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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 128(8): 080602, 2022 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35275650

RESUMO

In two-dimensional Floquet systems, many-body localized dynamics in the bulk may give rise to a chaotic evolution at the one-dimensional edges that is characterized by a nonzero chiral topological index. Such anomalous dynamics is qualitatively different from local-Hamiltonian evolution. Here we show how the presence of a nonzero index affects entanglement generation and the spreading of local operators, focusing on the coarse-grained description of generic systems. We tackle this problem by analyzing exactly solvable models of random quantum cellular automata (QCA) that generalize random circuits. We find that a nonzero index leads to asymmetric butterfly velocities with different diffusive broadening of the light cones and to a modification of the order relations between the butterfly and entanglement velocities. We propose that these results can be understood via a generalization of the recently introduced entanglement membrane theory, by allowing for a spacetime entropy current, which in the case of a generic QCA is fixed by the index. We work out the implications of this current on the entanglement "membrane tension" and show that the results for random QCA are recovered by identifying the topological index with a background velocity for the coarse-grained entanglement dynamics.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(16): 160601, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961458

RESUMO

A fundamental result in modern quantum chaos theory is the Maldacena-Shenker-Stanford upper bound on the growth of out-of-time-order correlators, whose infinite-temperature limit is related to the operator-space entanglement entropy of the evolution operator. Here we show that, for one-dimensional quantum cellular automata (QCA), there exists a lower bound on quantum chaos quantified by such entanglement entropy. This lower bound is equal to twice the index of the QCA, which is a topological invariant that measures the chirality of information flow, and holds for all the Rényi entropies, with its strongest Rényi-∞ version being tight. The rigorous bound rules out the possibility of any sublinear entanglement growth behavior, showing in particular that many-body localization is forbidden for unitary evolutions displaying nonzero index. Since the Rényi entropy is measurable, our findings have direct experimental relevance. Our result is robust against exponential tails which naturally appear in quantum dynamics generated by local Hamiltonians.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(14): 140602, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064524

RESUMO

The thermodynamic uncertainty relation (TUR) describes a trade-off relation between nonequilibrium currents and entropy production and serves as a fundamental principle of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. However, currently known TURs presuppose either specific initial states or an infinite-time average, which severely limits the range of applicability. Here we derive a finite-time TUR valid for arbitrary initial states from the Cramér-Rao inequality. We find that the variance of an accumulated current is bounded from below by the instantaneous current at the final time, which suggests that "the boundary is constrained by the bulk". We apply our results to feedback-controlled processes and successfully explain a recent experiment which reports a violation of a modified TUR with feedback control. We also derive a TUR that is linear in the total entropy production and valid for discrete-time Markov chains with nonsteady initial states. The obtained bound exponentially improves the existing bounds in a discrete-time regime.

4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(21): 210606, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530663

RESUMO

It is well known in quantum mechanics that a large energy gap between a Hilbert subspace of specific interest and the remainder of the spectrum can suppress transitions from the quantum states inside the subspace to those outside due to additional couplings that mix these states, and thus approximately lead to a constrained dynamics within the subspace. While this statement has widely been used to approximate quantum dynamics in various contexts, a general and quantitative justification stays lacking. Here we establish an observable-based error bound for such a constrained-dynamics approximation in generic gapped quantum systems. This universal bound is a linear function of time that only involves the energy gap and coupling strength, provided that the latter is much smaller than the former. We demonstrate that either the intercept or the slope in the bound is asymptotically saturable by simple models. We generalize the result to quantum many-body systems with local interactions, for which the coupling strength diverges in the thermodynamic limit while the error is found to grow no faster than a power law t^{d+1} in d dimensions. Our work establishes a universal and rigorous result concerning nonequilibrium quantum dynamics.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(10): 100402, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216430

