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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318010

RESUMO

Previously, we reported the potent activity of a novel spiropyrimidinetrione, zoliflodacin, against Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates collected in 2013 from symptomatic men in Nanjing, China. Here, we investigated trends of susceptibilities to zoliflodacin in 986 isolates collected from men between 2014 and 2018. N. gonorrhoeae isolates were tested for susceptibility to zoliflodacin and seven other antibiotics. Mutations in the gyrA, gyrB, parC, parE, and mtrR genes were determined by PCR and sequencing. The MICs of zoliflodacin ranged from ≤0.002 to 0.25 mg/liter; the overall MIC50 and MIC90 were 0.06 mg/liter and 0.125 mg/liter, respectively, in 2018, increasing 2-fold from 2014. However, the percentage of isolates with lower zoliflodacin MICs declined in each year sequentially, while the percentage with higher MICs increased yearly (P ≤ 0.00001). All isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin but resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC ≥ 1 mg/liter); 21.2% (209/986) were resistant to azithromycin (≥1 mg/liter), 43.4% (428/986) were penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae (PPNG), 26.9% (265/986) were tetracycline-resistant N. gonorrhoeae (TRNG), and 19.4% (191/986) were multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates. 202 isolates with the lowest (≤0.002 to 0.015 mg/liter) and highest (0.125 to 0.25 mg/liter) zoliflodacin MICs were quinolone resistant with double or triple mutations in gyrA; 193/202 (95.5%) also had mutations in parC There were no D429N/A and/or K450T mutations in GyrB identified in the 143 isolates with higher zoliflodacin MICs; an S467N mutation in GyrB was identified in one isolate. We report that zoliflodacin continues to have excellent in vitro activity against clinical gonococcal isolates, including those with high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, and extended-spectrum cephalosporins.

2.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241572, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147295

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neurosyphilis can occur at any stage of syphilis. After treatment, 30%-40% of syphilis patients remained serofast. But the prevalence of asymptomatic neurosyphilis (ANS) among serofast syphilis patients remains unclear. Untimely treatment or improper management for ANS may result in neurological complications. So we perform the meta-analysis to evaluate the prevalence of ANS cases among HIV-negative serofast syphilis patients for exploring their relationship and addressing their clinical management. METHODS: We searched CNKI, Wan Fang, VIP, CBMdisc, PubMed, Embase and Medline from January 1st 1990 to September 22nd 2020 for both English and Chinese records. We strictly restrict the eligibility criteria. STROBE was used for reporting quality assessment. We examined forest plots and conducted both fix-effects and random-effects to estimate prevalence by R version 3.6.2/R studio 1.2.1335 statistical software packages META version 4.9-9. If appropriate, between-study heterogeneity was examined using the I2 statistic and subgroup analysis. RESULTS: Of 77 screened records, 5 were included. The pooled prevalence of ANS among HIV-negative serofast syphilis patients was 13% (95% CI 3%-23%; I2 = 93% P<0.01, 417 people). The prevalence of ANS for the verified ANS classification definition was 3% (95% CI 0%-7%; I2 = 67% P = 0.08, two studies, 189 people), and 21% (95% CI 6%-36%; I2 = 86% P<0.01, three studies, 228 people) for the likely ANS classification. The prevalence of ANS among the serofast syphilis patients who were followed up for one year was 29% (95% CI 22%-36%; I2 = 0% P = 0.5, two studies, 167 people) and 5% (95% CI 0%-13%; I2 = 79% P = 0.03, two studies, 144 people) for two years. The prevalence in the studies from different geographical subgroups was as follows: 9% (95% CI 0%-19%; I2 = 82% P<0.01, three studies, 169 people) in South-central China, 6% (95% CI 1%-10%; one study, 106 people) in East China, and 30% (95% CI 23%-38%; one study, 142 people) in North China. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis showed a high estimated prevalence of ANS in HIV-negative serofast syphilis patients, the prevalence of ANS among patients diagnosed with the verified ANS case definition is much lower than that for the likely ANS classification. It may be necessary to carry out nontreponemal test, protein test and leukocyte count for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in treated serofast patients for better clinical management to avoid neurological complications. The case classification definition of ANS is a key factor to evaluate the prevalence. Geographical heterogeneity needs more studies to detect. In future we need better-design studies to explore relationship between ANS and serofast status.

