Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 156
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581861

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To validate a simple risk score to predict bacteremia (MPB5-Toledo) in patients seen in the emergency departments (ED) due to infections. METHODS: Prospective and multicenter observational cohort study of the blood cultures (BC) ordered in 74 Spanish ED for adults (aged 18 or older) seen from from October 1, 2019, to February 29, 2020. The predictive ability of the model was analyzed with the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC-ROC). The prognostic performance for true bacteremia was calculated with the cut-off values chosen for getting the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value. RESULTS: A total of 3.843 blood samples wered cultured. True cases of bacteremia were confirmed in 839 (21.83%). The remaining 3.004 cultures (78.17%) were negative. Among the negative, 172 (4.47%) were judged to be contaminated. Low risk for bacteremia was indicated by a score of 0 to 2 points, intermediate risk by 3 to 5 points, and high risk by 6 to 8 points. Bacteremia in these 3 risk groups was predicted for 1.5%, 16.8%, and 81.6%, respectively. The model's area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.930 (95% CI, 0.916-0.948). The prognostic performance with a model's cut-off value of ≥ 5 points achieved 94.76% (95% CI: 92.97-96.12) sensitivity, 81.56% (95% CI: 80.11-82.92) specificity, and negative predictive value of 98.24% (95% CI: 97.62-98.70). CONCLUSION: The 5MPB-Toledo score is useful for predicting bacteremia in patients attended in hospital emergency departments for infection.

7.
Ann Neurol ; 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295021

RESUMO

We diagnosed 11 Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) cases among 71,904 COVID patients attended at 61 Spanish emergency departments (ED) during the 2-month pandemic peak. The relative frequency of GBS among ED patients was higher in COVID (0.15‰) than non-COVID(0.02‰) patients (OR=6.30, 95%CI=3.18-12.5) as was the standardized incidence (9.44 and 0.69 cases/100,000-year, respectively, OR=13.5; 95%CI=9.87-18.4). Regarding clinical characteristics, olfactory-gustatory disorders were more frequent in COVID-GBS than non-COVID-GBS (OR=27.59, 95%CI=1.296-587) and COVID-non-GBS (OR=7.875, 95%CI=1.587-39.09) patients. Although COVID-GBS patients were more frequently admitted to intensive care, mortality was not increased versus control groups. Our results suggest SARS-CoV-2 could be another viral infection causing GBS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259695

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the incidence, risk factors, clinical characteristics and outcomes of acute pancreatitis (AP) in patients with COVID-19 attending the emergency department (ED), before hospitalization. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all COVID patients diagnosed with AP in 62 Spanish EDs (20% of Spanish EDs, COVID-AP) during the COVID outbreak. We formed two control groups: COVID patients without AP (COVID-non-AP) and non-COVID patients with AP (non-COVID-AP). Unadjusted comparisons between cases and controls were performed regarding 59 baseline and clinical characteristics and 4 outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 54 AP in 74,814 patients with COVID-19 attending the ED (frequency=0.72‰, 95%CI=0.54-0.94‰). This frequency was lower than in non-COVID patients (2,231/1,388,879, 1.61‰, 95%CI=1.54-1.67; OR=0.44, 95%CI=0.34-0.58). Etiology of AP was similar in both groups, being biliary origin in about 50%. Twenty-six clinical characteristics of COVID patients were associated with a higher risk of developing AP: abdominal pain (OR=59.4, 95%CI=23.7-149), raised blood amylase (OR=31.8; 95%CI=1.60-632) and vomiting (OR=15.8, 95%CI=6.69-37.2) being the strongest, and some inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, platelets, D-dimer) were more increased. Compared to non-COVID-AP, COVID-AP patients differed in 23 variables; the strongest ones related to COVID symptoms, but less abdominal pain was reported, pancreatic enzymes raise was lower, and severity (estimated by BISAP and SOFA score at ED arrival) was higher. The in-hospital mortality (adjusted for age and sex) of COVID-AP did not differ from COVID-non-AP (OR=1.12, 95%CI=0.45-245) but was higher than non-COVID-AP (OR=2.46, 95%CI=1.35-4.48). CONCLUSIONS: Acute pancreatitis as presenting form of COVID-19 in the ED is unusual (<1‰ cases). Some clinically distinctive characteristics are present compared to the remaining COVID patients and can help to identify this unusual manifestation. In-hospital mortality of COVID-AP does not differ from COVID-non-AP but is higher than non-COVID-AP, and the higher severity of AP in COVID patients could partially contribute to this increment.

