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1.
Front Chem ; 9: 763940, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778213

RESUMO

Numerous flavoring chemicals are added to e-cigarette liquids to create various flavors. Flavorings provide sensory experience to users and increase product appeal; however, concerns have been raised about their potential inhalation toxicity. Estimating potential health risk of inhaling these chemicals has been challenging since little is known about their actual concentrations in e-cigarette products. To date, a limited number of analytical methods exist to measure the concentrations of flavoring chemicals in e-cigarette products. We have developed an analytical method that accurately and precisely measures the concentrations of 20 flavoring chemicals of potential inhalation risk concerns: 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine, acetoin, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, butanoic acid, dl-limonene, ethyl maltol, ethyl salicylate, ethyl vanillin, eucalyptol, eugenol, furaneol, isovanillin, l-menthol, maltol, methyl salicylate, pulegone, trans-cinnamaldehyde, triacetin, and vanillin. Calibration and QC solutions were prepared in 50:50 propylene glycol (PG):vegetable glycerin (VG) and 5% H2O and flavoring concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 10.00 mg/ml. Samples of commercial e-cigarette liquids, calibration and QC solutions were combined with 30 µL of an internal standard mix (benzene-d6, pyridine-d5, chlorobenzene-d5, naphthalene-d8 and acenaphthene-d10; 1 mg/ml each) and were diluted 100-fold into methanol. Analysis was performed on an Agilent 7890B/7250 GC/Q-TOF using a DB-624UI column (30 m x 0.25 mmID x 1.4 µm film thickness), with a total runtime of 13.5 min. Calibration curves were fit using a weighted quadratic model and correlations of determination (r 2) values exceeded 0.990 for all chemicals. Bias and precision tests yielded values less than 20% and lower limits of quantitation (LLOQ) ranged from 0.02 to 0.63 mg/ml. Over 200 commercially available products, purchased or collected from adult e-cigarette users and spanning a range of flavor categories, were evaluated with this method. Concentrations of pulegone, a suspected carcinogen, varied from below limit of quantitation (BLOQ) to 0.32 mg/ml, while acetoin and vanillin, known precursors to more cytotoxic byproducts, ranged from BLOQ to 1.52 mg/ml and from BLOQ to 16.22 mg/ml, respectively. This method features a wide dynamic working range and allows for a rapid routine analysis of flavoring additives in commercial e-cigarette liquids.

2.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669964

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Heated tobacco products (HTP) have diversified global tobacco markets, and user characteristics remain understudied. This study evaluated sociodemographic characteristics, nicotine-related perceptions and behaviors of current HTP users within a sample of adult (18+ years) nicotine users across four countries. METHODS: Data were from current smokers or nicotine vaping product (NVP; known as "e-cigarettes") users from Canada, England, the United States and Australia (n=11,421) who participated in the 2018 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey. Current (at-least-monthly) HTP users were characterized (n=441), and weighted multivariable logistic regressions examined correlates of HTP use. RESULTS: Compared to non-users, current HTP users were younger (mean age: 44.4 vs 31.0 years; p<0.001) and had higher socioeconomic status (p<0.001). A majority of current HTP users used HTPs non-daily (daily: 40.3% vs non-daily: 59.7%). Most HTP users concurrently used both cigarettes and NVPs (90.5%). Among concurrent cigarette-HTP-NVP users, 36.2% used all three products daily. Use of other combusted tobacco products (cigars, cigarillos, pipe, waterpipe/hookah), cannabis, and binge drinking were each associated with current HTP use. HTP use was more common among smokers intending to quit within 6 months or reporting a quit attempt in the past 18 months, and vapers who had experienced negative side effects. CONCLUSION: HTP users in this sample tended to be younger and more affluent. Most reported concurrent use of multiple nicotine products and other substances. Those cigarette smokers who used HTPs appeared more interested in smoking cessation, while some characteristics of concurrent HTP-NVP users were suggestive of dissatisfaction with NVPs. IMPLICATIONS: Few studies have scrutinized characteristics of HTP early-adopters in emerging markets. Our results indicate that in 2018, characteristics of established nicotine users who adopted HTP use in four high-income Western countries mirror those of HTP users in East Asian markets (South Korea and Japan) where HTPs are popular. HTP users reported high levels of concurrent use of non-cigarette combusted tobacco products (e.g., cigars, pipe tobacco). These findings point to the need for future longitudinal studies of HTP use given the implications of those use patterns on the harm reduction potential of HTPs. HTP user characteristics may yield important information to consider in regulation of these products.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574610