3.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 31: 101944, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800966

RESUMO

Cystic acne of the scalp is relatively resistant to conventional treatment because of its thick wall and deep cavity. This study was conducted as a comparative analysis of clinical outcomes of single surgery and those of surgery combined with photodynamic therapy for cystic acne of the scalp. Ten patients were treated only with surgical incisions and drainage of pus and necrotic tissues, and another ten patients were treated with photodynamic therapy immediately after surgery, followed by two weekly cycles thereafter. The combination treatment group reported better outcomes than the single surgery group in terms of duration of wound healing, the number of dressing changes, pain score at the time of dressing change, and recurrence rate. Our study demonstrateds that the combination of surgery and photodynamic therapy may have pronounced effects on the treatment for cystic acne of the scalp.

4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5472, 2020 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214152

RESUMO

The Spectrum-STI model, structured by sub-groups within a population, was used in a workshop in Yunnan, China, to estimate provincial trends in active syphilis in 15 to 49-year-old adults. Syphilis prevalence data from female sex workers (FSW), men who have sex with men (MSM), and lower-risk women and men in Yunnan were identified through literature searches and local experts. Sources included antenatal care clinic screening, blood donor screening, HIV/STI bio-behavioural surveys, sentinel surveillance, and epidemiology studies. The 2017 provincial syphilis prevalence estimates were 0.26% (95% confidence interval 0.17-0.34%) in women and 0.28% (0.20-0.36%) in men. Estimated prevalence was 6.8-fold higher in FSW (1.69% (0.68-3.97%) than in lower-risk women (0.25% (0.18-0.35%)), and 22.7-fold higher in MSM (5.35% (2.74-12.47%) than in lower-risk men (0.24% (0.17-0.31%). For all populations, the 2017 estimates were below the 2005 estimates, but differences were not significant. In 2017 FSW and MSM together accounted for 9.3% of prevalent cases. These estimates suggest Yunnan's STI programs have kept the overall prevalence of syphilis low, but prevalence remains high in FSW and MSM. Strengthening efforts targeting FSW and MSM, and identification of other risk populations e.g. among heterosexual men, are critical to reduce syphilis.

5.
Sex Transm Dis ; 47(1): 28-33, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data are scarce on sexually transmitted infection (STI) treatment-seeking behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. The purpose of the study was to characterize the first response to STI symptoms, treatment-seeking behavior, and its associated factors among MSM in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with convenience sampling design was conducted in 13 cities from April to July 2017. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect information on demographics, STI symptoms, and treatment-seeking behavior. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate variables associated with not seeking treatment. RESULTS: Among 3925 recruited participants, 628 (16.0%) reported STI symptoms in the past 12 months and were included in the analysis. Upon or after being notified of the symptoms, MSM sought help from various sources or self-tested using rapid testing kits. Only 322(51.3%) went to see a doctor in clinic. In multiple logistic regression analyses, younger age, lower income, less STI knowledge (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.5), not knowing own STI risk (AOR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.7), no symptoms of anogenital ulcers (AOR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.3-3.8) or anogenital warts (AOR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.6-3.7), no syphilis testing in the past 12 months (AOR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.5-3.0) were associated with higher probability of not seeking treatment in clinics. CONCLUSIONS: We found a high prevalence of STI symptoms among MSM and only half sought treatment. Prevention efforts should promote STI education, testing, and adequate treatment-seeking behavior.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(5): 805-810, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) causes symptomatic urethritis in men, and can infect alone or together with other sexually transmitted infection (STI) agents. METHODS: The prevalence of MG and other STIs was determined in 1816 men with symptomatic urethritis. Resistance of MG to macrolides and fluoroquinolones was determined by sequencing; the impact of recent antimicrobial usage on the distribution of MG single or mixed infections was determined. RESULTS: Overall, prevalence of MG infection was 19.7% (358/1816). Fifty-four percent (166/307) of MG infections occurred alone in the absence of other STI agents. Men with single MG infection self-administered or were prescribed antibiotics more often in the 30 days prior to enrollment than subjects with urethritis caused by MG coinfection (P < .0001). Higher rates (96.7%) of infection with macrolide resistance in MG were identified in men who had taken macrolides prior to enrollment (P < .03). Overall, 88.9% (303/341) of 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes contained mutations responsible for macrolide resistance; 89.5% (308/344) of parC and 12.4% (42/339) of gyrA genes had mutations responsible for fluoroquinolone resistance. Approximately 88% (270/308) of MG had combined mutations in 23S rRNA and parC genes; 10.4% (32/308) had mutations in all 3 genes. CONCLUSIONS: MG was the single pathogen identified in 11% of men with symptomatic urethritis. Overall, nearly 90% of MG infections were resistant to macrolides and fluoroquinolones. Men who took macrolides in the 30 days prior to enrollment had higher rates (97%) of macrolide-resistant MG. Resistance was associated with numerous mutations in 23SrRNA, parC, and gyrA genes.