9.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 32(6): 416-426, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET2-7630

RESUMO

Casi la mitad de los nuevos diagnósticos de infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) se realizan de forma tardía, lo cual provoca un aumento en la morbimortalidad, una mayor expansión de la epidemia y un in-cremento en los costes sanitarios públicos. En los servicios de urgencias se atiende a muchos de los pacientes que presentan situaciones indicadoras de infección por VIH o que comparten su misma vía de transmisión. Por lo tanto, pueden ser clave en una estrategia que mejore las tasas de diagnóstico precoz mediante la promoción de la solicitud de serologías frente al VIH durante la atención de determinados perfiles clínicos. Sin embargo, esto en la actualidad se produce escasamente a no ser que el resultado de la serología vaya a modificar el manejo del proceso agudo que ha motivado la consulta en urgencias. Las presentes recomendaciones se han desarrollado por un grupo de expertos designados por la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Urgencias y Emergencias (SEMES) en base a la identificación y revisión de la evidencia científica más reciente. El objetivo de este documento es dar soporte a los médicos de urgencias en la toma de decisiones, promoviendo el cribado del VIH y la derivación de los pacientes al especialista adecuado para su seguimiento posterior en seis entidades clínicas seleccionadas por su elevada prevalencia en pacientes VIH positivos y la alta frecuencia con la que son atendidas en urgencias: 1) infecciones de transmisión sexual; 2) profilaxis post exposición; 3) herpes zoster; 4) práctica del chemsex; 5) neumonía adquirida en la comunidad, y 6) síndrome mononucleósico. Las recomendaciones incluyen indicaciones sobre en qué pacientes debe realizarse una serología, el proceso de derivación y herramientas para ayudar a los médicos de urgencias en la toma de decisiones


Almost half of new diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are made late, leading to increased morbidity and mortality, greater spread of infection, and higher public health care costs. Emergency services care for many patients who share behaviors associated with HIV transmission risk who arrive in clinical situations that are associated with HIV infection. A strategy to increase the rates of early diagnosis by promoting serology for HIV when caring for patients with certain clinical profiles might therefore be the key to improvement. This approach ishardly used at present, however, unless the result of serology would change the management of the acute complaint that led to the visit. These recommendations based on evidence from a search and review of recent publications were developed by a group of experts appointed by the Spanish Society of Emergency Medicine (SEMES). The resulting statement aims to support decision-making by emergency physicians and promote HIV screening and referral to appropriate specialists for follow-up in patients with certain conditions (sexually transmitted infections, herpes zoster, community-acquired pneumonia) or reporting certain scenarios (practice of chemsex, need for post-exposure prophylaxis). These 6 settings were selected because they are often seen in emergency departments and are common in patients with HIV-positive tests. The recommendations address when to order serology for HIV and how to manage the referral process. Included are decision-making tools foremergency physicians


Assuntos
Humanos , Consenso , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Diagnóstico Precoce , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Encaminhamento e Consulta/normas , Tomada de Decisões , Diagnóstico Tardio/prevenção & controle , Diagnóstico Tardio/estatística & dados numéricos , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia
10.
Rev. esp. quimioter ; 33(6): 466-484, dic. 2020. ilus, tab, mapas, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195995

