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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 556: 219-30, 2016 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26974570

RESUMO

This study is an investigation into the roles of wildfire and changing agricultural practices in controlling the inter-decadal scale trends of suspended sediment production from semi-arid mountainous rivers. In the test case, a decreasing trend in suspended sediment concentrations was found in the lower Salinas River, California between 1967 and 2011. Event to decadal scale patterns in sediment production in the Salinas River have been found to be largely controlled by antecedent hydrologic conditions. Decreasing suspended sediment concentrations over the last 15years of the record departed from those expected from climatic/hydrologic forcing. Sediment production from the mountainous headwaters of the central California Coast Ranges is known to be dominated by the interaction of wildfire and large rainfall/runoff events, including the Arroyo Seco, an ~700km(2) subbasin of the Salinas River. However, the decreasing trend in Salinas River suspended sediment concentrations run contrary to increases in the watershed's effective burn area over time. The sediment source area of the Salinas River is an order of magnitude larger than that of the Arroyo Seco, and includes a more complicated mosaic of land cover and land use. The departure from hydrologic forcings on suspended sediment concentration patterns was found to coincide with a rapid conversion of irrigation practices from sprinkler and furrow to subsurface drip irrigation. Changes in agricultural operations appear to have decreased sediment supply to the Salinas River over the late 20th to early 21st centuries, obscuring the influence of wildfire on suspended sediment production.

2.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 92(6): 726-32, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24687224

RESUMO

Metal contamination in arable soils and crops grown in and around an industrial area of Bangladesh were measured, and the transfer factor from soils to crops was calculated accordingly. The highest concentration was observed for Fe and the order of metal concentration was Fe > Zn > Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd in soils. Bioaccumulation and translocation of metals from roots to edible parts of the crop plants were varied for almost all elements studied. Absorption of metals was significantly more in the roots compared to other plant parts. Accumulation of all metals in the edible parts of the plants was compared with the recommended maximum tolerable levels proposed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Bioconcentration factors values based on dry weights were below one for all metals except Cu in the rice roots and decreased in the order of Cu > Zn > Fe > Pb > Ni > Cd > Cr.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Bangladesh , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Resíduos Industriais , Metais/análise , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Trastor. adict. (Ed. impr.) ; 12(3): 109-117, jul.-sept. 2010. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-83823

RESUMO

Objetivos: Analizar la prevalencia de antecedentes traumáticos (maltrato físico, psicológico y abusos sexuales) en la infancia o adolescencia de mujeres drogodependientes de centros ambulatorios y residenciales de la Red Asistencial al Drogodependiente de Castilla y León y detectar diferencias entre las mujeres con y sin este tipo de antecedentes. Método: Estudio descriptivo, transversal y multicéntrico con 145 mujeres mayores de edad, en tratamiento por su adicción a las drogas en 2008. Selección mediante muestreo estratificado bietápico (tipo de recurso -ambulatorio y residencial- y droga principal), y aleatorio simple para cada estrato. Recogida de datos mediante cuestionario autoadministrado con información sobre antecedentes de maltrato físico, psicológico y abuso sexual en la infancia o adolescencia. Para la comparación de porcentajes se utilizó la prueba T de proporciones (p < 0,05). Resultados: La prevalencia total de antecedentes de maltrato psicológico y abusos sexuales fue del 63 %. En el grupo de mujeres con antecedentes traumáticos existe mayor presencia de mujeres jóvenes (18-29 años), un inicio precoz del consumo de la droga principal (antes de los 18 años), mayor presencia de consumo de opiáceos, así como de tratamientos anteriores y tratamientos residenciales. La presencia de antecedentes traumáticos en el contexto familiar afecta al 30,6 % (maltrato físico); al 44,9 % (maltrato psicológico); al 18,4 % (abuso sexual) y fuera del contexto familiar al 21,8 % de las mujeres estudiadas. Conclusiones: Los antecedentes traumáticos aparecen en más del 50 % de las mujeres, con un perfil más complejo en su adicción. Esta situación determina la necesidad de incorporar una evaluación inicial de este tipo de antecedentes traumáticos y de intensificar tratamientos psicológicos de apoyo a esta patología (AU)


Aims: To analyze the prevalence of lifetime traumatic events (physical, psychological and sexual abuses in childhood or adolescence) of women with drug addiction treatment in ambulatory or residential centres of Castile and Leon Assistance to Drugs Addicts Network. To detect the differences between women with and without this kind of background. Method: Descriptive, cross-sectional and multi-centre study with 145 women of legal age, in treatment for their drug addiction in 2008. Selection was made by two-stage stratified sampling (treatment resource -outpatient and residential treatment- and principal drug), and random simple for each stratum. Collection data by self-administered questionnaire with information of lifetime traumatic events in childhood or adolescence. Statistical analyses were carried out by Test of Proportions (p < 0.05). Results: The prevalence of total traumatic events was of a 63 %. In the group of women with traumatic antecedents there is a higher presence of young women (18-29 years old), an earlier consumption of the principal drug (before 18 years old), opiate addiction had more prevalence, as well as previous treatment and residential treatment. Traumatic antecedents in the familiar context were present in a 30.6 % (physical abuse); a 44.9 % (psychological abuse); a 18.4 % (sexual abuse) and outside of family context a 21.8 % of the studied women. Conclusions: Traumatic antecedents were present in more of a 50 % of the studied women, detecting a more complex profile on their addiction. This situation determines the need to incorporate an initial evaluation of this type of antecedents and to intensify psychological treatments of support for this pathology (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Centros de Tratamento de Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Centros de Tratamento de Abuso de Substâncias , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , 28599
4.
Anal Chem ; 72(14): 3116-21, 2000 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10939375

