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1.
Vet Parasitol ; 291: 109368, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556846

RESUMO

qPCR is being used for the quantification of parasite load in different tissues of dogs infected by Leishmania infantum with or without clinical manifestations. It may be employed in the diagnosis, monitoring of the infection during treatment, and clinical studies for validation of vaccines. Aimed at enhancing the molecular diagnosis and the subsequent monitoring of the infection, this study evaluated the parasite load in several tissues from dogs infected by Leishmania infantum, showing different clinical status. Thus, the qPCR was performed on skin, conjunctival swab, popliteal lymph node, and bone marrow puncture samples taken from 65 dogs naturally infected by L. infantum. Dogs were divided into three groups per clinical score: group 1 (n = 12), included animals with zero points and no clinical manifestations of the disease; group 2 (n = 35), included animals with a score ranging from 1 to 5 points and moderate clinical manifestations; and group 3 (n = 18), included dogs with a score ranging from 6 to 11 points and intensive clinical manifestations. Another analysis was performed classifying the animals into two groups, considering the presence of, or lack of clinical signs of the disease. Analyses of these results showed that the skin was the tissue with a higher parasite load, followed by popliteal lymph node and bone marrow punctures, and conjunctival swab samples having the lowest loads. Furthermore, the skin was also the tissue with the highest parasite load when evaluating the groups individually. Animals in group 3, with intensive clinical manifestations, showed a higher parasite load in different tissues when compared to animals from groups 1 and 2. Finally, animals with clinical manifestations of the disease showed a higher parasite load when compared to dogs with no manifestations. The importance of the dog as a reservoir of L. infantum in nature is reinforced by the demonstration of skin having the highest amount of parasites/µL in this study's analysis, as well as the fact that skin is the main point of access to the parasite vector. Also, a strong and positive correlation between the intensity of clinical manifestations and the increase of parasite load in the skin was observed. In conclusion, skin was the tissue that was demonstrated to be the best option for the molecular diagnosis of L. infantum infection in dogs with varying clinical statuses used in this study.

2.
Cytokine ; : 155339, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303311

RESUMO

Pathogen interactions with the host immune response components are critical for establishing protective immunity and pathological responses against Leishmania parasites. A predominant proinflammatory profile associated with enhanced phagocytosis trigger a cell-mediated immune response that is relevant to infection control. On the other hand, an anti-inflammatory phenotype, correlated with a predominant modulated/regulatory response, favors intracellular proliferation of Leishmania parasites and disease progression. In this context, chemokines play an important role in determining cellular composition at inflammatory sites. Leishmania infection induces the expression of various chemokines and chemokine receptors in the mammalian host, which can subvert the host immune responses. Indeed, the balance and dynamic changes in cytokines and chemokines may control or predict the disease outcome. In this review, we address our current knowledge regarding the chemokines and chemokines receptors' role in the immunopathogenesis of Tegumentary and Visceral Leishmaniasis.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234445, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579586

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe the sand fly fauna and detect trypanosomatids in these insects from Casa Branca, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, an endemic area of both visceral (VL) and tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL). Sand flies were collected bimonthly from May 2013 to July 2014, using automatic light traps exposed for three consecutive nights in peridomiciliary areas of nine houses with previous reports of VL and TL. ITS1-PCR and DNA sequencing were performed for trypanosomatids identification. A total of 16,771 sand flies were collected belonging to 23 species. The most abundant species was Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939) (70.9%), followed by Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (15.2%) and Migonemyia migonei (França, 1920) (9.1%). Leishmania amazonensis DNA was detected in Ny. whitmani (four pools) and Le. braziliensis DNA was detected in Psychodopygus lloydi (one pool). In seven pools of Ny. whitmani and in one pool of Lu. longipalpis positive for Leishmania DNA, the parasite species was not determined due to the low quality of the sequences. Moreover, DNA of Herpetomonas spp. was detected in Ny. whitmani (two pools) and Cortelezzii complex (one pool). DNA of Crithidia spp. was detected in Ny. whitmani and Ps. lloydi (both one pool). Our results suggest that Ny. whitmani may be involved in the transmission of Le. amazonensis in the study area. The molecular detection of Le. amazonensis suggests the presence of this species in a sylvatic cycle between vertebrate and invertebrate hosts in the region of Casa Branca. Our data also reveal the occurrence of other non-Leishmania trypanosomatids in sand flies in Casa Branca District.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmania/genética , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Leishmaniose/prevenção & controle , Leishmaniose/transmissão , Análise de Sequência de DNA
4.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e003520, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520088