RESUMO

La alta transmisibilidad del SARS-CoV-2 antes y poco después de la aparición de los síntomas sugiere que sólo diagnosticar y aislar a pacientes sintomáticos puede no ser suficiente para interrumpir la propagación de la infección; por ello son también necesarias medidas de salud pública como el distanciamiento social. Adicionalmente será importante detectar a los nuevos infectados que permanecen asintomáticos, que pueden ascender al 50% o más de los casos. Las técnicas moleculares son el patrón de referencia para el diagnóstico de infección por SARS-CoV-2. Sin embargo, el uso masivo de estas técnicas ha generado algunos problemas. Por un lado, la escasez de los recursos (analizadores, fungibles y reactivos), y por otro el retraso en la notificación de resultados. Estos dos hechos se traducen en un retraso en la aplicación de las medidas de aislamiento entre casos y contactos, lo que favorece la expansión de la infección. Las pruebas de detección de antígenos son también métodos de diagnóstico directo, con la ventaja de obtener el resultado en pocos minutos y en el mismo lugar de atención. Además, la sencillez y el bajo coste de estas pruebas permiten repetirlas en días sucesivos en determinados contextos clínicos. La sensibilidad de las pruebas de antígenos es generalmente menor que la de las que detectan ácidos nucleicos, si bien su especificidad es comparable. Se ha comprobado que las pruebas antigénicas tienen más validez en los días alrededor del inicio de síntomas, cuando la carga viral en nasofaringe es mayor. Disponer de un análisis de detección viral rápido y en tiempo real como la prueba de antígenos se ha demostrado más útil para controlar la expansión de la infección que pruebas más sensibles, pero de mayor coste y tiempo de respuesta, como son las pruebas moleculares. Las principales instituciones sanitarias como la OMS, los CDC y el propio Ministerio de Sanidad del Gobierno de España plantean el uso de las pruebas antigénicas en una amplia variedad de estrategias para responder a la pandemia. El presente documento pretende servir de apoyo a los médicos implicados en la atención de pacientes con sospecha de infección por SC2, en el contexto de una incidencia creciente en España desde septiembre de 2020 que representa ya la segunda onda pandémica de COVID-19


The high transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 before and shortly after the onset of symptoms suggests that only diagnosing and isolating symptomatic patients may not be sufficient to interrupt the spread of infection; therefore, public health measures such as personal distancing are also necessary. Additionally, it will be important to detect the newly infected individuals who remain asymptomatic, which may account for 50% or more of the cases. Molecular techniques are the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the massive use of these techniques has generated some problems. On the one hand, the scarcity of resources (analyzers, fungibles and reagents), and on the other the delay in the notification of results. These two facts translate into a lag in the application of isolation measures among cases and contacts, which favors the spread of the infection. Antigen detection tests are also direct diagnostic methods, with the advantage of obtaining the result in a few minutes and at the very "pointof-care". Furthermore, the simplicity and low cost of these tests allow them to be repeated on successive days in certain clinical settings. The sensitivity of antigen tests is generally lower than that of nucleic acid tests, although their specificity is comparable. Antigenic tests have been shown to be more valid in the days around the onset of symptoms, when the viral load in the nasopharynx is higher. Having a rapid and real-time viral detection assay such as the antigen test has been shown to be more useful to control the spread of the infection than more sensitive tests, but with greater cost and response time, such as in case of molecular tests. The main health institutions such as the WHO, the CDC and the Ministry of Health of the Government of Spain propose the use of antigenic tests in a wide variety of strategies to respond to the pandemic. This document aims to support physicians involved in the care of patients with suspected SC2 infection, in the context of a growing incidence in Spain since September 2020, which already represents the second pandemic wave of COVID-19