RESUMO

A novel approach for the analysis of lignin in geochemical samples has been developed as an alternative to the alkaline CuO oxidation procedure first developed in 1982. The new procedure utilizes microwave digestion technology, as opposed to conductive heating, to carry out oxidative hydrolysis of six samples in an oxygen-free atmosphere at 150 degrees C for 90 min. Ethyl acetate is used as the extraction solvent in place of diethyl ether. Additionally, the new method incorporates a simplified extraction procedure that minimizes solvent handling and the amount of glassware needed. Under these novel conditions, the yields and compositions of lignin phenols from four different samples (modern and ancient sediments; woody and nonwoody tissues) match those obtained by the "traditional" procedure. The significant advantages of this new alkaline CuO oxidation method include faster reaction times, the ability to accurately measure and control reaction conditions, added flexibility for the analyst, and a marked increase in the achievable sample throughput.


Assuntos
Cobre/química , Lignina/análise , Álcalis , Micro-Ondas , Oxirredução
6.
Actas Urol Esp ; 21(2): 158-62, 1997 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9214214

RESUMO

Report of three cases of Wunderlich Syndrome secondary to renal adenocarcinoma, hydronephrosis and non-filar blood dyscrasia, highlighting its uncommon etiology. Brief review of the etiopathogenic, diagnostic and therapeutical aspects, pointing out the relevance of renal ultrasonography and, most specially, abdominal CAT to achieve a definitive diagnosis and to determine the attitude to follow, trying to use conservative surgery whenever possible, although our three cases were treated with nephrectomy.


Assuntos
Hematoma/etiologia , Nefropatias/etiologia , Adenocarcinoma/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Hematoma/diagnóstico , Hematoma/terapia , Humanos , Hidronefrose/complicações , Nefropatias/diagnóstico , Nefropatias/terapia , Neoplasias Renais/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paraproteinemias/complicações , Síndrome
7.
Aten Primaria ; 14(9): 1073-6, 1994 Nov 30.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7811900

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To discover the evolvement of Primary Care doctors' tobacco consumption in Guipuzcoa and their attitudes to tobacco dependency. DESIGN: A descriptive study of a crossover type. October 1992. SETTING: Primary Health care. PARTICIPANTS: 381 general physicians and paediatricians from Guipuzcoa province. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A self-filled questionnaire was distributed at Health Centres for subsequent return by mail. The reply rate was 60.89%, 42.3% were smokers; 33.6%, ex-smokers. 43% of smokers smoked in the Centre; 2% in front of patients. We found significant differences (p < 0.05) with a study carried out in 1988, where doctors who smoked were 52.4%, ex-smokers 19% and doctors who smoked in front of patients, 18.2%. 45.7% of women smoked, 39.2% of men. 78% of the doctors under study stated that they questioned patients about tobacco consumption. 95.2% did so when patients had specific pathologies. CONCLUSIONS: There has been a significant decline in tobacco smoking by doctors in Guipuzcoa. There are more women than men smokers. There is a higher proportion of ex-smokers among doctors than in the population as a whole. There has been a positive change of attitude as to smoking in front of patients. Centres should become more involved in the struggle against tobacco by offering to set up dependency counselling groups.


Assuntos
Atitude , Médicos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Tabagismo/epidemiologia
8.
Clin Rheumatol ; 13(1): 70-4, 1994 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8187447

RESUMO

The frequency and features of joint involvement were evaluated in 29 patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM); eight of them (27.5%) presented arthritis. Mean age was 30 years, and mean disease duration was 5.3 years. Oligoarthritis was observed in 5 cases, while 3 presented polyarthritis; in most cases arthritis was concurrent with the musculocutaneous picture. On comparing the 8 arthritis patients with the remaining 21, no significant clinical or serological differences were found. However, males predominated in the arthritis group, 75% vs 19% (p < 0.05). Arthritis responded favourably to underlying disease treatment and articular sequelae were not observed.


Assuntos
Dermatomiosite/patologia , Articulações/patologia , Polimiosite/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Artrite/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Clin Rheumatol ; 11(3): 396-401, 1992 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1458790

RESUMO

Four patients with rheumatoid nodulosis are here described, together with a review of cases reported to date in the literature. This particular variant of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by the presence of subcutaneous rheumatoid nodules, scanty or absent systemic manifestations and a clinically benign course. Joint involvement appears more commonly as palindromic rheumatism, although patients with arthralgia episodes alone and others with chronic polyarthritis have been described. Seldom reported up to now, a consideration of this entity may help to avoid diagnostic pitfalls and the use of aggressive therapy.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Nódulo Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Radiografia , Nódulo Reumatoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Nódulo Reumatoide/patologia
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