RESUMO

We prove that matrix-product unitaries with on-site unitary symmetries are completely classified by the (chiral) index and the cohomology class of the symmetry group G, provided that we can add trivial and symmetric ancillas with arbitrary on-site representations of G. If the representations in both system and ancillas are fixed to be the same, we can define symmetry-protected indices (SPIs) which quantify the imbalance in the transport associated to each group element and greatly refines the classification. These SPIs are stable against disorder and measurable in interferometric experiments. Our results lead to a systematic construction of two-dimensional Floquet symmetry-protected topological phases beyond the standard classification, and thus shed new light on understanding nonequilibrium phases of quantum matter.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(7): 076801, 2019 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848648

RESUMO

A d-dimensional second-order topological insulator (SOTI) can host topologically protected (d-2)-dimensional gapless boundary modes. Here, we show that a 2D non-Hermitian SOTI can host zero-energy modes at its corners. In contrast to the Hermitian case, these zero-energy modes can be localized only at one corner. A 3D non-Hermitian SOTI is shown to support second-order boundary modes, which are localized not along hinges but anomalously at a corner. The usual bulk-corner (hinge) correspondence in the second-order 2D (3D) non-Hermitian system breaks down. The winding number (Chern number) based on complex wave vectors is used to characterize the second-order topological phases in 2D (3D). A possible experimental situation with ultracold atoms is also discussed. Our work lays the cornerstone for exploring higher-order topological phenomena in non-Hermitian systems.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 297, 2019 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655542

RESUMO

Topological phases are enriched in non-equilibrium open systems effectively described by non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. While several properties unique to non-Hermitian topological systems were uncovered, the fundamental role of symmetry in non-Hermitian physics has yet to be fully understood, and it has remained unclear how symmetry protects non-Hermitian topological phases. Here we show that two fundamental anti-unitary symmetries, time-reversal and particle-hole symmetries, are topologically equivalent in the complex energy plane and hence unified in non-Hermitian physics. A striking consequence of this symmetry unification is the emergence of unique non-equilibrium topological phases that have no counterparts in Hermitian systems. We illustrate this by presenting a non-Hermitian counterpart of the Majorana chain in an insulator with time-reversal symmetry and that of the quantum spin Hall insulator in a superconductor with particle-hole symmetry. Our work establishes a fundamental symmetry principle in non-Hermitian physics and paves the way towards a unified framework for non-equilibrium topological phases.

8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 120(4): 040404, 2018 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29437420

RESUMO

Discrete time crystals are a recently proposed and experimentally observed out-of-equilibrium dynamical phase of Floquet systems, where the stroboscopic dynamics of a local observable repeats itself at an integer multiple of the driving period. We address this issue in a driven-dissipative setup, focusing on the modulated open Dicke model, which can be implemented by cavity or circuit QED systems. In the thermodynamic limit, we employ semiclassical approaches and find rich dynamical phases on top of the discrete time-crystalline order. In a deep quantum regime with few qubits, we find clear signatures of a transient discrete time-crystalline behavior, which is absent in the isolated counterpart. We establish a phenomenology of dissipative discrete time crystals by generalizing the Landau theory of phase transitions to Floquet open systems.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(25): 250601, 2018 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30608813

RESUMO

We unveil the stable (d+1)-dimensional topological structures underlying the quench dynamics for all of the Altland-Zirnbauer classes in d=1 dimension, and we propose to detect such dynamical topology from the time evolution of entanglement spectra. Focusing on systems in classes BDI and D, we find crossings in single-particle entanglement spectra for quantum quenches between different symmetry-protected topological phases. The entanglement-spectrum crossings are shown to be stable against symmetry-preserving disorder and faithfully reflect both Z (class BDI) and Z_{2} (class D) topological characterizations. As a by-product, we unravel the topological origin of the global degeneracies temporarily emerging in the many-body entanglement spectrum in the quench dynamics of the transverse-field Ising model. These findings can experimentally be tested in ultracold atoms and trapped ions with the help of cutting-edge tomography for quantum many-body states. Our work paves the way towards a systematic understanding of the role of topology in quench dynamics.