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos Virais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Doença Aguda , Distribuição por Idade , Busca de Comunicante , Incidência , Nasofaringe/virologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
Chest ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent reports of COVID-19 patients developing pneumothorax mainly correspond to case reports in mechanically-ventilated patients. The real incidence, clinical characteristics and outcome of spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) as a form of COVID presentation remains to be defined. RESEARCH QUESTION: Do the incidence, risk factors, clinical characteristics and outcomes of SP in COVID-19 patients attending emergency departments (ED) differ compared to COVID patients without SP and non-COVID patients with SP? STUDY DESIGN: and methods: This case-control study retrospectively reviewed all COVID patients diagnosed with SP(case group) in 61 Spanish EDs(20% of Spanish EDs) and compared them with two control groups: COVID patients without SP and non-COVID patients with SP. Relative frequencies of SP were estimated in COVID and non-COVID patients in the ED and annual standardized incidences were estimated for both populations. Comparisons between cases and controls included 52 clinical, analytical and radiological characteristics and 4 outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 40 SP in 71,904 patients with COVID-19 attending EDs(0.56‰, 95%CI=0.40-0.76‰). This relative frequency was higher than that of non-COVID patients(387/1,358,134, 0.28‰, 95%CI=0.26-0.32; OR=1.93, 95%CI=1.41-2.71). The standardized incidence of SP was also higher in COVID patients (34.2 versus 8.2/100,000/year; OR=4.19, 95%CI=3.64-4.81). Compared with COVID patients without SP, COVID patients developing SP more frequently had dyspnea and chest pain, low pulsioxymetry, tachypnea and increased leukocyte count. Compared to non-COVID patients with SP, cases differed in 19 clinical variables, the most prominent being a higher frequency of dysgeusia/anosmia, headache, diarrhea, fever and lymphopenia (all with OR>10). All the outcomes measured, including in-hospital death, were worse in cases than in both control groups. INTERPRETATION: SP as a form of COVID presentation at the ED is unusual (<1‰ cases) but is more frequent than in the non-COVID population and could be associated with worse outcomes than SP in non-COVID patients and COVID patients without SP.

12.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33252555

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The authors investigated the incidence, risk factors, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), who were attending the emergency department (ED), before hospitalization. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all COVID-19 patients diagnosed with UGB in 62 Spanish EDs (20% of Spanish EDs, case group) during the first 2 months of the COVID-19 outbreak. We formed 2 control groups: COVID-19 patients without UGB (control group A) and non-COVID-19 patients with UGB (control group B). Fifty-three independent variables and 4 outcomes were compared between cases and controls. RESULTS: We identified 83 UGB in 74,814 patients with COVID-19 who were attending EDs (1.11%, 95% CI=0.88-1.38). This incidence was lower compared with non-COVID-19 patients [2474/1,388,879, 1.78%, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.71-1.85; odds ratio (OR)=0.62; 95% CI=0.50-0.77]. Clinical characteristics associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 patients presenting with UGB were abdominal pain, vomiting, hematemesis, dyspnea, expectoration, melena, fever, cough, chest pain, and dysgeusia. Compared with non-COVID-19 patients with UGB, COVID-19 patients with UGB more frequently had fever, cough, expectoration, dyspnea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, interstitial lung infiltrates, and ground-glass lung opacities. They underwent fewer endoscopies in the ED (although diagnoses did not differ between cases and control group B) and less endoscopic treatment. After adjustment for age and sex, cases showed a higher in-hospital all-cause mortality than control group B (OR=2.05, 95% CI=1.09-3.86) but not control group A (OR=1.14, 95% CI=0.59-2.19) patients. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of UGB in COVID-19 patients attending EDs was lower compared with non-COVID-19 patients. Digestive symptoms predominated over respiratory symptoms, and COVID-19 patients with UGB underwent fewer gastroscopies and endoscopic treatments than the general population with UGB. In-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients with UGB was increased compared with non-COVID patients with UGB, but not compared with the remaining COVID-19 patients.

13.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239247

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The use of devices that provide continuous positive pressure in the airway has shown improvement in various pathologies that cause respiratory failure. In the COVID-19 pandemic episode the use of these devices has become widespread, but, due to the shortage of conventional continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices, alternative devices have been manufactured. The objective of this study is to describe the use of these devices, as well as their efficacy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data are collected from patients admitted for pneumonia due to COVID-19 at the IFEMA Field Hospital. Data are collected from 23 patients with respiratory failure and need for ventilatory support. RESULTS: Study carried out on a total of 23 patients, dated admission to IFEMA. Alternative CPAP was used in five patients (21.7%), while ventilatory support with a reservoir mask or Ventimask Venturi effect was used in the remaining 18 patients (78.3%). A progressive increase in saturation is observed in those patients in whom alternative CPAP was used (from 94% on average to 98 and 99% on average after 30 and 60 minutes with the mask, respectively), although this change was not significant (p = 0.058 and p = 0.122, respectively). No significant change in RF was observed at the beginning and end of the measurement in patients who used alternative CPAP (p = 0.423), but among those who did not use alternative CPAP (p = 0.001). A statistically significant improvement in the variable oxygen saturation / fraction inspired by oxygen is observed in patients who used alternative CPAP (p = 0.040) CONCLUSION: The use of these devices has helped the ventilatory work of several patients by improving their oxygenation parameters. To better observe the evolution of patients undergoing this therapy and compare them with patients with other types of ventilatory support, further studies are necessary.

