivity and a meta-analysis to examine concurrence across previous whole-brain voxel-based morphometry studies. The systematic review summarized the diverse findings in GM morphometry in the past literature, and the quantitative meta-analysis revealed impulsivity-related volumetric GM alterations in prefrontal, temporal, and parietal cortices. In addition, we identified the modulatory effects of age and gender in impulsivity-GM volume associations. The present study advances understanding of brain GM morphometry features underlying trait impulsivity. The findings may have practical implications in the clinical diagnosis of and intervention for impulsivity-related disorders.

8.
Front Med ; 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511554

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) causes great decrements in health and quality of life with increments in healthcare costs, but the causes and pathogenesis of depression remain largely unknown, which greatly prevent its early detection and effective treatment. With the advancement of neuroimaging approaches, numerous functional and structural alterations in the brain have been detected in MDD and more recently attempts have been made to apply these findings to clinical practice. In this review, we provide an updated summary of the progress in translational application of psychoradiological findings in MDD with a specified focus on potential clinical usage. The foreseeable clinical applications for different MRI modalities were introduced according to their role in disorder classification, subtyping, and prediction. While evidence of cerebral structural and functional changes associated with MDD classification and subtyping was heterogeneous and/or sparse, the ACC and hippocampus have been consistently suggested to be important biomarkers in predicting treatment selection and treatment response. These findings underlined the potential utility of brain biomarkers for clinical practice.

9.
Epilepsy Res ; 170: 106548, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454660

RESUMO

Periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) is characterized by disabled neural migration and is usually associated with epilepsy. Despite awareness of PNH-related epilepsy, little is known about the brain-level underlying functional neural bases. Thus, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine the neurobiology of 42 subjects with PNH-related epilepsy and 42 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Measurements of functional connectivity (FC) and whole-brain graph theory analysis of data in the resting state were performed to assess neurological organization and topology. PNH patients exhibited significantly higher FC in the parietal lobe, cingulum and thalamus, as well as significantly lower FC in frontoparietal, hippocampal, and precentral regions. Graph theory analysis identified no significant differences between patients and controls, while patients showed lower network global efficiency in the limbic and cerebellum network and occipital cortex. Seed-based FC analysis confirmed disruption of activities and interregional connectivity in remote epileptic networks of patients, which may point to underlying pathological mechanisms. The cerebellum and limbic system of patients showed altered topology, suggesting that these regions or hubs may contribute to whole-brain circuits in PNH and epilepsy.

10.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that blood oxygenation level-dependent signaling in white matter (WM) reflects WM functional activity. Whether this activity is altered in schizophrenia remains uncertain, as does whether it is related to established alterations of gray matter (GM) or the microstructure of WM tracts. METHODS: A total of 153 antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients and 153 healthy comparison subjects were assessed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and high-resolution T1-weighted imaging. We tested for case-control differences in the functional activity of WM, and examined their relation to the functional activity of GM and WM microstructure. The relations between fractional anisotropy (FA) in WM and GM-WM functional synchrony were investigated as well. Then, we examined the associations of identified abnormalities to age, duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), and symptom severity. RESULTS: Schizophrenia patients displayed reductions of the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF), GM-WM functional synchrony, and FA in widespread regions. Specifically, the genu of corpus callosum not only had weakening in the synchrony of functional activity but also had reduced ALFF and FA. Positive associations were found between FA and functional synchrony in the genu of corpus callosum as well. No significant association was found between identified abnormalities and DUP, and symptom severity. CONCLUSIONS: The widespread weakening in the synchrony of functional activity of GM and WM provided novel evidence for functional alterations in schizophrenia. Regarding the WM function as a component of brain systems and investigating its alternation represent a promising direction for future research.

11.
Carbohydr Polym ; 255: 117490, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436250

RESUMO

To deliver photosensitizers with PEGylated heparin (HP) into tumor cells for photodynamic therapy, we prepared two polyethylene glycol (PEG)-functionalized HP-based polymers conjugated with pyropheophorbide-a (Ppa): a non-GSH-responsive nanoagent (HP-Ppa-mPEG) with the mPEG moiety chemically attached to HP directly; and a GSH-responsive nanoagent (HP-Ppa-SS-mPEG) with the mPEG moiety conjugated to HP via a disulfide linkage. The Ppa-functionalized HP without PEGylation (HP-Ppa) was designed as another control. These amphiphilic polymers could aggregate into nanoparticles. Cellular uptake of three nanoparticles by 4T1 cells led to abundant production of reactive oxygen species after irradiation by a 660 nm laser, inducing cell apoptosis. HP-Ppa-SS-mPEG was found to achieve the highest tumor accumulation, the longest retention time and the best penetration into tumor tissues, resulting in the highest in vivo anticancer efficacy with 94.3 % tumor growth inhibition rate, suggesting that tumor microenvironment-responsive PEGylated HP-based nanomedicines may act as efficient anticancer agents.