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to validate the seven-item wheezing module from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC) in the nationally representative Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study. Adult participants with complete Wave 2-3 data were selected, including those with asthma but excluding those with COPD and other respiratory diseases (n = 16,295). We created a nine-point respiratory symptom index from the ISAAC questions, assessed the reliability of the index, and examined associations with self-reported asthma diagnosis. Threshold values were assessed for association with functional outcomes. The weighted prevalence for one or more respiratory symptom was 18.0% (SE = 0.5) for adults without asthma, 70.1% (SE = 1.3) for those with lifetime asthma, 75.7% (SE = 3.7) for adults with past-year asthma not on medications, and 92.6% (SE = 1.6) for those on medications. Cronbach's alpha for the respiratory symptom index was 0.86. Index scores of ≥2 or ≥3 yielded functionally important respiratory symptom prevalence of 7-10%, adequate sensitivity and specificity for identifying asthma, and consistent independent associations with all functional outcomes and tobacco use variables. Respiratory symptom index scores of ≥2 or ≥3 are indicative of functionally important respiratory symptoms and could be used to assess the relationship between tobacco use and respiratory health.


Assuntos
Asma , Tabaco , Adulto , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Prevalência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sons Respiratórios , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uso de Tabaco
4.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(10): 1947-1955, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Former smokers who currently use e-cigarettes have lower concentrations of biomarkers of tobacco toxicant exposure than current smokers. It is unclear whether tobacco toxicant exposure reductions may lead to health risk reductions. METHODS: We compared inflammatory biomarkers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, IL6, fibrinogen, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1) and an oxidative stress marker (F2-isoprostane) among 3,712 adult participants in Wave 1 (2013-2014) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study by tobacco user groups: dual users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes; former smokers who currently use e-cigarettes-only; current cigarette-only smokers; former smokers who do not currently use any tobacco; and never tobacco users. We calculated geometric means (GM) and estimated adjusted GM ratios (GMR). RESULTS: Dual users experienced greater concentration of F2-isoprostane than current cigarette-only smokers [GMR 1.09 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.03-1.15)]. Biomarkers were similar between former smokers who currently use e-cigarettes and both former smokers who do not use any tobacco and never tobacco users, but among these groups most biomarkers were lower than those of current cigarette-only smokers. The concentration of F2-isoprostane decreased by time since smoking cessation among both exclusive e-cigarette users (P trend = 0.03) and former smokers who do not currently use any tobacco (P trend = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Dual users have greater concentration of F2-isoprostane than smokers. Exclusive e-cigarette users have biomarker concentrations that are similar to those of former smokers who do not currently use tobacco, and lower than those of exclusive cigarette smokers. IMPACT: This study contributes to an understanding of the health effects of e-cigarettes.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is a key health condition associated with tobacco use; however, clinical measures are not typically possible in population-based studies. In this paper, we assess the reliability and validity of self-reported cardiovascular risk factors and diseases in a large nationally representative study of tobacco use and health outcomes. METHODS: This paper analyzes self-reported cardiovascular risk factors and disease among adults age 40 years and older based on U.S. nationally representative data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (self-reported high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes and family history of premature heart disease, BMI ≥ 35, and tobacco use) and cardiovascular disease (self-reported heart attack, stroke and/or congestive heart failure (CHF)) were considered along with ratings of physical functioning, fatigue, and general health. RESULTS: Self-reported cardiovascular disease was found to be associated with functional health measures (walking up a flight of stairs) and general ratings of health. Prospective analyses found strong correlations between sequential data collection waves for history of hypertension, elevated cholesterol and CHF, while more modest correlations were noted for stroke and heart attack. The overall prevalence of cardiovascular disease and hypertension was comparable to those from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). CONCLUSIONS: These analyses suggest reliability and concurrent validity regarding self-reported cardiovascular risk factors and disease assessed in the PATH Study.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Tabaco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Tob Control ; 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The e-cigarette market has rapidly evolved, with a shift towards higher nicotine concentration and salt-based products, such as JUUL; however, the implications for youth vaping remain unclear. METHODS: Repeat cross-sectional online surveys were conducted in 2017, 2018 and 2019, with national samples of youth aged 16-19 years recruited from commercial panels in Canada (n=12 018), England (n=11 362) and the USA (n=12 110). Regression models examined differences between countries and over time in the types of e-cigarette products used (design and nicotine content), reasons for using brands and differences in patterns of use, sociodemographics and dependence symptoms by brand/nicotine content. RESULTS: In 2019, the use of pod- or cartridge-style e-cigarettes was greater in Canada and the USA than England, with Smok and JUUL the leading brands in all countries. In 2019, youth vapers in England were less likely to report using e-cigarettes with ≥2% nicotine (12.8%) compared with Canada (40.5%; adjusted OR (AOR)=4.96; 95% CI 3.51 to 7.01) and the USA (37.0%; AOR=3.99, 95% CI 2.79 to 5.71) and less likely to report using nicotine salt-based products (12.3%) compared with Canada (27.1%; AOR=2.77, 95% CI 1.93 to 3.99) and the USA (21.9%; AOR=2.00, 95% CI 1.36 to 2.95). In 2019, self-reported use of products with higher nicotine concentration was associated with significantly greater frequency of vaping, urges to vape and perceived vaping addiction (p<0.05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: The use of high-nicotine salt-based products is associated with greater symptoms of dependence, including JUUL and other higher-nicotine brands. Greater use of high-nicotine salt-based products may account for recent increases in the frequency of vaping among youth in Canada and the USA.