14.
Emergencias ; 32(5): 320-331, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006832

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the organization of Spanish hospital emergency departments (EDs). To explore differences between Spanish autonomous communities or according to hospital size and disease incidence in the area. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Survey of the heads of 283 EDs in hospitals belonging to or affiliated with Spain's public health service. Respondents evaluated the pandemic's impact on organization, resources, and staff absence from work in March and April 2020. Assessments were for 15-day periods. Results were analyzed overall and by autonomous community, hospital size, and local population incidence rates. RESULTS: A total of 246 (87%) responses were received. The majority of the EDs organized a triage system, first aid, and observation wards; areas specifically for patients suspected of having COVID-19 were newly set apart. The nursing staff was increased in 83% of the EDs (with no subgroup differences), and 59% increased the number of physicians (especially in large hospitals and locations where the COVID-19 incidence was high). Diagnostic tests for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 were the resource the EDs missed most: 55% reported that tests were scarce often or very often. Other resources reported to be scarce were FPP2 and FPP3 masks (38% of the EDs), waterproof protective gowns (34%), and space (32%). More than 5% of the physicians, nurses, or other emergency staff were on sick leave 20%, 19%, and 16% of the time. These deficiencies were greatest during the last half of March, except for tests, which were most scarce in the first 15 days. Large hospital EDs less often reported that diagnostic tests were unavailable. In areas where the COVID-19 incidence was higher, the EDs reported higher rates of staff on sick leave. Resource scarcity differed markedly by autonomous community and was not always associated with the incidence of COVID-19 in the population. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic led to organizational changes in EDs. Certain resources became scarce, and marked differences between autonomous communities were detected.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Absenteísmo , Adulto , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Surtos de Doenças , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Número de Leitos em Hospital , Hospitais Públicos/organização & administração , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Alocação de Recursos , /etiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Triagem/organização & administração
15.
Rev. esp. quimioter ; 33(5): 350-357, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET1-6841

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: Los objetivos del estudio fueron: identificar variables asociadas a mortalidad intrahospitalaria y reingreso hospitalario a 3 meses; identificar el impacto de la demora en el inicio de la antibioticoterapia en la mortalidad y reportar la tasa de antibioticoterapia inapropiada. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional de cohortes retrospectivo realizado en el Hospital Universitario HM Sanchinarro en Madrid. Los criterios de inclusión fueron: edad>18 años de edad, hospitalización desde urgencias durante el periodo 1 de septiembre 2012 al 31 de marzo del 2013 con diagnóstico de infección bacteriana. Los criterios de exclusión fueron: sospecha de infección viral y cultivos bacteriológicos negativos, expectativa de vida inferior a 6 meses, falta de información clínica, asistencia exclusivamente por el servicio de urgencias traumatológicas. Se realizaron dos modelos logísticos (mortalidad y reingreso hospitalarios). RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 517 pacientes. Variables asociadas a mortalidad (30 fallecidos): frecuencia respiratoria (OR 1,12; IC95% 1,02; 1,22), saturación de oxígeno (OR 0,92; IC95% 0,87; 0,98), creatinina (OR 2,33; IC95% 1,62; 3,36), EPOC (OR 3,02; IC95% 1,06; 8,21), cáncer OR 3,34; IC95% 1,07; 9,98) y quimioterapia en los últimos 3 meses (OR 4,83; IC95% 1,54; 16,41). Variables asociadas a reingreso hospitalario (28 fallecidos): hepatopatía, GPT, antecedente de ictus e hipertensión arterial. Ambos modelos se destacan por su elevada especificidad y capacidad discriminativa pero baja sensibilidad. La demora en el inicio de la antibioticoterapia no influyo en la mortalidad ni reingreso. En 56 pacientes se identificó el microorganismo causal y el tratamiento antibiótico fue inapropiado en 11. CONCLUSIONES: Se registro un 5,8% de mortalidad hospitalaria y un 5,7% de reingresos. Las variables asociadas a la mortalidad intrahospitalaria difieren de las asociadas al reingreso. La demora en el inicio de la antibioticoterapia no se asoció a un efecto deletéreo. La antibioticoterapia inadecuada fue de casi el 20%