12.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 2021 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393131

RESUMO

Combining isocitrate dehydrogenase mutation (IDHmut) with O6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation (MGMTmet) has been identified as a critical prognostic molecular marker for gliomas. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of glioma radiomics features from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to predict the co-occurrence of IDHmut and MGMTmet by applying the tree-based pipeline optimization tool (TPOT), an automated machine learning (autoML) approach. This was a retrospective study, in which 162 patients with gliomas were evaluated, including 58 patients with co-occurrence of IDHmut and MGMTmet and 104 patients with other status comprising: IDH wildtype and MGMT unmethylated (n = 67), IDH wildtype and MGMTmet (n = 36), and IDHmut and MGMT unmethylated (n = 1). Three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted images, gadolinium-enhanced 3D T1-weighted images (Gd-3DT1WI), T2-weighted images, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images acquired at 3.0 T were used. Radiomics features were extracted from FLAIR and Gd-3DT1WI images. The TPOT was employed to generate the best machine learning pipeline, which contains both feature selector and classifier, based on input feature sets. A 4-fold cross-validation was used to evaluate the performance of automatically generated models. For each iteration, the training set included 121 subjects, while the test set included 41 subjects. Student's t-test or a chi-square test was applied on different clinical characteristics between two groups. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, kappa score, and AUC were used to evaluate the performance of TPOT-generated models. Finally, we compared the above metrics of TPOT-generated models to identify the best-performing model. Patients' ages and grades between two groups were significantly different (p = 0.002 and p = 0.000, respectively). The 4-fold cross-validation showed that gradient boosting classifier trained on shape and textual features from the Laplacian-of-Gaussian-filtered Gd-3DT1 achieved the best performance (average sensitivity = 81.1%, average specificity = 94%, average accuracy = 89.4%, average kappa score = 0.76, average AUC = 0.951). Using autoML based on radiomics features from MRI, a high discriminatory accuracy was achieved for predicting co-occurrence of IDHmut and MGMTmet in gliomas. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 3.

13.
Oncogene ; 40(8): 1516-1530, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452462

RESUMO

The basic leucine zipper ATF-like transcription factor 2 (BATF2) has been implicated in inflammatory responses and anti-tumour effects. Little, however, is known regarding its extracellular role in maintaining a non-supportive cancer microenvironment. Here, we show that BATF2 inhibits glioma growth and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) recruitment. Interestingly, extracellular vesicles (EVs) from BATF2-overexpressing glioma cell lines (BATF2-EVs) inhibited MDSCs chemotaxis in vitro. Moreover, BATF2 inhibited intracellular SDF-1α and contributes to decreased SDF-1α in EVs. In addition, BATF2 downregulation-induced MDSCs recruitment were reversed by blocking SDF-1α/CXCR4 signalling upon AMD3100 treatment. Specifically, detection of EVs in 24 pairs of gliomas and healthy donors at different stages revealed that the abundance of BATF2-positive EVs in plasma (BATF2+ plEVs) can distinguish stage III-IV glioma from stage I-II glioma and healthy donors. Taken together, our study identified novel regulatory functions of BATF2 in regulating MDSCs recruitment, providing a prognostic value in terms of the number of BATF2+ plEVs in glioma stage.