7.
Addict Behav ; 121: 106994, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The United States has experienced an increasing divergence in cannabis, tobacco, and alcohol use among adolescents and young adults (AYA). We assessed the changes in cannabis, tobacco and alcohol use in an inner-city population of predominantly minority AYA females attending a large adolescent-specific health center in New York City. METHODS: This was a longitudinal study of AYA women recruited and followed over a twelve-year period between 2007 and 2019. Lifetime and past 30-day use were assessed by self-administered questionnaire every six months. In addition, we assessed associations with race, ethnicity, sexual behaviors, receipt of social services, living situation at home (e.g., with or without parents), and use of other drugs. RESULTS: Participants included 1549 AYA females aged 13-21 at baseline, 95% of whom were youth of color. Use of cannabis increased significantly over the twelve-year period, with frequent cannabis use (≥20 times in 30-days) increasing almost 18% per year (OR = 1.18; 95%CI:1.13-1.23). In contrast, past 30-day tobacco use declined over the same period (OR = 0.86; 95%CI:0.83-0.89). Past 30-day cannabis use was more likely among African Americans (OR = 1.33; 95%CI:1.08-1.63), women who had sex with both men and women compared to with men only (OR = 1.44; 95%CI:1.18-1.75), recent users of tobacco (OR = 2.20; 95%CI:1.92-2.52) and alcohol (OR = 2.84; 95%CI:2.52-3.20), and ever users of other drugs (OR = 1.69; 95%CI:1.44-1.99), independent of age, time and living situation. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing rates of cannabis use and the association with concurrent tobacco and alcohol use in AYA females underscore the need to screen for unhealthy cannabis use, in addition to tobacco and alcohol, especially among inner-city AYA.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 235: 113749, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962120