7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(10): 247-250, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870407

RESUMO

Mother-to-child transmission of syphilis remains a major global public health issue, and elimination of congenital syphilis is one of the millennium development goals of the World Health Organization (1). In 2012, an estimated 930,000 maternal syphilis infections caused 350,000 adverse pregnancy outcomes, including 143,000 early fetal deaths and stillbirths, 62,000 neonatal deaths, 44,000 preterm or low-weight births, and 102,000 infected infants worldwide (2). In China, the number of congenital syphilis cases reported annually increased from 468 in 2000 to 10,032 in 2013; the corresponding national congenital syphilis incidence rate increased nearly 26-fold, from 2.6 cases per 100,000 live births in 2000 to 69.9 in 2013 (3,4). To examine risk factors for mother-to-child transmission of syphilis, a cohort of pregnant women with a new syphilis diagnosis and their live-born infants was recruited during July 2011-July 2014 in Suzhou, in eastern China. Multivariable logistic regression results demonstrated that gestational age >36 weeks at the time of maternal syphilis diagnosis, higher maternal titers of rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and higher Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA) titers are risk factors for congenital syphilis. Among women with syphilis diagnosed at >36 weeks' gestational age, three quarters were migrant women. Recommendations for strengthening community and provider education about mother-to-child transmission of syphilis, early diagnosis and timely treatment of syphilis in pregnancy, and improving and providing access to prenatal care and screening migrant pregnant women with temporary residence status might reduce the incidence of congenital syphilis in China.


Assuntos
Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Sífilis Congênita/epidemiologia , Sífilis/transmissão , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Cosmet Laser Ther ; 20(2): 71-76, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29020482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Q-switched (QS) lasers are the gold standard for tattoo removal. The purpose of the present study was to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the factors that influence the efficacy of QS lasers and their associated complications in the removal of tattoos in China. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical data of 266 patients were analyzed retrospectively. The tattoo clearance rate was evaluated using the 4-point scale. The Cox regression model was applied to analyze the factors that affected the efficacy of QS lasers in tattoo removal. In addition, treatment-related adverse reactions were analyzed. RESULTS: The results showed that several variables had a statistically significant effect (p < 0.05) on the efficacy of QS laser-mediated tattoo removal treatment, including the patients' age, the tattoo's age, type, color, or ink density and the number of treatments. A variety of adverse responses occurred during the laser treatment. The overall incidence of adverse responses was approximately 24.06%, including pigmentation, hypopigmentation, bulla formation, allergic reactions, and skin texture changes or hypertrophic scarring. CONCLUSION: Some factors may influence the efficacy of QS lasers in the treatment of tattoos and certain adverse reactions may occur during this process.


Assuntos
Técnicas Cosméticas , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Tatuagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , China , Cicatriz Hipertrófica/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Lasers de Estado Sólido/efeitos adversos , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pele , Adulto Jovem
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 65(10): 1683-1688, 2017 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29020150

RESUMO

Background: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of ceftriaxone and benzathine penicillin G (BPG) in nonpregnant, immunocompetent adults with early syphilis because there is a lack of clinical evidence supporting ceftriaxone as an alternative treatment for early syphilis without an human immunodeficiency virus coinfection. Methods: A randomized, open-label controlled study evaluating the efficacy of ceftriaxone and BPG was conducted in 4 hospitals in Jiangsu Province. Treatment comprised either ceftriaxone (1.0 g, given intravenously, once daily for 10 days) or BPG (2.4 million units, given intramuscularly, once weekly for 2 weeks). A serological response was defined as a ≥4-fold decline in the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titer. Results: In all, 301 patients with early syphilis were enrolled in this study; 230 subjects completed the follow-ups. The serological response at 6 months of follow up was observed in 90.2% in ceftriaxone group and 78.0% in BPG group (P = .01). There was no significant difference between treatment groups in patients with primary or early latent syphilis, but among patients with secondary syphilis the difference was highly significant (95.8% vs 76.2%; P < .01). Moreover, patients exhibiting a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction after treatment might have a shorter period before a serological response (P = .03). Conclusions: In this study, ceftriaxone regimen was noninferior to the BPG regimen in nonpregnant, immunocompetent patients with early syphilis. Clinical Trials Registration: ChiCTR-TQR-13003624.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Penicilina G Benzatina/uso terapêutico , Sífilis/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , China , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sorodiagnóstico da Sífilis , Adulto Jovem
10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2017: 2093421, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28638824