RESUMO

Blood samples and swabs from ocular conjunctiva and mouth were obtained from 64 cats. Of 64 serum samples, 19 were positive for Leishmania antibodies by ELISA (29.80%). Eight cats were positive by PCR (12.5%) in swab samples from mouth and/or ocular mucosa. Poor kappa agreement between serological and molecular results (k = 0.16) was obtained. From five positive PCR samples one was L. braziliensis and four were L. infantum. Phylogenetic analysis performed with the five isolates of Leishmania, showed that samples of L. infantum isolated from the cats were phylogenetically close to those isolated from domestic dogs in Brazil, while the L. braziliensis is very similar to the one described in humans in Venezuela. The study demonstrated that, despite high seropositivity for Leishmania in cats living in the study region, poor agreement between serological and molecular results indicate that positive serology is not indicative of Leishmania infection in cats. Parasite DNA can be detected in ocular conjunctiva and oral swabs from cats, indicating that such samples could be used for diagnosis. Results of phylogenetic analyzes show that L. infantum circulating in Brazil is capable of infecting different hosts, demonstrating the parasite's ability to overcome the interspecies barrier.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Leishmania braziliensis/isolamento & purificação , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Gatos , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Leishmania braziliensis/imunologia , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose/diagnóstico , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
5.
Acta Trop ; 207: 105495, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305295

RESUMO

The applicability of molecular biology/PCR for canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis presents challenges, mainly due to the diversity of targets described. The objectives of this study were to compare the sensitivities and reliability of five targets (kDNA/120, kDNA/145, ITS1, hsp70/234 and hsp70/1300) in four different tissue samples (bone marrow, popliteal lymph node, skin and conjunctival swab). Sixty-five dogs (32 males and 33 females) naturally infected with Leishmania infantum and ten dogs without infection were examined. Dogs were characterized by serological and parasitological methods. The parasitological test was considered the gold standard for analysis. All tests presented high specificity 100% (95% CI 0.72-1), and variable sensitivity. The targets kDNA/145, ITS1, kDNA/120, hsp70/234 and hsp70/1300 detected 100% (65/65), 93.4% (61/65), 92.3% (60/65), 84.61% (55/65) and 72.3% (77/65) of positive animals respectively. The performance of PCR methods was analyzed in two different scenarios. The highest sensitivity value identified in all scenarios studied was kDNA/145. Our results suggest that popliteal lymph node and conjunctival swab samples, besides being less invasive collections, represent a good substratum for PCR-based diagnosis, and the target kDNA/145 is the best choice for detecting L. infantum DNA in naturally infected dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Animais , DNA de Cinetoplasto/genética , Feminino , Leishmania infantum/genética , Masculino
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(2): 107-112, Feb. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1098443

RESUMO

Human Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is expanding, and it is distributed in the five geographic regions of Brazil, with the Northeast being the region that presents the most significant number of registered cases. The main urban reservoir of the etiological agent of VL is the domestic dog, and it is known that canine cases precede human cases. One of the control actions of VL, recommended by the Ministry of Health, is performing the euthanasia of seropositive dogs. In 2013, in the municipality of Iguatama/MG, the first canine serological survey was carried out in the city, with a prevalence of 8.3% of seropositive dogs for Leishmania infantum. Of the seropositive animals for Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) in this survey, 84% were euthanized, and 16% died within two years after diagnosis. No other control measures for CVL were taken in the municipality. The objectives of the present study were to determine the current prevalence of seropositive dogs for CVL in the municipality of Iguatama and to observe the impact of euthanasia of seropositive dogs to VL as the only control measure performed in this municipality, which is considered an enzootic area of the disease. For this, a new canine epidemiological survey was carried out in the municipality of Iguatama, following the guidelines of the Manual of Surveillance and Control of Visceral Leishmaniasis. Blood samples were collected from 270 dogs and tested by DPP® immunochromatographic test and by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The animals that presented inconclusive results had new blood samples collected and analyzed. The only animal that showed a positive result in DPP® and undetermined in the ELISA, in the first evaluation, became seropositive four months later, so this study reinforces the recommendation of the Ministry of Health to reassess dogs that present inconclusive results for CVL. From a total of 270 samples, 21 (7.8%) were reagents in both tests. Thus, the prevalence of seropositive dogs for CVL, in 2017, in the urban area of the municipality of Iguatama was 7.8%. The Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) molecular technique confirmed infection by L. infantum in the ten dogs sampled with CVL-positive serology. The comparison between the current prevalence (after euthanasia) with that found in 2013 (8.3%), there was no significant difference (p=0.764). The prevalence of CVL in the urban area of the municipality of Iguatama is still high, making it possible to presume that the euthanasia of seropositive dogs for CVL, and the absence of monitoring or other interventions measures, did not contribute to decrease the transmission of the parasite and was not sufficient for the control of CVL in the municipality of Iguatama, an area considered as non-endemic to CVL until 2013.(AU)


