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1.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 760, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370822

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: The role of sphere-forming culture in enriching subpopulations with stem-cell properties in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unclear. The present study investigates its value in enriching cancer stem cells (CSCs) subpopulations and the mechanism by which HCC CSCs are maintained. METHODS: HCC cell lines and fresh primary tumor cells were cultured in serum-free and ultra-low attachment conditions to allow formation of HCC spheres. In vitro and in vivo experiments were performed to evaluate CSC characteristics. Expression levels of CSC-related genes were assessed by qRT-PCR and the correlation between sphere formation and clinical characteristics was investigated. Finally, gene expression profiling was performed to explore the molecular mechanism underlying HCC CSC maintenance. RESULTS: We found that both cell lines and primary tumor cells formed spheres. HCC spheres possessed the capacity for self-renewal, proliferation, drug resistance, and contained different subpopulations of CSCs. Of interest, 500 sphere-forming Huh7 cells or 200 primary tumor cells could generate tumors in immunodeficient animals. Sphere formation correlated with size, multiple tumors, satellite lesions, and advanced stage. Further investigation identified that the PPARα-SCD1 axis plays an important role in maintenance of the CSC properties of HCC sphere cells by promoting nuclear accumulation of ß-Catenin. Inhibition of SCD1 interfered with sphere formation, down-regulated expression of CSC-related markers, and reduced ß-Catenin nuclear accumulation. CONCLUSIONS: Sphere-forming culture can effectively enrich subpopulations with stem-cell properties, which are maintained through activation of the PPARα-SCD1 axis. Therefore, we suggest that targeting the SCD1-related CSC machinery might provide a novel insight into HCC treatment.

2.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 516(3): 983-990, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272718

RESUMO

Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is always diagnosed at an advanced stage, and patients often miss the opportunity for surgery. Gemcitabine (GEM) and platinum-based drugs, including oxaliplatin (OXA), are mainstays of chemotherapy. However, drug resistance causes treatment failure. Hence, salvage mechanisms are critical to improve outcomes. This study revealed the positive correlation between placenta-specific protein 8 (PLAC8) overexpression and PD-L1 overexpression in GBC. Given the roles of PLAC8 and PD-L1 in chemotherapy resistance, GEM-resistant and OXA-resistant cell lines (SGC966GR and SGC966OR, respectively) were established to test whether and how PLAC8 and PD-L1 function in chemotherapy resistance. Drug-insensitive SGC966GR and SGC966OR cells upregulated MRP and MDR1 and had high expression of PLAC8. PLAC8 blockade using siRNA reversed chemotherapy resistance and downregulated MRP and MDR1 in SGC966GR and SGC966OR cells, suggesting that PLAC8 mediates chemotherapy resistance in GBC. Consistent with the increased mRNA levels of PD-L1 after the acquisition of resistance, PLAC8 knockdown reduced PD-L1 mRNA expression in SGC966GR and SGC966OR cells. In conclusion, PLAC8 overexpression in GBC patients positively correlated with PD-L1 expression. PLAC8 conferred resistance to GEM and OXA by upregulating PD-L1 expression, and PLAC8 or PD-L1 blockade may have potential for overcoming chemotherapy resistance, providing therapeutic options for chemotherapy-refractory GBC patients.

3.
Oncologist ; 24(7): 997-1007, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) rarely present fever as the initial symptom. We aimed to identify clinical characteristics and prognostic factors for these feverish patients. SUBJECTS, MATERIALS, AND METHODS: This study retrospectively reviewed 31 patients with ICC with fever (≥38.0°C) treated at our hospital between January 2002 and December 2014. A propensity score was used to match patients with and without fever at a ratio of 1:2. RESULTS: Patients with ICC with fever had higher serum γ-glutamyl transferase and carcinoembryonic antigen levels, larger tumors, poorer tumor differentiation, and worse prognosis (all p < .05) than those without fever. This was supported by propensity score matching (PSM) analysis. Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that microvascular invasion, hilar lymph node metastasis, and temperature ≥ 38.6°C were related to prognosis. Patients with ICC with fever had higher levels of leucocytes, neutrophils, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in peripheral blood before and after PSM analysis. Body temperature positively correlated with leucocytes (r = 0.599, p < .001), neutrophils (r = 0.644, p < .001), NLR (r = 0.681, p < .001), and PLR (r = 0.457, p = .010). CONCLUSION: Patients with ICC with fever ≥38.0°C and ≥38.6°C had poor and extremely poor prognosis, respectively. Radical surgical treatment may improve the prognosis of patients with ICC with fever <38.6°C. However, systemic therapy (e.g., anti-inflammatory and immune therapy) may be preferable to surgery for these patients with fever ≥38.6°C. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) with fever (≥38.0°C) as the initial symptom are extremely rare. Because their symptoms are similar to those of liver abscess, diagnosis is challenging, and most of these patients are already at an advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. Patients with ICC with fever had different clinical characteristics and worse prognosis than those without fever. The prognosis of those with temperature <38.6°C would be improved by timely surgical intervention. Those with fever ≥38.6°C had an extremely dismal outcome, although they all received radical surgical treatment. New therapeutic strategies are needed to improve survival for patients with ICC with temperature ≥38.6°C.