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate club drug use and its potential association with STI among female sex workers (FSWs) in China. METHODS: From November 2008 to January 2009, participants were recruited at sex work venues in five cities for a questionnaire survey. Free testing for syphilis, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) was provided. Logistic regression models were used to assess factors associated with club drug use and its association with STI. RESULTS: A total of 1604 eligible FSWs were included. The overall prevalence of any STI infection and club drug use in the past 12 months was 22.6% and 7.4%, respectively. STI prevalence was significantly higher among club drug users (33.1%) than among nonusers (21.7%, P < 0.05). Multivariable logistic regression found that club drug use was associated with younger age (AOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.0, 6.0), higher education, having injected drugs (AOR 24.4, 95% CI 6.2, 96.8), and having had STI symptoms (AOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4, 3.4). CONCLUSIONS: Club drug use and STI were highly prevalent among FSWs in China, especially among young FSWs. Club drug users had more risk behaviors and higher STI rates. A coordinated risk reduction framework is urgently needed to address the dual epidemic of drug use and STI.


Assuntos
Profissionais do Sexo , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência
11.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 37(3): 358-61, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27005536

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the performance of HIV detection, prevalence and related factors in sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinics and provide evidence for the improvement of HIV test and counsel services. METHODS: From January 2013 to December 2014, a survey was conducted in 9 sentinel STD clinics in Laoning province and other 6 provinces. Newly diagnosed STD patients were asked to fill out in STD reporting cards and encouraged to receive HIV test and counsel. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the factors associated with the acceptance of HIV test. RESULTS: Of the 5063 STD cases reported, 2668(52.7%) received the HIV screening test, in which, 63(2.4%) were positive for HIV. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the acceptance of HIV test was associated with the location of STD clinic, patients' original living place, patient' s marital status, type of STD, and reasons for seeking medical care in STD clinic. CONCLUSION: HIV counsel and test were well accepted by STD patients, and the HIV positive rate was high. More studies are needed to further explore factors that impede the acceptance of HIV counsel and test services in STD clinics.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Aconselhamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Multivariada , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência
12.
Int J STD AIDS ; 26(6): 420-7, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25015933

RESUMO

Though vaginal douching is a common practice among female sex workers that could increase the risk of HIV and adverse reproductive health outcomes, it has drawn limited attention. From November 2010 to January 2011, a convenience sample of female sex workers was recruited in three cities in China. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to gather socio-demographic and behavioural information. Blood samples were collected for syphilis serological tests. Endo-cervical swabs were collected and tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction. A logistic regression model was used to determine factors associated with vaginal douching and the association between vaginal douching and sexually transmitted infection. A total of 1032 eligible female sex workers were enrolled. The overall prevalence of any sexually transmitted infection (syphilis, Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae) and vaginal douching with disinfectant were 23.4% and 23.1%, respectively. Factors independently associated with douching practice included study sites, venue types, ethnicity, having regular partner and sexually transmitted infection history. No significant association was found between vaginal douching and current sexually transmitted infection. Vaginal douching with disinfectant after sex with clients seemed to be a prevalent practice among female sex workers in China. Prevention programmes targeting female sex workers should incorporate components about the adverse health outcomes associated with vaginal douching.


Assuntos
Trabalho Sexual , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Ducha Vaginal , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Assunção de Riscos , Parceiros Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sífilis/epidemiologia
13.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 48(8): 693-8, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25388465