A Leishmaniose visceral humana (LV) está em franca expansão e distribuída nas cinco regiões geográficas do Brasil, o Nordeste sendo a região em que há o maior número de casos registrados. O principal reservatório urbano do agente etiológico da LV é o cão doméstico e sabe-se que casos caninos antecedem o aparecimento de casos humanos. Uma das ações de controle da LV, preconizada pelo Ministério da Saúde, é a eutanásia dos cães soro reagentes. Em 2013, no município de Iguatama/MG, foi realizado o primeiro inquérito sorológico canino na cidade, sendo constatada uma prevalência de 8,3% de cães soro reagentes para Leishmania infantum. Dos animais com sorologia positiva para Leishmaniose visceral canina (LVC), neste inquérito, 84% foram eutanasiados e 16% foram a óbito em, no máximo, dois anos após o diagnóstico. Nenhuma outra medida de controle para LVC foi realizada no município. Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar a prevalência atual de cães soro reagentes para LVC no município de Iguatama e observar o impacto das eutanásias de cães soro reagentes para LV como única medida de controle realizada neste município, considerado área enzoótica para a doença. Para isso, foi realizado um novo inquérito epidemiológico canino no município de Iguatama, seguindo as normas do Manual de Vigilância e Controle da Leishmaniose Visceral. Foram colhidas amostras sanguíneas de 270 cães que foram examinadas pelo teste imunocromatográfico DPP® e pelo ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA). Os animais que apresentaram resultados inconclusivos tiveram novas amostras de sangue coletadas e analisadas. O único animal que apresentou resultado positivo no DPP® e indeterminado no ELISA, na primeira avaliação, soro converteu quatro meses depois, o que reforça a recomendação do Ministério da Saúde de reavaliar os cães que apresentam resultado inconclusivo para LVC. Do total das 270 amostras, 21 foram reagentes nos dois testes. Portanto, a prevalência de cães soro reagentes para LVC, em 2017, na área urbana do município de Iguatama foi igual a 7,8%. A infecção pela espécie Leishmania infantum foi confirmada através da técnica molecular de PCR-RFLP em 10 cães amostrados com sorologia positiva para LVC. A comparação entre a prevalência atual (depois das eutanásias) com a encontrada em 2013 (8,3%), não mostrou diferença significativa (p=0,764). Uma vez que a soro prevalência de LVC na área urbana do município de Iguatama ainda é alta, pode-se supor que a eutanásia dos cães soro reagentes para LVC, somada à ausência de monitoramento e de outras medidas de intervenção, não contribuiu para a diminuição da transmissão do parasito, e não foi suficiente para o controle de LVC no município de Iguatama, uma área considerada, até 2013, indene para LVC.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Cães/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Eutanásia Animal
8.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(2): e003520, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138090

RESUMO

Abstract Blood samples and swabs from ocular conjunctiva and mouth were obtained from 64 cats. Of 64 serum samples, 19 were positive for Leishmania antibodies by ELISA (29.80%). Eight cats were positive by PCR (12.5%) in swab samples from mouth and/or ocular mucosa. Poor kappa agreement between serological and molecular results (k = 0.16) was obtained. From five positive PCR samples one was L. braziliensis and four were L. infantum. Phylogenetic analysis performed with the five isolates of Leishmania, showed that samples of L. infantum isolated from the cats were phylogenetically close to those isolated from domestic dogs in Brazil, while the L. braziliensis is very similar to the one described in humans in Venezuela. The study demonstrated that, despite high seropositivity for Leishmania in cats living in the study region, poor agreement between serological and molecular results indicate that positive serology is not indicative of Leishmania infection in cats. Parasite DNA can be detected in ocular conjunctiva and oral swabs from cats, indicating that such samples could be used for diagnosis. Results of phylogenetic analyzes show that L. infantum circulating in Brazil is capable of infecting different hosts, demonstrating the parasite's ability to overcome the interspecies barrier.


