*Nature ; 607(7919): 468-473, 2022 07.*

##### RESUMO

Quantum many-body systems away from equilibrium host a rich variety of exotic phenomena that are forbidden by equilibrium thermodynamics. A prominent example is that of discrete time crystals1-8, in which time-translational symmetry is spontaneously broken in periodically driven systems. Pioneering experiments have observed signatures of time crystalline phases with trapped ions9,10, solid-state spin systems11-15, ultracold atoms16,17 and superconducting qubits18-20. Here we report the observation of a distinct type of non-equilibrium state of matter, Floquet symmetry-protected topological phases, which are implemented through digital quantum simulation with an array of programmable superconducting qubits. We observe robust long-lived temporal correlations and subharmonic temporal response for the edge spins over up to 40 driving cycles using a circuit of depth exceeding 240 and acting on 26 qubits. We demonstrate that the subharmonic response is independent of the initial state, and experimentally map out a phase boundary between the Floquet symmetry-protected topological and thermal phases. Our results establish a versatile digital simulation approach to exploring exotic non-equilibrium phases of matter with current noisy intermediate-scale quantum processors21.

*Phys Rev A (Coll Park) ; 1022020.*

##### RESUMO

Strongly long-range interacting quantum systems-those with interactions decaying as a power law 1/r α in the distance r on a D-dimensional lattice for α â©½ D-have received significant interest in recent years. They are present in leading experimental platforms for quantum computation and simulation, as well as in theoretical models of quantum-information scrambling and fast entanglement creation. Since no notion of locality is expected in such systems, a general understanding of their dynamics is lacking. In a step towards rectifying this problem, we prove two Lieb-Robinson-type bounds that constrain the time for signaling and scrambling in strongly long-range interacting systems, for which no tight bounds were previously known. Our first bound applies to systems mappable to free-particle Hamiltonians with long-range hopping, and is saturable for α â©½ D/2. Our second bound pertains to generic long-range interacting spin Hamiltonians and gives a tight lower bound for the signaling time to extensive subsets of the system for all α< D. This many-site signaling time lower bounds the scrambling time in strongly long-range interacting systems.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 123(11): 115701, 2019 Sep 13.*

##### RESUMO

The study of quantum phase transitions requires the preparation of a many-body system near its ground state, a challenging task for many experimental systems. The measurement of quench dynamics, on the other hand, is now a routine practice in most cold atom platforms. Here we show that quintessential ingredients of quantum phase transitions can be probed directly with quench dynamics in integrable and nearly integrable systems. As a paradigmatic example, we study global quench dynamics in a transverse-field Ising model with either short-range or long-range interactions. When the model is integrable, we discover a new dynamical critical point with a nonanalytic signature in the short-range correlators. The location of the dynamical critical point matches that of the quantum critical point and can be identified using a finite-time scaling method. We extend this scaling picture to systems near integrability and demonstrate the continued existence of a dynamical critical point detectable at prethermal timescales. We quantify the difference in the locations of the dynamical and quantum critical points away from (but near) integrability. Thus, we demonstrate that this method can be used to approximately locate the quantum critical point near integrability. The scaling method is also relevant to experiments with finite time and system size, and our predictions are testable in near-term experiments with trapped ions and Rydberg atoms.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 121(25): 250404, 2018 Dec 21.*

##### RESUMO

We study the nonequilibrium dynamics of Abelian anyons in a one-dimensional system. We find that the interplay of anyonic statistics and interactions gives rise to spatially asymmetric particle transport together with a novel dynamical symmetry that depends on the anyonic statistical angle and the sign of interactions. Moreover, we show that anyonic statistics induces asymmetric spreading of quantum information, characterized by asymmetric light cones of out-of-time-ordered correlators. Such asymmetric dynamics is in sharp contrast to the dynamics of conventional fermions or bosons, where both the transport and information dynamics are spatially symmetric. We further discuss experiments with cold atoms where the predicted phenomena can be observed using state-of-the-art technologies. Our results pave the way toward experimentally probing anyonic statistics through nonequilibrium dynamics.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 119(17): 170503, 2017 Oct 27.*

##### RESUMO

In short-range interacting systems, the speed at which entanglement can be established between two separated points is limited by a constant Lieb-Robinson velocity. Long-range interacting systems are capable of faster entanglement generation, but the degree of the speedup possible is an open question. In this Letter, we present a protocol capable of transferring a quantum state across a distance L in d dimensions using long-range interactions with a strength bounded by 1/r^{α}. If α