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To apply workbook method for the estimation on syphilis epidemic in China. METHODS: The data on population size and syphilis infection were collected by national STD and HIV/AIDS surveillance system among six populations aged from 15 to 49 years old in 31 provinces in 2011. Six groups included female sex workers (FSW), men who have sex with men (MSM), STD clinic attendee, drug users, pregnant women and general population. Meta analysis was applied to pool the different prevalence of the same population in the different sentinels of each province, and then workbook method was applied to estimate the syphilis epidemic in China. RESULTS: The estimation of syphilis epidemic(95%CI) was 2 979 422(1 504 000-6 063 309) among the populations aged 15 to 49 years old in 2011. The estimation among FSW was 54 624 (38 422-78 875) , that of MSM was 265 453 (162 586-506 520) , that of STD clinic attendee was 53 555 (31 256-98 057) , that of drug users was 94 244 (66 475-139 349) , that of pregnant women was 70 062 (39 942-136 584) and that of general population was 2 441 484 (1 165 319-5 103 924) . The proportion of general population in the whole estimation of syphilis infection was 81.94%, and that of MSM was 8.91%. The estimation of syphilis incidence was 1 489 711 among 15 to 49 years old, and the estimation of syphilis prevalence was 0.40% in the whole country. The estimation of incidence in this research was 5.2 times as the number of reported cases from China information system for diseases control and prevention. CONCLUSION: Workbook method was a scientific and feasible toolkit for the estimation of syphilis epidemic in China, and the estimation outcomes were greatly significant for syphilis control.


Assuntos
Métodos Epidemiológicos , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Usuários de Drogas , Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Prevalência , Comportamento Sexual
14.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 85(11): 113701, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25430114

RESUMO

To date, rotating mirror (RM) cameras still serve as indispensable imaging equipment for the diagnosis of microsecond transient processes due to their excellent characteristics. This paper, for upgrading the optical information capacity of the cameras, presents the new optical acceleration principle to increase the framing frequency or scanning velocity, the new design theory without principle errors instead of the classical theories with some flaws in principle to have applied to design our simultaneous streak and framing rotating mirror camera with continuous access, and the new rotating mirror with novel structure, made of an aluminum alloy, to have considerably reduced lateral deformation of the RM and improved the performance of the camera.

15.
PLoS One ; 9(7): e101761, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25013908

RESUMO

More than 50% of new drug candidates in drug discovery are lipophilic and exhibit poor aqueous solubility, which results in poor bioavailability and a lack of dose proportionality. Here, we improved the solubility of pedunculoside (PE) by generating a water-soluble inclusion complex composed of PE and the polymer ß-cyclodextrin (CDP). We characterized this novel complex by 1H NMR, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffractometry and thermogravimetric analysis. The ratio of ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) units in CDP to PE was determined to be 2∶1. The KD value of the inclusion complex was determined to be 4.29×10(-3) mol•L(-1). In contrast to the low solubility of PE, the water-solubility of the PE-CDP complex was greatly enhanced. A preclinical toxicological study indicated that PE-CDP was well tolerated for a single administration. Importantly, the anti-inflammation potency of the PE-CDP complex was higher than that of PE. As a result, the formation of inclusion complexes by water-soluble CDP opens up possible aqueous applications of insoluble drug candidates in drug delivery.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Celulose/química , Ciclodextrinas/química , Glucose/análogos & derivados , Triterpenos/efeitos adversos , Triterpenos/química , Água/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Glucose/efeitos adversos , Glucose/química , Glucose/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Solubilidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico
16.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 35(11): 1223-6, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25598252

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the prevalence rates of club drug use and how it associated with syphilis infection among female sex workers (FSWs) in different areas of China so as to provide reference for developing intervention programs. METHODS: In each of the study site, different kinds of venues where FSWs solicited clients were mapped and grouped into three strata. The number of FSWs at each venue was enumerated. A stratified proportional sampling design was adopted to recruit FSWs. Questionnaire survey was conducted to gather data on demographic information, club drug use and sexual behaviors. Blood samples were taken and tested for syphilis. Factors associated with syphilis infection and club drug use were assessed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: Results of the 1 630 participants, 120 (7.4%)used club drugs in the past 12 months, and 5.4% (88/1 630)tested positive for syphilis. Syphilis positive rate was not significantly different between FSWs who used club drugs and those who did not. Data from multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that club drug use was associated with following factors as sites of the study, hometown of the FSWs, marital status, education level, having had STD symptoms or history of injecting drugs in the past 12 months of the sex workers. CONCLUSION: Club drug use was highly prevalent among FSWs. Further studies are warranted to fully explore the association between club drug use and the risk of HIV/STD transmission.