Resumo Amostras de sangue e swabs da conjuntiva ocular e oral foram obtidas de 64 gatos. Das 64 amostras de soro, 19 foram positivas para anticorpos contra Leishmania por ELISA (29,80%). Oito gatos foram positivos por PCR (12,5%) em amostras de swab da boca e / ou mucosa ocular. Demonstrou-se baixa concordância kappa entre os resultados sorológicos e moleculares (k = 0,16). Das cinco amostras positivas para PCR, uma era L. braziliensis e quatro eram L infantum. A análise filogenética realizada com os cinco isolados de Leishmania, mostrou que amostras de L. infantum, isoladas dos gatos, eram filogeneticamente próximas às isoladas de cães domésticos do Brasil enquanto L. braziliensis era muito semelhante ao descrito em humanos na Venezuela. O estudo demonstrou que, apesar da alta soropositividade para Leishmania, em gatos que vivem na região do estudo, pouca concordância entre os resultados sorológicos e moleculares indica que a sorologia positiva não é indicativa de infecção por Leishmania em gatos. O DNA do parasita pode ser detectado na conjuntiva ocular e nas zaragatoas orais de gatos, indicando que essas amostras podem ser usadas para o diagnóstico. . Resultados de análises filogenéticas mostram que L. infantum, circulando no Brasil, é capaz de infectar diferentes hospedeiros, demonstrando a capacidade do parasita de superar a barreira interespécies.

9.
Vet Parasitol ; 274: 108920, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493694

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonosis caused by the parasite Leishmania infantum and the dog is its main reservoir in rural and urban areas. The diagnosis of infection is mainly based on the presence of anti-Leishmania IgG antibodies in the serum of infected dogs. In this study, the sensitivity and specificity of qualitative rapid tests (RTs) dual path platform (DPP) Bio-Manguinhos, rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) IDEXX, Kalazar Detect and ALERE, as well as quantitative ELISA Bio-Manguinhos and in-house indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) tests were analyzed in sera from infected and uninfected dogs. Serial dilutions of the in-house IFA were compared with RTs and ELISA Bio-Manguinhos. The results showed that none of the tests reached 100% sensitivity and specificity. There was no statistical difference between the analyzed RTs. The most sensitive test was the DPP Bio-Manguinhos (97.9%), while the rapid ELISA IDEXX showed higher specificity (100%). In the treatment setting of infected and/or diseased animals, quantitative tests for monitoring the evolution of antibody titers are required, which indicates the maintenance of in-house IFA in animal handling. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the RTs present higher sensitivity in serum samples with superior antibody titers obtained in the in-house IFA. However, the RTs exhibited false negatives in samples with low titers of antibodies. Among the RTs, only the DPP Bio-Manguinhos presented better performance in this situation. Therefore, the use of RTs for the diagnosis of VL in dogs with low titers of antibodies, such as asymptomatic, should be carefully evaluated.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/sangue , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Leishmaniose Visceral/sangue , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190111, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In addition to the limited therapeutic arsenal and the side effects of antileishmanial agents, drug resistance hinders disease control. In Brazil, Leishmania braziliensis causes atypical (AT) tegumentary leishmaniasis lesions, frequently refractory to treatment. OBJECTIVES: The main goal of this study was to characterise antimony (Sb)-resistant (SbR) L. braziliensis strains obtained from patients living in Xakriabá indigenous community, Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: The aquaglyceroporin 1-encoding gene (AQP1) from L. braziliensis clinical isolates was sequenced, and its function was evaluated by hypo-osmotic shock. mRNA levels of genes associated with Sb resistance were measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Atomic absorption was used to measure Sb uptake. FINDINGS: Although clinical isolates presented delayed recovery time in hypo-osmotic shock, AQP1 function was maintained. Isolate 340 accumulated less Sb than all other isolates, supporting the 65-fold downregulation of AQP1 mRNA levels. Both 330 and 340 isolates upregulated antimony resistance marker (ARM) 56/ARM58 and multidrug resistant protein A (MRPA); however, only ARM58 upregulation was an exclusive feature of SbR field isolates. CA7AE seemed to increase drug uptake in L. braziliensis and represented a tool to study the role of glycoconjugates in Sb transport. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: There is a clear correlation between ARM56/58 upregulation and Sb resistance in AT-harbouring patients, suggesting the use of these markers as potential indicators to help the treatment choice and outcome, preventing therapeutic failure.