RESUMO

Increased interest in volatile organic compound (VOC) exposure has led to an increased need for consistent, systematic, and informative naming of VOC metabolites. As analytical methods have expanded to include many metabolites in a single assay, the number of acronyms in use for a single metabolite has expanded in an unplanned and inconsistent manner due to a lack of guidance or group consensus. Even though the measurement of VOC metabolites is a well-established means to investigate exposure to VOCs, a formal attempt to harmonize acronyms amongst investigators has not been published. The aim of this work is to establish a system of acronym naming that provides consistency in current acronym usage and a foundation for creating acronyms for future VOC metabolites.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis
9.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(6): 1175-1184, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Determine the overall, sex-, and racially/ethnically-appropriate population-level cotinine and total nicotine equivalents (TNE-2, the molar sum of the two major nicotine metabolites) cut-points to distinguish tobacco users from nonusers across multiple definitions of use (e.g., exclusive vs. polytobacco, and daily vs. non-daily). METHODS: Using Wave 1 (2013-2014) of the U.S. Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, we conducted weighted Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis to determine the optimal urinary cotinine and TNE-2 cut-points, stratified by sex and race/ethnicity. RESULTS: For past 30-day exclusive cigarette users, the cotinine cut-point that distinguished them from nonusers was 40.5 ng/mL, with considerable variation by sex (male: 22.2 ng/mL; female: 43.1 ng/mL) and between racial/ethnic groups (non-Hispanic other: 5.2 ng/mL; non-Hispanic black: 297.0 ng/mL). A similar, but attenuated, pattern emerged when assessing polytobacco cigarette users (overall cut-point = 39.1 ng/mL, range = 5.5 ng/mL-80.4 ng/mL) and any tobacco users (overall cut-point = 39.1 ng/mL, range = 4.8 ng/mL-40.0 ng/mL). Using TNE-2, which is less impacted by racial differences in nicotine metabolism, produced a comparable pattern of results although reduced the range magnitude. CONCLUSIONS: Because of similar frequency of cigarette use among polytobacco users, overall cut-points for exclusive cigarette use were not substantially different from cut-points that included polytobacco cigarette use or any tobacco use. Results revealed important differences in sex and race/ethnicity appropriate cut-points when evaluating tobacco use status and established novel urinary TNE-2 cut-points. IMPACT: These cut-points may be used for biochemical verification of self-reported tobacco use in epidemiologic studies and clinical trials.

10.
Toxics ; 9(3)2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803457

RESUMO

Following their introduction a decade ago, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have grown in popularity. Given their novelty, knowledge of the health consequences of e-cigarette use remains limited. Epidemiologic studies have not comprehensively explored associations between e-cigarette use and hypertension, a highly prevalent health condition and major contributor to cardiovascular disease burden. In this study, cross-sectional associations of cigarette smoking and e-cigarette use (vaping) with self-reported diagnosed hypertension were evaluated among 19,147 18-55 year old respondents in Wave 3 (2015-2016) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study. Multivariable analyses first modeled smoking and vaping as separate 2-category variables, then as a 6-category composite variable accounting for former smoking. After adjusting for potential confounders, current vaping (aOR = 1.31; 95%CI: 1.05-1.63) and current smoking (aOR = 1.27; 95%CI: 1.10-1.47) were both associated with higher odds of hypertension. In analyses modeling smoking and vaping compositely, respondents who were concurrently smoking and vaping had the highest odds of hypertension (aOR = 1.77; 95%CI: 1.32-2.39 [referent: never smokers]). These results differ somewhat from prior epidemiologic studies of vaping and respiratory outcomes, which consistently report smaller point estimates for current vaping than for current smoking. Our findings reinforce the uncertainty surrounding long-term health consequences of vaping, as well as highlight important distinctions between respiratory and cardiovascular outcomes when considering the harm reduction potential of e-cigarettes.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924109

RESUMO

Potential mechanisms by which e-cigarette use may relate to combustible cigarette smoking cessation are not well-understood. We used U.S. nationally representative data to prospectively evaluate the relationship between e-cigarette flavor use and frequency of e-cigarette use among adult cigarette/e-cigarette dual users who attempted to quit smoking cigarettes. Analyses used Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study data from adult dual users (2015/16) who attempted to quit smoking between 2015/16 and 2016/17 (Wave 3-Wave 4, n = 685, including those who did/did not quit by 2016/17). E-cigarette flavor use (usual/last flavor, past 30-day flavor; assessed in 2015/16) was categorized into Only tobacco; Only menthol/mint; Only non-tobacco, non-menthol/mint; and Any combination of tobacco, menthol/mint, other flavor(s). The key outcome, evaluated at follow-up in 2016/17, was frequent e-cigarette use, which was defined as use on 20+ of past 30 days. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between e-cigarette flavor use in 2015/16 and frequent e-cigarette use at follow-up in 2016/17. Dual users who attempted to quit smoking had greater odds of frequent e-cigarette use at follow-up when they used only non-tobacco, non-menthol/mint flavor than when they used only tobacco flavor as their regular/last e-cigarette flavor (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.4); findings were no longer significant when adjusted for factors including e-cigarette device type (AOR = 1.4, 95% CI: 0.7-2.8). Past 30-day e-cigarette flavor use results were generally similar, although frequent e-cigarette use at follow-up was highest among those who used any combination of tobacco, menthol/mint, or other flavors. Findings indicate that e-cigarette flavor use among dual users who attempt to quit smoking may be related to e-cigarette use frequency overall, which may indicate a mechanism underlying findings for e-cigarette use and smoking cessation. Further longitudinal research may help to disentangle how e-cigarette characteristics uniquely impact e-cigarette use frequency and smoking cessation/sustained use.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vaping , Aromatizantes , Tabaco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 23(9): 1611-1616, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693833