4.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 25(6): 1686-1694, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29626309

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Annexin A3 (ANXA3) could induce progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) via promoting stem cell traits of CD133-positive cells. Moreover, serum ANXA3 showed preliminary diagnostic potential, however further validation was required. Meanwhile, the prognostic value of ANXA3 remained elusive. The present study aimed to validate diagnostic performance and further systematically investigate the prognostic value of serum ANXA3. METHODS: Serum ANXA3 of 368 HCC patients was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); 295 of these patients underwent resection and 73 underwent transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Diagnostic performance of ANXA3 was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, and the prognostic value was evaluated by Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis. To evaluate the relationship between serum ANXA3 and circulating CD133 mRNA-positive tumor cells (CD133mRNA+ CTCs), real-time polymerase chain reaction was conducted in 69 patients who underwent resection. RESULTS: Serum ANXA3 provided greater diagnostic performance than α-fetoprotein (area under the curve [AUC] 0.869 vs. 0.782), especially in early diagnosis (AUC 0.852 vs. 0.757) and discriminating HCC from patients at risk (0.832 vs. 0.736). Pretreatment ANXA3 was an independent predictor of tumor recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] 1.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26-2.76, p = 0.002)/progression (HR 1.88, 95% CI 1.04-3.43, p = 0.038) and survival (resectable: HR 2.26, 95% CI 1.44-3.56, p = 0.001; unresectable: HR 2.08, 95% CI 1.10-4.05, p = 0.025), and retained its performance in low-recurrence-risk subgroups. Specifically, dynamic changes of ANXA3-positive status was associated with worse prognosis. ANXA3 was positively correlated with CD133mRNA+ CTCs (r = 0.601, p < 0.001). In patients with detectable CD133mRNA+ CTC, high ANXA3 was positively associated with a higher risk of recurrence and shorter overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: Serum ANXA3 shows promise as a biomarker for diagnosis, outcome prediction, and therapeutic response evaluation in patients with HCC.

5.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(3): 547-559, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29070526

RESUMO

Purpose: The spatial heterogeneity of phenotypic and molecular characteristics of CTCs within the circulatory system remains unclear. Herein, we mapped the distribution and characterized biological features of CTCs along the transportation route in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Experimental Design: In 73 localized HCC patients, blood was drawn from peripheral vein (PV), peripheral artery (PA), hepatic veins (HV), infrahepatic inferior vena cava (IHIVC), and portal vein (PoV) before tumor resection. Epithelial and mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype in CTCs were analyzed by a 4-channel immunofluorescence CellSearch assay and microfluidic quantitative RT-PCR. The clinical significance of CTCs from different vascular sites was evaluated.Results: The CTC number and size gradient between tumor efferent vessels and postpulmonary peripheral vessels was marked. Tracking the fate of CTC clusters revealed that CTCs displayed an aggregated-singular-aggregated manner of spreading. Single-cell characterization demonstrated that EMT status of CTCs was heterogeneous across different vascular compartments. CTCs were predominantly epithelial at release, but switched to EMT-activated phenotype during hematogeneous transit via Smad2 and ß-catenin related signaling pathways. EMT activation in primary tumor correlated with total CTC number at HV, rather than epithelial or EMT-activated subsets of CTCs. Follow-up analysis suggested that CTC and circulating tumor microemboli burden in hepatic veins and peripheral circulation prognosticated postoperative lung metastasis and intrahepatic recurrence, respectively.Conclusions: The current data suggested that a profound spatial heterogeneity in cellular distribution and biological features existed among CTCs during circulation. Multivascular measurement of CTCs could help to reveal novel mechanisms of metastasis and facilitate prediction of postoperative relapse or metastasis pattern in HCC. Clin Cancer Res; 24(3); 547-59. ©2017 AACR.

6.
Am J Cancer Res ; 7(12): 2465-2477, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29312800

RESUMO

Overall survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains poor, and the multidrug resistance of HCC cells contributes to the limited efficacy of anti-cancer drugs, and reduced time to recurrence. We systematically screened the expression of transporter genes in HCC samples and found that solute carrier family 29 member A1 (SLC29A1) expression was significantly elevated in human HCC cells compared with para-carcinoma cell samples. The results of tissues microarray showed that SLC29A1 was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival and tumor recurrence, especially for patients with AFP ≤ 20 ng/ml, no microvascular invasion and early staging. In vivo and vitro analyses showed that down-regulation of SLC29A1 expression could enhance tumor cell proliferation, invasion and reduced drug sensitivity. Further microarray-based gene expression profile indicated that low SLC29A1 expression may contribute to HCC progression by promoting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition through zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 and transforming growth factor beta receptor activation, modifying cell adhesion through up- or down-regulation of cell adhesion molecules, and activating the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway through tripartite motif-containing protein 9 inhibition. In conclusion, low SLC29A1 expression correlated with high recurrence risk and poor outcomes for patients with HCC after surgery. SLC29A1 might be a promising prognostic factor, a potential tumor suppressor, and a drug sensitizer for patients with HCC through its interaction with various signaling pathways involved in this disease.