Assuntos
Drogas Ilícitas , Profissionais do Sexo/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Sífilis/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual
17.
J Mater Chem B ; 2(31): 5107-5115, 2014 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32261845

RESUMO

A stable aqueous inclusion complex of fullerene (C60) with macromolecules (C60 concentration as high as 3 × 10-4 mol L-1) was achieved by a one-step strategy using γ-cyclodextrin polymer (γ-CDP). The inclusion complex of C60 with γ-CDP (C60-γ-CDP) was characterized by ultraviolet-visible, Raman and 1H-NMR spectroscopies, powder X-ray diffraction analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The supramolecular interactions and the equilibrium constant for a 1 : 2 (C60 : CD unit in γ-CDP) complex of C60 with γ-CDP were studied. Under ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation C60-γ-CDP in water could generate singlet oxygen, which was detected by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. We also evaluated the cytotoxicities of C60-γ-CDP, and investigated the phototoxicity of C60-γ-CDP and pristine C60 toward B16-F10 melanoma cells. The cell viability test showed that C60-γ-CDP had a significantly higher photodynamic ability than that of the pristine C60 under UVA irradiation. This work demonstrated both a CDP-functionalized strategy for enhancing the water-solubility and phototoxicity of fullerenes for applications in cancer photodynamic therapy, as well as remediating the negative biological effects of pristine fullerenes.

18.
Carbohydr Polym ; 95(1): 366-70, 2013 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23618281

RESUMO

A water-soluble inclusion complex of hypericin (HY) with ß-cyclodextrin polymer (CDP) was achieved by supramolecular interactions between HY and CDP. The inclusion complex (HY-CDP) was characterized by (1)H NMR, FTIR, and UV-vis spectroscopies. Compared with HY, the water-solubility of HY-CDP was greatly enhanced because of the water-soluble CDP host. The mole ratio of ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) unit in CDP to HY was determined as 2:1. At 25 °C, the dissociated constant of HY-CDP was measured as 1.47×10(-7) mol L(-1) by UV-vis spectroscopy. In the formation of inclusion complexes, CDP could overcome the ß-CD drawbacks - such as the poor water-solubility and the restriction of single cavity size, indicating it was able to use as a universal solubilizer for pharmaceutical application.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Ciclodextrinas/química , Perileno/análogos & derivados , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Perileno/química , Solubilidade , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Água/química
19.
J Infect Dis ; 206(6): 907-14, 2012 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22807520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Syphilis has made a rapid resurgence in China, especially among high-risk groups including female sex workers (FSWs). METHODS: Two cities in each of 3 provinces in South China were chosen and allocated to intervention or control arms. The intervention consisted of enhancing community-based syphilis screening outreach intervention with comprehensive sexually transmitted infection services at designated clinics while the control maintained routine intervention activities. Generalized linear modeling was used to examine effect of the intervention on incident syphilis infection. RESULTS: A total of 8275 women were eligible, and 3597 women enrolled (n = 2011 in control arm, n = 1586 in intervention arm) in the study. The median follow-up duration was 375 days (interquartile range, 267­475). Syphilis incidence density in the intervention group was reduced by 70% (95% confidence interval, 53%­81%) compared with the incidence in the control arm. The syphilis prevention intervention benefits were robust among FSWs at low-tier venues, individuals with less than high school education, migrants, and women who did not report condom use during the last episode of sex. CONCLUSIONS: Integrated sexually transmitted infection and human immunodeficiency virus prevention strategies substantially reduce syphilis incidence among FSWs, especially among those at low-tier venues. This intervention suggests the need for scaling up comprehensive FSW programs in China.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Profissionais do Sexo , Sífilis/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Preservativos , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Lancet ; 369(9556): 132-8, 2007 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17223476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After a massive syphilis epidemic in the first half of the 20th century, China was able to eliminate this infection for 20 years (1960-80). However, substantial changes in Chinese society have been followed by a resurgent epidemic of sexually transmitted diseases. Sporadic reports have provided clues to the magnitude of the spread of syphilis, but a national surveillance effort is needed to provide data for planning and intervention. METHODS: We collected and assessed case report data from China's national sexually transmitted disease surveillance system and sentinel site network. FINDINGS: In 1993, the reported total rate of cases of syphilis in China was 0.2 cases per 100,000, whereas primary and secondary syphilis alone represented 5.7 cases per 100,000 persons in 2005. The rate of congenital syphilis increased greatly with an average yearly rise of 71.9%, from 0.01 cases per 100,000 livebirths in 1991 to 19.68 cases per 100 000 livebirths in 2005. INTERPRETATION: The results suggest that a range of unique biological and social forces are driving the spread of syphilis in China. A national campaign for detection and treatment of syphilis, and a credible prevention strategy, are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Sífilis/classificação , Sífilis Congênita/epidemiologia
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