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study explores patterns of use of non-cigarette tobacco and nicotine products among adult cigarette smokers and recent ex-smokers. Along with cigarette smoking status we explore differences as a function of countries with different product regulations, gender, and age. METHODS: Data came from the ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Wave 3 Survey conducted between February-June 2020. The analytic sample consisted of 9112 current cigarette smokers (at least monthly) and 1184 recent ex-smokers (quit cigarettes ≤ 2 years) from Australia, Canada, England, and the United States. Respondents were asked about their cigarette smoking and current use of the following non-cigarette products: combustible tobacco (cigars, cigarillos, pipe, waterpipe); noncombustible tobacco (smokeless tobacco, and heated tobacco products [HTPs]); and non-tobacco nicotine products (nicotine vaping products [NVPs], nicotine replacement therapy [NRT], and nicotine pouches). RESULTS: Overall, NVPs (13.7%) and NRT (10.9%) were the most reported nicotine products used, followed by cigars (5.3%), cigarillos (4.2%), and HTPs (3.5%). More than 21% current and recent ex-smokers of cigarettes reported using a non-tobacco nicotine product and noncombustible product, with respondents in England reporting the highest levels of use (>26%). Males, younger respondents, and current non-daily cigarette smokers were more likely to use non-cigarette nicotine products. Notably, 11.6% of ex-cigarette smokers were using other combustible tobacco. CONCLUSION: Considerable percentages of current cigarette smokers and ex-smokers use non-cigarette nicotine products, and there are unexpectedly high levels of use of other combustible products by those recent ex-smokers of cigarettes which is concerning and has important implications for definitions of smoking cessation. IMPLICATIONS: The tobacco product market has evolved to include new products which add to existing non-cigarette tobacco products creating a much more diverse nicotine market. This brief report provides a snapshot of use of various combustible and noncombustible nicotine-containing products among current cigarette smokers and recent ex-smokers in four western countries. Our results indicate that use of non-cigarette tobacco and nicotine products among these cigarette smokers and recent ex-smokers is not low, particularly among males, younger and non-daily cigarette smokers. Use of other combustible tobacco among respondents that recently quit cigarette smoking is concerning and has important implications for definitions of smoking cessation. Increased emphasis on researching non-cigarette nicotine product use is warranted in tobacco control generally and smoking cessation in particular.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Vaping , Adulto , Humanos , Nicotina , Fumantes , Fumar , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tabaco , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Estados Unidos
13.
Function (Oxf) ; 2(2): zqab004, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33748758

RESUMO

E-cigarettes have surged in popularity over the last few years, particularly among youth and young adults. These battery-powered devices aerosolize e-liquids, comprised of propylene glycol and vegetable glycerin, typically with nicotine, flavors, and stabilizers/humectants. Although the use of combustible cigarettes is associated with several adverse health effects including multiple pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases, the effects of e-cigarettes on both short- and long-term health have only begun to be investigated. Given the recent increase in the popularity of e-cigarettes, there is an urgent need for studies to address their potential adverse health effects, particularly as many researchers have suggested that e-cigarettes may pose less of a health risk than traditional combustible cigarettes and should be used as nicotine replacements. This report is prepared for clinicians, researchers, and other health care providers to provide the current state of knowledge on how e-cigarette use might affect cardiopulmonary health, along with research gaps to be addressed in future studies.