7.
Onco Targets Ther ; 9: 6281-6290, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27789960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with fever as the initial presentation are extremely rare. Our aim was to investigate the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with this disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The clinical features were analyzed in a retrospective study of 63 HCC patients with fever as the first manifestation and 300 HCC patients without fever as the control group. RESULTS: HCC patients with fever had a higher neutrophil percentage, larger tumor size, worse tumor differentiation, advanced Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage, and more hilar lymph node metastasis than HCC patients without fever (all P<0.05). Compared with HCC patients without fever, patients presenting with fever had shorter overall survival (OS, median: 13 months, P<0.001) and time to recurrence (TTR, median: 7.5 months, P<0.001). In addition, HCC patients with fever also had shorter OS and TTR than those without fever in all clinical subgroups with aggressive features (all P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that neutrophil percentage >70%, fever grade ≥38.5°C, tumor size >5 cm, and hilar lymph node metastasis were independent factors for OS and TTR. A positive correlation was observed between body temperature and serum neutrophil percentage (r=0.527, P<0.001). Patients with a fever grade ≥38.5°C had more incomplete encapsulation and larger tumor size, while those with a neutrophil percentage >70% presented with more incomplete encapsulation, vascular invasion, and worse tumor differentiation. Patients with a fever grade ≥38.5°C combined with a neutrophil percentage >70% had worse OS and TTR than other groups. CONCLUSION: HCC patients presenting with fever have poorer prognosis than those without fever; however, their prognosis could be improved by timely surgical intervention. Patients with a neutrophil percentage >70% and a fever grade ≥38.5°C represent a rare HCC subgroup with an extremely dismal outcome and more aggressive clinical course.

8.
Oncotarget ; 7(43): 70654-70668, 2016 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27683106

RESUMO

As a major protein constituent of high density lipoprotein, Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA-1) might be associated with cancer progression. Our study investigated the serum ApoA-1 level for the prognosis of 443 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its effects on tumor cells. We found that the serum ApoA-1 level was significantly lower in HCC patients with tumor recurrence, and was an independent indicator of tumor-free survival and overall survival. Low serum ApoA-1 levels were significantly associated with multiple tumors and high Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage. The circulating tumor cell (CTC) levels were significantly higher in patients with low serum ApoA-1 compared with those with high serum ApoA-1 levels (4.03 ± 0.98 vs. 1.48 ± 0.22; p=0.001). In patients with detectable CTCs, those with low ApoA-1 levels had higher recurrence rates and shorter survival times. In vitro experiments showed that ApoA-1 can inhibit tumor cell proliferation through cell cycle arrest and promote apoptosis through down regulating mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. In addition, ApoA-1 might impair extracellular matrix degradation properties of tumor cells. Taken together, our findings indicate that decreased serum ApoA-1 levels are a novel prognostic factor for HCC, and the role of ApoA-1 in inhibition of proliferation and promotion of apoptosis for tumor cells during their hematogenous dissemination are presumably responsible for the poor prognosis of patients with low ApoA-1 levels. Furthermore, AopA-1 might be a promising therapeutic target to reduce recurrence and metastasis for HCC patients after resection.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína A-I/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)/métodos , Prognóstico
9.
J Clin Immunol ; 32(4): 837-47, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22454246

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We established a stable rat model of liver transplantation using Sprague-Dawley rats and Wistar rats in order to investigate the role of the IDO gene in acute rejection after rat liver transplantation. METHODS: IDO gene expression and IDO enzyme activity were quantified in liver syngeneic grafts and allografts using microdialysis-HPLC. Liver allografts were evaluated for IDO expression by histopathology. We measured liver function-related biomarkers in liver allografts which were re-infused with untreated or IFN-γ-treated dendritic cells (DCs). RESULTS: We found a significant increase in IDO gene expression and IDO enzyme activity in liver allografts compared the sham and syngeneic graft groups. There was a significant correlation between the number of IDO-positive cells and severity of acute rejection. IDO gene expression and enzyme activity was upregulated in the IFN-γ-treated DC group within 7 days after transplantation compared to the untreated DC group and survival rates were significantly improved. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that IDO gene expression correlates with the severity of acute rejection and that IFN-γ-induced IDO-positive DCs may attenuate acute rejection and catalyze local tryptophan metabolism via IDO enzyme expression, leading to immune tolerance after liver transplantation.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Rejeição de Enxerto , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Transplante de Fígado/imunologia , Animais , Tolerância Imunológica , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/biossíntese , Fígado/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ratos Wistar , Transplante Homólogo , Triptofano/metabolismo
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