Assuntos
Antimônio/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Leishmania braziliensis/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Aquagliceroporinas/metabolismo , Resistência a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355149

RESUMO

Lipophosphoglycan (LPG) is the major Leishmania surface glycoconjugate having importance during the host-parasite interface. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis displays a spectrum of clinical forms including: typical cutaneous leishmaniasis (TL), mucocutaneous (ML), and atypical lesions (AL). Those variations in the immunopathology may be a result of intraspecies polymorphisms in the parasite's virulence factors. In this context, we evaluated the role of LPG of strains originated from patients with different clinical manifestations and the sandfly vector. Six isolates of L. braziliensis were used: M2903, RR051 and RR418 (TL), RR410 (AL), M15991 (ML), and M8401 (vector). LPGs were extracted and purified by hydrophobic interaction. Peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6 and respective knock-outs (TLR2-/- and TLR-4-/-) were primed with IFN-γ and exposed to different LPGs for nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine production (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α). LPGs differentially activated the production of NO and cytokines via TLR4. In order to ascertain if such functional variations were related to intraspecies polymorphisms in the LPG, the purified glycoconjugates were subjected to western blot with specific LPG antibodies (CA7AE and LT22). Based on antibody reactivity preliminary variations in the repeat units were detected. To confirm these findings, LPGs were depolymerized for purification of repeat units. After thin layer chromatography, intraspecies polymorphisms were confirmed especially in the type and/size of sugars branching-off the repeat units motif. In conclusion, different isolates of L. braziliensis from different clinical forms and hosts possess polymorphisms in their LPGs that functionally affected macrophage responses.


Assuntos
Glicoesfingolipídeos/química , Glicoesfingolipídeos/imunologia , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Leishmania braziliensis/metabolismo , Leishmaniose Cutânea/imunologia , Ativação de Macrófagos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Glicoesfingolipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/parasitologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Óxido Nítrico , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Fatores de Virulência
12.
Mol Immunol ; 106: 36-45, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576950

RESUMO

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) mainly caused by Leishmania braziliensis is a chronic inflammatory disease widely spread in Brazil. Genetic variant strains of this parasite have been associated with atypical clinical manifestations of CL in an endemic area in Brazil. Furthermore, these strains have presented distinct biological behaviors in golden hamster, suggesting differential activation of the immune response. In the present study we proposed to evaluate the localized immune response in golden hamsters infected with known molecular variant strains of L. braziliensis, in distinct time points post-infection (PI). Detailed analyses of the mRNA expression of cytokines and chemokines in hamster-skin lesions were performed. Heat map matrix and hierarchical cluster analysis were carried out to segregate the strains due to mRNA expression. Distinct patterns of immune response were found in both time points, more evident in the recent-phase disease (30 days-PI). At this time point, the genetic variant strains expressed high levels of tnfα, il12 and tgfß whilst the non-variant strain expressed ifnγ, il6, il4, il10, il13 and ccl17. The hierarchical clustering highlights this distinct pattern in which all genetic variant strain was grouped in the cluster I and the non-variant strain grouped into the cluster II. At late-phase disease (60 days-PI) all isolates expressed high levels of il4 and il10. The non-variant strain shown a significant reduced expression of ifnγ, il6, ccl17, and ccl22 whilst distinct patterns were observed for the genetic variant strains. For the first time, a large panel of cytokines and chemokines mRNA-expression was analyzed in experimental trials using golden hamsters as animal model and genetic variant strains of L. braziliensis. Our findings suggest that genetic variant strains of L. braziliensis are able to trigger differential gene expression of cytokines and chemokines in the skin lesion from infected hamsters. The parasite intrinsic ability to activate distinct pathways in the host-parasite interaction may be associated to the large spectrum of clinical manifestation observed in CL-patients.