14.
Tob Control ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526441

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The current study examined indicators of dependence among youth cigarette smokers and e-cigarette users in Canada, England and the USA, including changes between 2017 and 2019. METHODS: Data are from repeated cross-sectional online surveys conducted in 2017, 2018 and 2019 with national samples of youth aged 16-19 years, in Canada (n=12 018), England (n=11 362) and the USA (n=12 110). Measures included perceived addiction to cigarettes/e-cigarettes, frequency of experiencing strong urges to smoke/use an e-cigarette, plans to quit smoking/using e-cigarettes and past attempts to quit. Logistic regression models were fitted to examine differences between countries and changes over time. RESULTS: The proportion of ever-users who vaped frequently was significantly higher in 2019 compared with 2017 for all outcomes in each country. Between 2017 and 2019, the proportion of past 30-day vapers reporting strong urges to vape on most days or more often increased in each country (Canada: 35.3%, adjusted OR (AOR) 1.69, 95% CI 1.20 to 2.38; England: 32.8%, AOR 1.55, 1.08 to 2.23; USA: 46.1%, AOR 1.88, 1.41 to 2.50), along with perceptions of being 'a little' or 'very addicted' to e-cigarettes (Canada: 48.3%, AOR 1.99, 1.44 to 2.75; England: 40.1%, AOR 1.44, 1.03 to 2.01; USA: 53.1%, AOR 1.99, 1.50 to 2.63). Indicators of dependence among smokers were consistently greater than e-cigarette users, although differences had narrowed by 2019, particularly in Canada and the USA. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of dependence symptoms among young e-cigarette users increased between 2017 and 2019, more so in Canada and the USA compared with England. Dependence symptom prevalence was lower for e-cigarettes than smoking; however, the gap has narrowed over time.

15.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 23(9): 1490-1497, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631007

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is limited research on the role of flavors in nicotine vaping products (NVPs) in relation to smoking. We examined patterns of flavor use in NVPs in relation to progression toward quitting. AIMS AND METHODS: Data come from 886 concurrent users of NVPs (at least weekly) and cigarettes who were first surveyed in 2016 and then successfully recontacted in 2018 as part of the ITC 4CV Surveys conducted in Australia, Canada, England, and the United States. Participants were asked about their main vaping flavor categorized as: (1) tobacco or unflavored, (2) menthol or mint flavored, and (3) "sweet" flavors (eg, fruit or candy). We examined whether flavor was associated with progression toward quitting smoking between survey years. RESULTS: Overall, 11.1% of baseline concurrent users quit smoking by 2018. Compared with users of tobacco flavors, those vaping "sweet" flavors were more likely to quit smoking between surveys (13.8% vs. 9.6%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-2.58, p < .05), but those using menthol flavors were no more likely to quit smoking (8.3% vs. 9.6%, aOR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.43-1.47, p = .69). Among those who had quit smoking in 2018, 52.0% were still vaping, which was lower than the 65.8% among continuing smokers (aOR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.39-0.92, p = .02). Sweet flavor users were no more likely to continue vaping compared with tobacco flavor users, either for those continuing smoking or those having quit smoking by 2018. There was a net shift away from tobacco flavor among those who continued to vape at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Use of fruit and other sweet flavored e-liquids is positively related to smokers' transition away from cigarettes. IMPLICATIONS: With multiple jurisdictions considering limiting or banning the sale of flavored NVPs, it is important to consider how such policies may impact smokers using NVPs to transition away from cigarette smoking. Our results indicate that vapers who used sweet flavors were more likely to transition away from cigarette smoking and quit cigarette use, at least in the short term, compared with those who used tobacco or unflavored NVPs. Randomized clinical trials are needed to establish if the observed association between use of flavored e-liquids and smoking cessation is due to self-selection or is truly causal.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Vaping , Aromatizantes , Humanos , Fumar , Estados Unidos
16.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 23(5): 790-797, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590857

