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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481709


Deep learning-based methods have achieved remarkable success in image restoration and enhancement, but are they still competitive when there is a lack of paired training data? As one such example, this paper explores the low-light image enhancement problem, where in practice it is extremely challenging to simultaneously take a low-light and a normal-light photo of the same visual scene. We propose a highly effective unsupervised generative adversarial network, dubbed EnlightenGAN, that can be trained without low/normal-light image pairs, yet proves to generalize very well on various real-world test images. Instead of supervising the learning using ground truth data, we propose to regularize the unpaired training using the information extracted from the input itself, and benchmark a series of innovations for the low-light image enhancement problem, including a global-local discriminator structure, a self-regularized perceptual loss fusion, and the attention mechanism. Through extensive experiments, our proposed approach outperforms recent methods under a variety of metrics in terms of visual quality and subjective user study. Thanks to the great flexibility brought by unpaired training, EnlightenGAN is demonstrated to be easily adaptable to enhancing real-world images from various domains. Our codes and pre-trained models are available at:

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(35): 21391-21402, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817423


Syntaxin17, a key autophagosomal N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein, can associate with ATG8 family proteins SNAP29 and VAMP8 to facilitate the membrane fusion process between the double-membraned autophagosome and single-membraned lysosome in mammalian macroautophagy. However, the inherent properties of Syntaxin17 and the mechanistic basis underlying the interactions of Syntaxin17 with its binding proteins remain largely unknown. Here, using biochemical, NMR, and structural approaches, we systemically characterized Syntaxin17 as well as its interactions with ATG8 family proteins, SNAP29 and VAMP8. We discovered that Syntaxin17 alone adopts an autoinhibited conformation mediated by a direct interaction between its Habc domain and the Qa-SNARE motif. In addition, we revealed that the Qa-SNARE region of Syntaxin17 contains one LC3-interacting region (LIR) motif, which preferentially binds to GABARAP subfamily members. Importantly, the GABARAP binding of Syntaxin17 can release its autoinhibited state. The determined crystal structure of the Syntaxin17 LIR-GABARAP complex not only provides mechanistic insights into the interaction between Syntaxin17 and GABARAP but also reveals an unconventional LIR motif with a C-terminally extended 310 helix for selectively binding to ATG8 family proteins. Finally, we also elucidated structural arrangements of the autophagic Syntaxin17-SNAP29-VAMP8 SNARE core complex, and uncovered its conserved biochemical and structural characteristics common to all other SNAREs. In all, our findings reveal three distinct states of Syntaxin17, and provide mechanistic insights into the Syntaxin17-mediated autophagosome-lysosome fusion process.

Autofagossomos/fisiologia , Lisossomos/fisiologia , Proteínas Qa-SNARE/metabolismo , Proteínas Qb-SNARE/metabolismo , Proteínas Qc-SNARE/metabolismo , Proteínas R-SNARE/metabolismo , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Família da Proteína 8 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo
In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim ; 55(10): 793-800, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444671


MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are recognized to hold essential parts in the course of pathophysiology participating in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The current study was intended to appraise the functional implication and underlying regulatory mechanism action of miR-20a in myocardial I/R injury. In cardiomyocyte hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) model simulating I/R, we observed that miR-20a was diminished in H9c2 cells subjected to H/R. The miR-20a mimics promoted cardiomyocyte viability and reduced H/R-triggered cell apoptosis, while the miR-20a inhibitors induced the inverse response in H9c2 cells subjected to H/R injury. Moreover, we ascertained that TLR4 was one downstream target gene of miR-20a and revealed that miR-20a might hold its protective action on cardiomyocytes subjected to H/R by inactivating p38 MAPK/JNK signaling. In summary, this study highlighted the relieved potential of miR-20a against cardiomyocyte H/R injury and suggested its favorable therapeutic role for myocardial I/R injury.

MicroRNAs/genética , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Hipóxia Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , MAP Quinase Quinase 4/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/genética , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/patologia , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno
Neuropsychologia ; 125: 42-50, 2019 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703379


The majority of research regarding hostile attribution bias focuses on its effect on aggression. However, little is known about the brain structure associated with trait hostile attribution bias and the mediating mechanism underlying this link. The current study uses voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to identify the brain regions related to individual differences in trait hostile attribution bias, measured by a Word Sentence Association Paradigm - Hostility in a sample of 176 undergraduate students. Subsequently, two mediation models with regard to brain structure, trait hostile attribution bias, and attitudes toward violence (measured by the Attitudes toward Violence Scale) were analyzed. The results reveal that trait hostile attribution bias is positively correlated with gray matter volume (GMV) in the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and negatively associated with the left lingual gyrus (LG). Furthermore, attitudes toward violence acted as a mediator underlying the association between the left OFC volume and trait hostile attribution bias. Such bias also mediated the relationship between the left OFC and attitudes toward violence. We argue that attitudes toward violence and trait hostile attribution bias seem to predict each other, and the GMV in the left OFC may involve the underlying cognitive mechanism of the bidirectional relationship between the two variables. These results and ideas may shed light on the current understanding of the relationships of the brain's anatomical features, attitudes toward violence, and trait hostile attribution bias.

Atitude , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Hostilidade , Personalidade/fisiologia , Violência/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Córtex Pré-Frontal/anatomia & histologia , Córtex Visual/anatomia & histologia , Adulto Jovem
Front Psychol ; 8: 1959, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29184518


Interpersonal responsibility is an indigenous Chinese personality construct, which is regarded to have positive social functions. Two studies were designed to explore the relationship among interpersonal responsibility, proposal allocation ratio, and responders' hostile decisions in an ultimatum game. Study 1 was a scenario study using a hypothetical ultimatum game with a valid sample of 551 high school students. Study 2 was an experimental study which recruited 54 undergraduate students to play the incentivized ultimatum game online. The results of the two studies showed a significantly negative correlation between interpersonal responsibility and responders' rejection responses only when the proposal allocation ratio was 3:7. In addition, in Study 2, interpersonal responsibility had negative effects on responders' rejection responses under the offer of 3:7, even after controlling for the Big Five personality traits. Taken together, proposal allocation ratio might moderate the effects of interpersonal responsibility on hostile decision-making in the ultimatum game. The social function of interpersonal responsibility might be beyond the Big Five.