Assuntos
Quimiocinas/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Leishmania braziliensis/imunologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/imunologia , Pele/imunologia , Animais , Cricetinae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/patologia , Mesocricetus , Pele/parasitologia , Pele/patologia
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190111, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND In addition to the limited therapeutic arsenal and the side effects of antileishmanial agents, drug resistance hinders disease control. In Brazil, Leishmania braziliensis causes atypical (AT) tegumentary leishmaniasis lesions, frequently refractory to treatment. OBJECTIVES The main goal of this study was to characterise antimony (Sb)-resistant (SbR) L. braziliensis strains obtained from patients living in Xakriabá indigenous community, Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS The aquaglyceroporin 1-encoding gene (AQP1) from L. braziliensis clinical isolates was sequenced, and its function was evaluated by hypo-osmotic shock. mRNA levels of genes associated with Sb resistance were measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Atomic absorption was used to measure Sb uptake. FINDINGS Although clinical isolates presented delayed recovery time in hypo-osmotic shock, AQP1 function was maintained. Isolate 340 accumulated less Sb than all other isolates, supporting the 65-fold downregulation of AQP1 mRNA levels. Both 330 and 340 isolates upregulated antimony resistance marker (ARM) 56/ARM58 and multidrug resistant protein A (MRPA); however, only ARM58 upregulation was an exclusive feature of SbR field isolates. CA7AE seemed to increase drug uptake in L. braziliensis and represented a tool to study the role of glycoconjugates in Sb transport. MAIN CONCLUSIONS There is a clear correlation between ARM56/58 upregulation and Sb resistance in AT-harbouring patients, suggesting the use of these markers as potential indicators to help the treatment choice and outcome, preventing therapeutic failure.


Assuntos
Humanos , Leishmania braziliensis/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Resistência a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Aquagliceroporinas/metabolismo , Antimônio/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
14.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(4): 570-574, Oct.-Dec. 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042488

RESUMO

Abstract The role of cats in the epidemiological cycle of leishmaniasis remains unclear. To better understand the occurrence of leishmaniasis in cats, we studied the frequency of Leishmania in serum samples of 100 cats living in an endemic region for canine and human leishmaniasis by serological, parasitological, and molecular methods. Of the 100 cats, 54 were seropositive for Leishmania antibodies by immunofluorescence antibody test. None of the bone marrow aspirates collected from these cats tested positive for the parasite in culture or upon polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Biopsy samples of the ears also tested negative for Leishmania upon PCR analysis. These findings may indicate that the region is endemic for canine leishmaniasis and cats are infected by Leishmania; or that cross-reaction with antibodies against other parasites increases the frequency of seropositivity; or that cats respond to Leishmania infection by producing antibodies when few or no parasites are present in bone marrow and tissue samples. Overall, our results suggest that cats can be infected by Leishmania ; however, we failed to demonstrate feline parasitosis. These findings highlight the need to study leishmaniasis in cats, since sandflies feed on cats, these animals may act as a reservoir for the parasite.


Resumo O papel dos gatos no ciclo epidemiológico da leishmaniose ainda não está claro. Para entender melhor a ocorrência de leishmaniose em gatos, estudou-se a frequência de Leishmania em amostras de soro de 100 gatos, os quais vivem em uma região endêmica para leishmaniose canina e humana, por métodos sorológicos, parasitológicos e moleculares. Dos 100 gatos, 54 foram soropositivos para anticorpos de Leishmania por teste de anticorpos de imunofluorescência. Nenhum dos aspirados de medula óssea coletados desses gatos mostrou-se positivo para o parasita em cultura, ou após a realização da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Amostras de biópsia das orelhas também foram negativas para Leishmania submetidas a PCR. Esses achados indicam que na região estudada endêmica para leishmaniose canina, os gatos podem se infectar por Leishmania; ou que a reação cruzada com anticorpos contra outros parasitas aumenta a frequência de soropositividade; ou que os gatos respondem à infecção por Leishmania produzindo anticorpos quando poucos ou nenhum parasita estão presentes na medula óssea e em amostras de tecido. Em geral, os resultados sugerem que os gatos podem ser estar infectados por Leishmania spp. No entanto, não foi possível demonstrar parasitismo felino. Essas descobertas evidenciam a necessidade de estudar a leishmaniose em gatos, uma vez que, como os flebotomíneos se alimentam em gatos, e esses animais podem atuar como um reservatório para o parasita.