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Concurrent use of tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes ("dual use") is common among tobacco users. Little is known about differences in demographics and toxicant exposure among subsets of dual users. AIMS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from adult dual users (current every/some day users of tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes, n = 792) included in the PATH Study Wave 1 (2013-2014) and provided urine samples. Samples were analyzed for biomarkers of exposure to nicotine and selected toxicants (tobacco-specific nitrosamine NNK [NNAL], lead, cadmium, naphthalene [2-naphthol], pyrene [1-hydroxypyrene], acrylonitrile [CYMA], acrolein [CEMA], and acrylamide [AAMA]). Subsets of dual users were compared on demographic, behavioral, and biomarker measures to exclusive cigarette smokers (n = 2411) and exclusive e-cigarette users (n = 247). RESULTS: Most dual users were predominant cigarette smokers (70%), followed by daily dual users (13%), non-daily concurrent dual users (10%), and predominant vapers (7%). Dual users who smoked daily showed significantly higher biomarker concentrations compared with those who did not smoke daily. Patterns of e-cigarette use had little effect on toxicant exposure. Dual users with high toxicant exposure were generally older, female, and smoked more cigarettes per day. Dual users who had low levels of biomarkers of exposure were generally younger, male, and smoked non-daily. CONCLUSIONS: In 2013-2014, most dual users smoked cigarettes daily and used e-cigarettes occasionally. Cigarette smoking appears to be the primary driver of toxicant exposure among dual users, with little-to-no effect of e-cigarette use on biomarker levels. Results reinforce the need for dual users to stop smoking tobacco cigarettes to reduce toxicant exposure. IMPLICATIONS: With considerable dual use of tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes in the United States, it is important to understand differences in toxicant exposure among subsets of dual users, and how these differences align with user demographics. Findings suggest most dual users smoke daily and use e-cigarettes intermittently. Low exposure to toxicants was most common among younger users, males, and intermittent smokers; high exposure to toxicants was most common among older users, females, and heavier cigarette smokers. Results underscore the heterogeneity occurring within dual users, and the need to quit smoking cigarettes completely in order to reduce toxicant exposure.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/urina , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nicotina/urina , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Vaping/urina , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metais Pesados/urina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrosaminas/urina , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/urina , Pirenos/urina , Fumantes , Tabaco , Estados Unidos , Vaping/epidemiologia
17.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 23(7): 1153-1159, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483754

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In a secondary analysis of our published data demonstrating compensatory vaping behavior (increased puff number, puff duration, and device power) with e-cigarettes refilled with low versus high nicotine concentration e-liquid, here we examine 5-day time course over which compensatory behavior occurs under fixed and adjustable power settings. AIMS AND METHODS: Nineteen experienced vapers (37.90 ± 10.66 years, eight females) vaped ad libitum for 5 consecutive days under four counterbalanced conditions (ie, 20 days in total): (1) low nicotine (6 mg/mL)/fixed power (4.0 V/10 W); (2) low nicotine/adjustable power; (3) high nicotine (18 mg/mL)/fixed power; (4) high nicotine/adjustable power (at 1.6 Ohm). Puff number, puff duration, and power settings were recorded by the device. For each day, total daily puffing time was calculated by multiplying daily puff number by mean daily puff duration. RESULTS: A significant day × setting interaction revealed that whilst puffing compensation (daily puffing time) continued to increase over 5 days under fixed power, it remained stable when power settings were adjustable. Separate analysis for puff number and puff duration suggested that the puffing compensatory behavior was largely maintained via longer puff duration. CONCLUSIONS: Under fixed power conditions (4.0 V/10 W), vapers appear to compensate for poor nicotine delivery by taking longer puffs and this compensatory puffing appears to be maintained over time. IMPLICATIONS: Studies in smokers suggest that when switching to lower nicotine levels, compensation for poorer nicotine delivery is transient. Our novel findings suggest that vapers show a different pattern of compensation which is influenced by both nicotine strength and device power settings. When power is fixed (4.0 V; 10 W), compensation (via more intensive puffing) appears prolonged, persisting up to 5 days. Under adjustable settings when power is increased, puffing patterns remain stable over time. Implications of such compensatory behaviors for product safety and user satisfaction need further exploration.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Vaping , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Nicotina , Fumantes
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467405