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(20): 200401, 2017 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28581785

RESUMO

We show that the quantum Zeno effect gives rise to the Hall effect by tailoring the Hilbert space of a two-dimensional lattice system into a single Bloch band with a nontrivial Berry curvature. Consequently, a wave packet undergoes transverse motion in response to a potential gradient-a phenomenon we call the Zeno Hall effect to highlight its quantum Zeno origin. The Zeno Hall effect leads to retroreflection at the edge of the system due to an interplay between the band flatness and the nontrivial Berry curvature. We propose an experimental implementation of this effect with ultracold atoms in an optical lattice.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 117(18): 180603, 2016 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27835006

RESUMO

The piston system (particles in a box) is the simplest paradigmatic model in traditional thermodynamics. However, the recently established framework of stochastic thermodynamics (ST) fails to apply to this model system due to the embedded singularity in the potential. In this Letter, we study the ST of a particle in a box by adopting a novel coordinate transformation technique. Through comparing with the exact solution of a breathing harmonic oscillator, we obtain analytical results of work distribution for an arbitrary protocol in the linear response regime and verify various predictions of the fluctuation-dissipation relation. When applying to the Brownian Szilard engine model, we obtain the optimal protocol λ_{t}=λ_{0}2^{t/τ} for a given sufficiently long total time τ. Our study not only establishes a paradigm for studying ST of a particle in a box but also bridges the long-standing gap in the development of ST.

12.
Phys Rev E ; 93(6): 062108, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27415209

RESUMO

We numerically study the work distributions in a chaotic system and examine the relationship between quantum work and classical work. Our numerical results suggest that there exists a correspondence principle between quantum and classical work distributions in a chaotic system. This correspondence was proved for one-dimensional integrable systems in a recent work [Jarzynski, Quan, and Rahav, Phys. Rev. X 5, 031038 (2015)1063-651X10.1103/PhysRevX.5.031038]. Our investigation further justifies the definition of quantum work via two-point energy measurements.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26274148

RESUMO

By taking full advantage of the dynamic property imposed by the detailed balance condition, we derive a new refined unified fluctuation theorem (FT) for general stochastic thermodynamic systems. This FT involves the joint probability distribution functions of the final phase-space point and a thermodynamic variable. Jarzynski equality, Crooks fluctuation theorem, and the FTs of heat as well as the trajectory entropy production can be regarded as special cases of this refined unified FT, and all of them are generalized to arbitrary initial distributions. We also find that the refined unified FT can easily reproduce the FTs for processes with the feedback control, due to its unconventional structure that separates the thermodynamic variable from the choices of initial distributions. Our result is heuristic for further understanding of the relations and distinctions between all kinds of FTs and might be valuable for studying thermodynamic processes with information exchange.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26172671

RESUMO

Motivated by the recent proposed models of the information engine [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 11641 (2012)] and the information refrigerator [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 030602 (2013)], we propose a minimal model of the information pump and the information eraser based on enzyme kinetics. This device can either pump molecules against the chemical potential gradient by consuming the information to be encoded in the bit stream or (partially) erase the information initially encoded in the bit stream by consuming the Gibbs free energy. The dynamics of this model is solved exactly, and the "phase diagram" of the operation regimes is determined. The efficiency and the power of the information machine is analyzed. The validity of the second law of thermodynamics within our model is clarified. Our model offers a simple paradigm for the investigating of the thermodynamics of information processing involving the chemical potential in small systems.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25615058

RESUMO

Quantum-mechanical particles in a confining potential interfere with each other while undergoing thermodynamic processes far from thermal equilibrium. By evaluating the corresponding transition probabilities between many-particle eigenstates we obtain the quantum work distribution function for identical bosons and fermions, which we compare with the case of distinguishable particles. We find that the quantum work distributions for bosons and fermions significantly differ at low temperatures, while, as expected, at high temperatures the work distributions converge to the classical expression. These findings are illustrated with two analytically solvable examples, namely the time-dependent infinite square well and the parametric harmonic oscillator.

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