Assuntos
Animais , Gatos , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Imunofluorescência , Doenças Endêmicas , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia
15.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 27(4): 570-574, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30183999

RESUMO

The role of cats in the epidemiological cycle of leishmaniasis remains unclear. To better understand the occurrence of leishmaniasis in cats, we studied the frequency of Leishmania in serum samples of 100 cats living in an endemic region for canine and human leishmaniasis by serological, parasitological, and molecular methods. Of the 100 cats, 54 were seropositive for Leishmania antibodies by immunofluorescence antibody test. None of the bone marrow aspirates collected from these cats tested positive for the parasite in culture or upon polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Biopsy samples of the ears also tested negative for Leishmania upon PCR analysis. These findings may indicate that the region is endemic for canine leishmaniasis and cats are infected by Leishmania; or that cross-reaction with antibodies against other parasites increases the frequency of seropositivity; or that cats respond to Leishmania infection by producing antibodies when few or no parasites are present in bone marrow and tissue samples. Overall, our results suggest that cats can be infected by Leishmania ; however, we failed to demonstrate feline parasitosis. These findings highlight the need to study leishmaniasis in cats, since sandflies feed on cats, these animals may act as a reservoir for the parasite.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Doenças Endêmicas , Imunofluorescência , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia
16.
Parasitol Res ; 117(10): 3157-3168, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30022292

RESUMO

A variety of clinical forms of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis, as well as differing immune responses of patients, have been reported for an ACL focus in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In addition, two genetic profiles of L. braziliensis have been described, of which one variant profile (hsp70-variant) has been associated with atypical lesions. We investigated the biological behavior of genetic variant strains of L. braziliensis isolated from patients with different clinical manifestations of ACL. Experimental infections were performed with golden hamsters for five L. braziliensis strains in standardized doses of 1 × 106 parasites per inocula. The characteristics of skin lesions, histopathological features, and parasite burden were independently analyzed at 30 and 60 days post-infection. The data revealed distinct patterns in the onset time of visible skin lesions as well as in lesion size and parasite burden among the strains. The extent and density of the inflammatory infiltrate differed among strains, although cellular composition of granulomas appeared similar. Multivariate analysis indicated the occurrence of two clusters: one comprising native strains (cluster 1) and one comprising the reference strain (cluster 2). Within cluster 1, the genetic variants of L. braziliensis did not group with the non-variant strain suggesting that the distinct patterns of biological behavior of these strains could be associated with the known genetic diversity previously described for them.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/patologia , Pele/patologia , Adulto , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cricetinae , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Humanos , Leishmania braziliensis/classificação , Leishmania braziliensis/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Masculino , Mesocricetus/parasitologia , Pele/parasitologia
17.
Parasitol Res ; 117(6): 1839-1845, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29675681

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis represents a complex of diseases with a broad clinical spectrum and epidemiological diversity. Involving a variety of agents, reservoirs, and vectors, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) presents different transmission patterns, which makes its control especially difficult. Epidemiological characterization with identification of existing Leishmania species in a particular region is essential for understanding this parasitosis epidemiology. Because similar results may be observed in places with overlapping transmission of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, contributing to knowledge about the epidemiological cycle of cutaneous leishmaniasis is of global interest. This study proposes to identify the different species of Leishmania present in human CL cases in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Slides of imprint tissue were selected from patients diagnosed with CL from 2009 to 2013 at the Laboratório de Parasitologia Clínica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul. The slides were scraped and extracted genetic material was amplified with PCR addressing the Leishmania spp. kDNA region. The reaction product was subjected to RFLP for the specific identification of Leishmania. Forty-three samples (82.7%) amplified with PCR were considered positive. Of these, it was possible to determine the species in 40 samples (76.9%) through analysis of electrophoresis profiles. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, and Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum were identified as the etiologic agents of CL in Mato Grosso do Sul. The results of this study permit a more detailed understanding of CL epidemiology and the geographical distribution of its agents.