*Sci Adv ; 3(8): e1700672, 2017 08.*

##### RESUMO

Although statistical mechanics describes thermal equilibrium states, these states may or may not emerge dynamically for a subsystem of an isolated quantum many-body system. For instance, quantum systems that are near-integrable usually fail to thermalize in an experimentally realistic time scale, and instead relax to quasi-stationary prethermal states that can be described by statistical mechanics, when approximately conserved quantities are included in a generalized Gibbs ensemble (GGE). We experimentally study the relaxation dynamics of a chain of up to 22 spins evolving under a long-range transverse-field Ising Hamiltonian following a sudden quench. For sufficiently long-range interactions, the system relaxes to a new type of prethermal state that retains a strong memory of the initial conditions. However, the prethermal state in this case cannot be described by a standard GGE; it rather arises from an emergent double-well potential felt by the spin excitations. This result shows that prethermalization occurs in a broader context than previously thought, and reveals new challenges for a generic understanding of the thermalization of quantum systems, particularly in the presence of long-range interactions.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 119(5): 050501, 2017 Aug 04.*

##### RESUMO

We prove that the entanglement entropy of any state evolved under an arbitrary 1/r^{α} long-range-interacting D-dimensional lattice spin Hamiltonian cannot change faster than a rate proportional to the boundary area for any α>D+1. We also prove that for any α>2D+2, the ground state of such a Hamiltonian satisfies the entanglement area law if it can be transformed along a gapped adiabatic path into a ground state known to satisfy the area law. These results significantly generalize their existing counterparts for short-range interacting systems, and are useful for identifying dynamical phase transitions and quantum phase transitions in the presence of long-range interactions.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 119(2): 023001, 2017 Jul 14.*

##### RESUMO

Continuous symmetry breaking (CSB) in low-dimensional systems, forbidden by the Mermin-Wagner theorem for short-range interactions, may take place in the presence of slowly decaying long-range interactions. Nevertheless, there is no stringent bound on how slowly interactions should decay to give rise to CSB in 1D quantum systems at zero temperature. Here, we study a long-range interacting spin chain with U(1) symmetry and power-law interactions V(r)â¼1/r^{α}. Using a number of analytical and numerical techniques, we find CSB for α smaller than a critical exponent α_{c}(≤3) that depends on the microscopic parameters of the model. Furthermore, the transition from the gapless XY phase to the gapless CSB phase is mediated by the breaking of conformal and Lorentz symmetries due to long-range interactions, and is described by a universality class akin to, but distinct from, the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. Signatures of the CSB phase should be accessible in existing trapped-ion experiments.

*Phys Rev A (Coll Park) ; 962017.*

##### RESUMO

Lieb and Robinson provided bounds on how fast bipartite connected correlations can arise in systems with only short-range interactions. We generalize Lieb-Robinson bounds on bipartite connected correlators to multipartite connected correlators. The bounds imply that an n-partite connected correlator can reach unit value in constant time. Remarkably, the bounds also allow for an n-partite connected correlator to reach a value that is exponentially large with system size in constant time, a feature which stands in contrast to bipartite connected correlations. We provide explicit examples of such systems.

*Phys Rev B ; 932016.*

##### RESUMO

Long-range quantum lattice systems often exhibit drastically different behavior than their short-range counterparts. In particular, because they do not satisfy the conditions for the Lieb-Robinson theorem, they need not have an emergent relativistic structure in the form of a light cone. Adopting a field-theoretic approach, we study the one-dimensional transverse-field Ising model with long-range interactions, and a fermionic model with long-range hopping and pairing terms, explore their critical and near-critical behavior, and characterize their response to local perturbations. We deduce the dynamic critical exponent, up to the two-loop order within the renormalization group theory, which we then use to characterize the emergent causal behavior. We show that beyond a critical value of the power-law exponent of the long-range couplings, the dynamics effectively becomes relativistic. Various other critical exponents describing correlations in the ground state, as well as deviations from a linear causal cone, are deduced for a wide range of the power-law exponent.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 114(15): 157201, 2015 Apr 17.*