14.
Schizophr Res ; 228: 241-248, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486391

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness for which the mainstay of treatment is antipsychotics. Up to 30% of schizophrenia patients show limited response to antipsychotics. Identifying these patients before treatment could guide individualized treatment for improving outcomes in those not likely to show robust benefit from antipsychotics. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed with 56 drug-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients and 69 matched healthy controls. Patients were followed clinically after one-year of antipsychotic treatment and classified at that point into groups of 17 poor outcome and 39 good outcome patients based on whether they showed at least a 50% reduction of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores from baseline. Tract-based spatial statistics were applied to assess white matter microstructure in the two patient subgroups and healthy controls. Poor outcome patients showed reduced pretreatment fractional anisotropy (FA) in left cingulum and anterior thalamic radiation and increased FA in right superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus compared with good outcome patients. FA in each of these four tracts was decreased in both patient subgroups relative to healthy controls. Considered together, the four altered tracts showed promising ability to differentiate poor from good outcome patients (sensitivity = 74.4%, specificity = 95.2%, AUC = 0.90, p < 0.001), and superior prediction of clinical outcome to baseline PANSS scores (p < 0.015). Prediction of outcomes using DTI features was not related to duration of untreated psychosis. Baseline alterations in white matter integrity may identify schizophrenia patients less likely to respond to treatment, which could be useful information for stratification in clinical trials and for individualized treatment planning.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512508

RESUMO

Anxiety and depressive symptoms may predispose individuals to sleep disturbance. Understanding how these emotional symptoms affect sleep quality, especially the underlying neural basis, could support the development of effective treatment. The aims of the present study were therefore to investigate potential changes in brain morphometry associated with poor sleep quality and whether this structure played a mediating role between the emotional symptoms and sleep quality. 141 healthy adults (69 women, mean age 26.06 years, SD = 6.36 years) were recruited. A structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) investigation was performed and self-reported measures of anxiety, depressive symptoms and sleep quality obtained for each participant. Whole-brain regression analysis revealed that worse sleep quality was associated with thinner cortex in left Superior Temporal Sulcus (STS). Furthermore, the thickness of left STS mediated the association between the emotional symptoms and sleep quality. A subsequent commonality analysis showed that physiological component of the depressive symptoms had the greatest influence on sleep quality. In conclusion, thinner cortex in left STS may represent a neural substrate for the association between anxiety and depressive symptoms and poor sleep quality and may thus serve as a potential target for neuromodulatory treatment of sleep problems.

16.
Seizure ; 84: 78-83, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307464

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The underlying pathophysiology of juvenile absence epilepsy (JAE) is unclear. Since cortical and subcortical brain regions are thought to be altered in genetic generalized epilepsy, the present study examined the resting-state functional network topology of the same regions in JAE. METHODS: Electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) were performed on 18 JAE patients and 28 healthy controls (HCs). The topology of functional networks was analyzed using the graph-theoretic method. Both global and nodal network parameters were calculated, and parameters differing significantly between the two groups were correlated with clinical variables. RESULTS: Both JAE patients and HCs had small-world functional network topological architectures. However, JAE patients showed higher values for the global parameters of clustering coefficient (Cp) and normalized characteristic path length (Lambda). At the nodal level, patients exhibited greater centrality at widespread cortices, including the left superior parietal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, right orbital part of middle frontal gyrus and bilateral supplementary motor area. Conversely, patients showed decreased nodal centrality predominantly in the limbic network, left thalamus and right caudate nucleus. Degree centrality in the right hippocampus and betweenness centrality in the right caudate nucleus positively correlated with epilepsy duration. CONCLUSION: The global functional network of JAE shows small-world properties, but tends to be regular with higher segregation and lower integration. Regions in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical network have aberrant nodal centrality. The hippocampus and caudate nucleus may reorganize as epilepsy progresses. Our findings indicate the pathogenesis and compensatory mechanisms to seizure attacks and cognitive deficits of JAE.

17.
J Headache Pain ; 21(1): 141, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287704

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the possible concurrent brain functional and structural alterations in patients with migraine without aura (MwoA) patients compared to healthy subjects (HS). METHODS: Seventy-two MwoA patients and forty-six HS were recruited. 3D-T1 and resting state fMRI data were collected during the interictal period for MwoA and HS. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) for structure analysis and regional homogeneity (Reho) for fMRI analysis were applied. The VBM and Reho maps were overlapped to determine a possible brain region with concurrent functional and structural alteration in MwoA patients. Further analysis of resting state functional connectivity (FC) alteration was applied with this brain region as the seed. RESULTS: Compared with HS, MwoA patients showed decreased volume in the bilateral superior and inferior colliculus, periaqueductal gray matter (PAG), locus ceruleus, median raphe nuclei (MRN) and dorsal pons medulla junction. MwoA patients showed decreased Reho values in the middle occipital gyrus and inferior occipital gyrus, and increased Reho values in the MRN. Only a region in the MRN showed both structural and functional alteration in MwoA patients. Pearson correlation analysis showed that there was no association between volume or Reho values of the MRN and headache frequency, headache intensity, disease duration, self-rating anxiety scale or self-rating depression scale in MwoA patients. Resting state functional connectivity (FC) with the MRN as the seed showed that MwoA patients had increased FC between the MRN and PAG. CONCLUSIONS: MRN are involved in the pathophysiology of migraine during the interictal period. This study may help to better understand the migraine symptoms. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01152632 . Registered 27 June 2010.