RESUMO

Nicotine and cannabis use are common among adolescents and may be associated with behavioral problems, poor academic outcomes and use disorders. The goals of this analysis were the following: (1) Describe the influence of friends' nicotine and cannabis smoking and vaping on self-reported use. (2) Describe the relationship between friends' nicotine and cannabis use on participants' urinary biomarkers of nicotine (cotinine) and cannabis (11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ8tetrahydrocannabinol=THC-COOH). This is a secondary analysis of survey and biomarker data collected in adolescents aged 12-21 between April 2017 and April 2018, in Long Island, New York. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted using SPSS 26. A cutoff value of ≥10 ng/mL was used to signify recent usage for urinary cotinine and THC-COOH levels. Over one-third of the 517 surveyed adolescents reported using tobacco and one-third reported using cannabis. A significant relationship between friends' substance use and self-use was found. For both tobacco and cannabis, over 90% (p < 0.01) of participants with urinary biomarker levels above cutoff had friends who used the respective substance. Friends' nicotine and friends' cannabis use were each independently associated with urinary biomarker levels for those substances (for nicotine, beta = 88.29, p = 0.03; for cannabis, beta = 163.58, p = 0.03). Friends' use of nicotine and cannabis is associated with adolescents' intake, as well as the physiological exposure to those substances. These findings underscore the importance of including peer influence in the discussion with adolescents about tobacco and cannabis use.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Fumar Maconha , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Amigos , Humanos , New York , Nicotina , Grupo Associado , Adulto Jovem
19.
Subst Abus ; 42(3): 339-347, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cannabis use is more common among nicotine users than non-users. This study characterized concurrent use of nicotine and cannabis ("co-use") among 12,064 youth aged 16-19 years residing in Canada, the United States, and England in 2017. Methods: Data were from the ITC Youth Tobacco & Vaping Survey (Wave 1). Seven modes of cannabis delivery (MOD) were characterized by country of residence and past 30-day use of combusted tobacco and electronic cigarettes. Weighted multivariable regression models were fitted to assess the correlates of co-use and each cannabis MOD. Results: Seventy percent of cannabis users reported nicotine use. Co-users exhibited behavioral and demographic differences compared to exclusive users of either substance. "Smoking cannabis without tobacco" was the most popular form of use (78%). Use of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes was associated with "using an e-cigarette to vape cannabis oil/liquid" (aOR: 4.96, 95%CI: 2.23-11.06). Combustible tobacco use was associated with "smoking cannabis with tobacco in a joint/blunt" (aOR: 2.93, 95%CI: 1.89-4.56). Country-level differences were detected. Conclusions: Nicotine use is substantial among cannabis users, and associations exist between modes of delivery for both drugs. Results underscore the importance of studying cannabis and nicotine use concurrently, and the need to address the use of both substances in developing interventions for youth users.

20.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 23(3): 573-583, 2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716026

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are an important group of carcinogens found in tobacco and tobacco smoke. To describe and characterize the levels of TSNAs in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study Wave 1 (2013-2014), we present four biomarkers of TSNA exposure: N'-nitrosonornicotine, N'-nitrosoanabasine, N'-nitrosoanatabine, and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) which is the primary urinary metabolite of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone. METHODS: We measured total TSNAs in 11 522 adults who provided urine using automated solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. After exclusions in this current analysis, we selected 11 004 NNAL results, 10 753 N'-nitrosonornicotine results, 10 919 N'-nitrosoanatabine results, and 10 996 N'-nitrosoanabasine results for data analysis. Geometric means and correlations were calculated using SAS and SUDAAN. RESULTS: TSNA concentrations were associated with choice of tobacco product and frequency of use. Among established, every day, exclusive tobacco product users, the geometric mean urinary NNAL concentration was highest for smokeless tobacco users (993.3; 95% confidence interval [CI: 839.2, 1147.3] ng/g creatinine), followed by all types of combustible tobacco product users (285.4; 95% CI: [267.9, 303.0] ng/g creatinine), poly tobacco users (278.6; 95% CI: [254.9, 302.2] ng/g creatinine), and e-cigarette product users (6.3; 95% CI: [4.7, 7.9] ng/g creatinine). TSNA concentrations were higher in every day users than in intermittent users for all the tobacco product groups. Among single product users, exposure to TSNAs differed by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and education. Urinary TSNAs and nicotine metabolite biomarkers were also highly correlated. CONCLUSIONS: We have provided PATH Study estimates of TSNA exposure among US adult users of a variety of tobacco products. These data can inform future tobacco product and human exposure evaluations and related regulatory activities.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/urina , Nitrosaminas/urina , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Carcinógenos/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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