##### RESUMO

In nonrelativistic quantum theories with short-range Hamiltonians, a velocity v can be chosen such that the influence of any local perturbation is approximately confined to within a distance r until a time tâ¼r/v, thereby defining a linear light cone and giving rise to an emergent notion of locality. In systems with power-law (1/r^{α}) interactions, when α exceeds the dimension D, an analogous bound confines influences to within a distance r only until a time tâ¼(α/v)logr, suggesting that the velocity, as calculated from the slope of the light cone, may grow exponentially in time. We rule out this possibility; light cones of power-law interacting systems are bounded by a polynomial for α>2D and become linear as αâ∞. Our results impose strong new constraints on the growth of correlations and the production of entangled states in a variety of rapidly emerging, long-range interacting atomic, molecular, and optical systems.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 113(3): 030602, 2014 Jul 18.*

##### RESUMO

Motivated by recent experiments with ultracold matter, we derive a new bound on the propagation of information in D-dimensional lattice models exhibiting 1/r^{α} interactions with α>D. The bound contains two terms: One accounts for the short-ranged part of the interactions, giving rise to a bounded velocity and reflecting the persistence of locality out to intermediate distances, whereas the other contributes a power-law decay at longer distances. We demonstrate that these two contributions not only bound but, except at long times, qualitatively reproduce the short- and long-distance dynamical behavior following a local quench in an XY chain and a transverse-field Ising chain. In addition to describing dynamics in numerous intractable long-range interacting lattice models, our results can be experimentally verified in a variety of ultracold-atomic and solid-state systems.

*Nature ; 511(7508): 198-201, 2014 Jul 10.*

##### RESUMO

The maximum speed with which information can propagate in a quantum many-body system directly affects how quickly disparate parts of the system can become correlated and how difficult the system will be to describe numerically. For systems with only short-range interactions, Lieb and Robinson derived a constant-velocity bound that limits correlations to within a linear effective 'light cone'. However, little is known about the propagation speed in systems with long-range interactions, because analytic solutions rarely exist and because the best long-range bound is too loose to accurately describe the relevant dynamical timescales for any known spin model. Here we apply a variable-range Ising spin chain Hamiltonian and a variable-range XY spin chain Hamiltonian to a far-from-equilibrium quantum many-body system and observe its time evolution. For several different interaction ranges, we determine the spatial and time-dependent correlations, extract the shape of the light cone and measure the velocity with which correlations propagate through the system. This work opens the possibility for studying a wide range of many-body dynamics in quantum systems that are otherwise intractable.

*Sci Rep ; 4: 3583, 2014 Jan 07.*

##### RESUMO

Photonic quantum simulators are promising candidates for providing insight into other small- to medium-sized quantum systems. Recent experiments have shown that photonic quantum systems have the advantage to exploit quantum interference for the quantum simulation of the ground state of Heisenberg spin systems. Here we experimentally characterize this quantum interference at a tuneable beam splitter and further investigate the measurement-induced interactions of a simulated four-spin system by comparing the entanglement dynamics using pairwise concurrence. We also study theoretically a four-site square lattice with next-nearest neighbor interactions and a six-site checkerboard lattice, which might be in reach of current technology.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 109(16): 163001, 2012 Oct 19.*

##### RESUMO

Spontaneous symmetry breaking can lead to the formation of time crystals, as well as spatial crystals. Here we propose a space-time crystal of trapped ions and a method to realize it experimentally by confining ions in a ring-shaped trapping potential with a static magnetic field. The ions spontaneously form a spatial ring crystal due to Coulomb repulsion. This ion crystal can rotate persistently at the lowest quantum energy state in magnetic fields with fractional fluxes. The persistent rotation of trapped ions produces the temporal order, leading to the formation of a space-time crystal. We show that these space-time crystals are robust for direct experimental observation. We also study the effects of finite temperatures on the persistent rotation. The proposed space-time crystals of trapped ions provide a new dimension for exploring many-body physics and emerging properties of matter.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 105(26): 265703, 2010 Dec 31.*

##### RESUMO

A Wigner crystal formed with trapped ions can undergo a structural phase transition, which is determined only by the mechanical conditions on a classical level. Instead of this classical result, we show that through consideration of quantum and thermal fluctuation, a structural phase transition can be driven solely by a change in the system's temperature. We determine a finite-temperature phase diagram for trapped ions using the renormalization group method and the path integral formalism, and propose an experimental scheme to observe the predicted temperature-driven structural phase transition, which is well within the reach of the current ion trap technology.