18.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 40(6): 1041-1051, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258357

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore how baseline resting-state cerebral function predicts clinical outcomes of acupuncture treatment for migraine. METHODS: One hundred migraine patients and 46 healthy subjects were recruited. Patients were randomized into the acupuncture, sham acupuncture, and waiting list groups. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected at baseline and after 1 month of longitudinal acupuncture treatments. Fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) calculations were applied to explore the associations between baseline fALFF and changes in clinical variables in the acupuncture treatment group and the waiting list group. RESULTS: Compared with healthy subjects, migraine patients had lower fALFF in the left rostral ventromedial medulla, right thalamus, left amygdala, and right angular gyrus. Regression analyses revealed that baseline fALFF values in the left middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and middle temporal gyrus were positively associated with headache intensity changes in the acupuncture treatment group, while baseline fALFF values in the bilateral lingual gyrus and cuneus were negatively associated with headache intensity changes in this group. CONCLUSION: The baseline fALFF values of brain regions associated with cognitive pain modulation, but not migraine severity, may predict future headache intensity improvement levels in migraine patients receiving acupuncture treatment.

19.
Brain Behav ; : e01975, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270358

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the most prominent and replicable fractional anisotropy (FA) alterations of white matter associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) studies. METHODS: We reviewed previous TBSS studies (n = 20) in OCD and performed a meta-analysis (n = 16) of FA differences. RESULTS: No between-group differences in FA were detected in the pooled meta-analysis. However, reduced FA was identified in the genu and anterior body of corpus callosum (CC) in adult OCD. FA reductions in the anterior body of CC were associated with a later age of onset in adult patients with OCD. For pediatric OCD, decreased FA in earlier adolescence and increased FA in later adolescence were seemingly related to an altered trajectory of brain maturation. CONCLUSIONS: Absent in the pooled sample but robust in adults, disrupted microstructural organization in the anterior part of CC indicates a bias of deficits toward connections in interhemispheric connections of rostral neocortical regions, which could lead to deficits of interhemispheric communication and thus contribute to cognitive and emotional deficits in adult OCD. The correlation between FA in the anterior body of CC and older illness onset suggests that patients with later adult onset of illness may represent a biologically distinct subgroup. For pediatric OCD, alterations in neurodevelopmental maturation may contribute to inconsistent patterns of FA alteration relative to controls during adolescence. While most studies of OCD have emphasized alterations of within hemisphere fronto-striatal circuits, these results indicate that between hemisphere connectivity of this circuitry may also represent important pathophysiology of the illness.

20.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 2020 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369178

RESUMO

AIM: Over 90% of patients receiving orthodontic treatment experience clinically significant pain. However, little is known about the neural correlates of orthodontic pain and which has therefore been investigated in the present study of healthy subjects using an experimental paradigm. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) was performed in 44 healthy subjects 24 hours after an elastic separator had been introduced between the first and the second molar on the right side of the lower jaw and in 49 age- and sex-matched healthy control (HC) subjects. A K-means clustering algorithm was used to identify functional gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) resting-state networks, and differences in functional connectivity (FC) of GM and WM between the group of subjects with experimental orthodontic pain and HC were analyzed. RESULTS: Twelve GM networks and 14 WM networks with high stability were identified. Compared with HC, subjects with orthodontic pain showed significantly increased FC between WM12, which includes posterior thalamic radiation and posterior cingulum bundle, and most GM networks. Besides, the WM12 network showed significant differences in FC with three GM-WM loops involving the default mode network, dorsal attention network, and salience network, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Orthodontic pain is shown to produce an alteration of FC in networks relevant to pain processing, which may be mediated by a WM network relevant to emotion perception and cognitive processing.

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