Assuntos
DNA de Cinetoplasto/genética , Leishmania braziliensis/isolamento & purificação , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Eletroforese , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição
18.
Parasitology ; 145(9): 1161-1169, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29526166

RESUMO

American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) samples obtained from the lesions of patients with typical (n = 25, 29%), atypical (n = 60, 69%) or both (n = 2%) clinical manifestations were analysed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, hsp70 restriction-fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), hsp70 sequencing and phylogenetics methods. The hsp70 PCR-RFLP analysis revealed two different profiles whose the most samples differed from those expected for Leishmania braziliensis and the other Leishmania species tested: of 39 samples evaluated, two (5%) had a restriction profile corresponding to L. braziliensis, and 37 (95%) had a restriction profile corresponding to a variant pattern. A 1300-bp hsp70 gene fragment was sequenced to aid in parasite identification and a phylogenetic analysis was performed including 26 consensus sequences from the ATL patient's samples and comparing to other Leishmania and trypanosomatids species. The dendrogram allowed to observe a potential population structure of L. braziliensis complex in the studied region, emphasizing that the majority of clinical samples presented a variant genetic profile. Of interest, the L. braziliensis diversity was associated with different clinical manifestations whose parasites with hsp70 variant profile were associated with atypical lesions. The results may be helpful to improve the diagnosis, treatment and control measures of the ATL in endemic areas.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Pele/parasitologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Doenças Endêmicas , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Pele/patologia
19.
J Immunol Methods ; 455: 34-40, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29395166

RESUMO

A relevant issue in Chagas disease serological diagnosis regards the requirement of using several confirmatory methods to elucidate the status of non-negative results from blood bank screening. The development of a single reliable method may potentially contribute to distinguish true and false positive results. Our aim was to evaluate the performance of the multiplexed flow-cytometry anti-T. cruzi/Leishmania IgG1 serology/(FC-TRIPLEX Chagas/Leish IgG1) with three conventional confirmatory criteria (ELISA-EIA, Immunofluorescence assay-IIF and EIA/IIF consensus criterion) to define the final status of samples with actual/previous non-negative results during anti-T. cruzi ELISA-screening in blood banks. Apart from inconclusive results, the FC-TRIPLEX presented a weak agreement index with EIA, while a strong agreement was observed when either IIF or EIA/IIF consensus criteria were applied. Discriminant analysis and Spearman's correlation further corroborates the agreement scores. ROC curve analysis showed that FC-TRIPLEX performance indexes were higher when IIF and EIA/IIF consensus were used as a confirmatory criterion. Logistic regression analysis further demonstrated that the probability of FC-TRIPLEX to yield positive results was higher for inconclusive results from IIF and EIA/IIF consensus. Machine learning tools illustrated the high level of categorical agreement between FC-TRIPLEX versus IIF or EIA/IIF consensus. Together, these findings demonstrated the usefulness of FC-TRIPLEX as a tool to elucidate the status of non-negative results in blood bank screening of Chagas disease.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/análise , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Leishmania/imunologia , Leishmaniose/diagnóstico , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Trypanosoma cruzi/imunologia , Bancos de Sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Programas de Rastreamento
20.
Histol Histopathol ; 33(7): 705-716, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29345298

RESUMO

Leishmania amazonensis is a major etiological agent of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Americas; nevertheless there are some reports of this species causing visceral disease in dogs and men. In the present work we have studied a Leishmania strain isolated from a human case of visceral leishmaniasis. We have infected different mouse strains and analyzed the development of the disease, studying the parasite's ability to visceralize and whether this ability is influenced by host genetics. Female BALB/c, C57BL/6, C57BL/10, CBA, DBA/2, and C3H/He mice were subcutaneously infected with 104 L. amazonensis amastigotes. BALB/c, C57BL/6 and C57BL/10 mice were found to be very susceptible to infection, showing lesions that developed to necrosis and ulceration. CBA mice developed a late but severe lesion. DBA/2 mice developed only discrete lesions, while C3H/He mice did not develop any lesions. All mouse strains except C3H/He showed some degree of visceralization, presenting parasites in the spleen, while BALB/c, C57BL/6 and CBA presented parasites also in the liver. Moreover, most of the strains presented high parasite load at the infection site, whereas DBA and C3H/He mice showed low or no parasite load 90 days after infection, respectively. Histopathology corroborates the results, showing that susceptible mice presented an inflammatory reaction with parasites in the skin, lymph nodes and spleen, while strains that are more resistant presented low parasitism and discrete inflammatory reaction. Results indicate that this isolate is extremely virulent, can easily visceralize and that the pathogenesis of leishmaniasis is, at least in part, related to the genetic background of the host.


Assuntos
Leishmania/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/patologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Animais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos
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