INTRODUCTION: The aims of the study were: to develop a predictive model for hospital mortality and another for hospital re-admission, to identify the impact of antibiotic delay in the mortality rate and, to report the rate of inappropriate antibiotic therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cohort and retrospective study was conducted at the HM Sanchinarro University Hospital during the period September 1st, 2012 to March 31th, 2013. The inclusion criteria were: age> 18 years, hospital admission from the ED with a diagnosis of bacterial infection. The exclusion criteria were: suspected viral infection, negative bacteriological cultures, life expectancy less than 6 months, lack of clinical information, assistance exclusively by the trauma emergency department. Two logistic models were made (hospital mortality and hospital re-admission). RESULTS: A total of 517 patients were included. The final mortality model (30 deaths) include the following variables: respiratory rate (OR 1.12; IC95% 1.02; 1.22), oxygen saturation (OR 0.92; IC95% 0.87; 0.98), creatinine (OR 2.33; IC95% 1.62; 3.36), COPD (OR 3.02; IC95% 1.06; 8.21), cancer (OR 3.34; IC95% 1.07; 9.98) and chemotherapy in the last 3 months (OR 4.83; IC95% 1.54; 16.41). The final model for hospital re-admission (28 re-admissions) include the following variables: hepatopathy (OR 5.51; IC95% 1.57; 16.88), GPT (OR 1.005; IC95% 1.003; 1.008), history of stroke (OR 5.06; IC95% 1.04; 18.80) and arterial hypertension (OR 3.15; IC95% 1.38; 7.56). The antibiotic therapy delays not influenced the mortality or re-admission rate. In 24.3% the causative microorganism was identified and antibiotic treatment was inappropriate 19.6%. CONCLUSION: Hospital mortality rate was 5.8% and readmission rate was 5.7%. Variables associated with mortality differ from those associated with re-admission. The delay in the antibiotic initiation was not associated with a deleterious effect. Antibiotic therapy was inadequate in almost 20% of patients

17.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(5): 1039-1042, sept.-oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-195745

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can induce an exaggerated inflammatory response. Vitamin D is a key modulator of the immune system. We hypothesized that vitamin D deficiency (VDD) could increase the risk of developing severe COVID-19 infection. METHODS: patients with confirmed COVID-19 seen at the emergency department of our hospital with recent measurements of 25(OH)D were recruited. We explored the association of vitamin D deficiency (VDD), defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D < 20 ng/mL, with a composite of adverse clinical outcomes. RESULTS: we included 80 patients, of which 31 (39 %) presented the endpoint. VDD tended to predict an increased risk of developing severe COVID-19 after adjusting for age, gender, obesity, cardiac disease, and kidney disease [OR 3.2 (95 % CI: 0.9-11.4), p = 0.07]. Age had a negative interaction with the effect of VDD on the composite outcome (p = 0.03), indicating that the effect was more noticeable at younger ages. Furthermore, male gender was associated with VDD and with severe COVID-19 at younger ages. CONCLUSIONS: in this retrospective study, vitamin D deficiency showed a signal of association with severe COVID-19 infection. A significant interaction with age was noted, suggesting VDD may have a greater impact in younger patients. These findings should be confirmed in larger, prospective, adequately powered studies


INTRODUCCIÓN: la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) puede inducir una respuesta inflamatoria exagerada. La vitamina D es un modulador clave del sistema inmune. Planteamos que la deficiencia de vitamina D (VDD) podría aumentar el riesgo de desarrollar infección grave por COVID-19. MÉTODOS: se reclutaron pacientes consecutivos que acudieron al servicio de urgencias de nuestro centro con diagnóstico de COVID-19 confirmado (PCR-COVID-19 positiva) y mediciones recientes de 25(OH)D. Exploramos la asociación de la deficiencia de vitamina D (VDD), definida como una 25-hidroxivitamina D < 20 ng/ml, con un compuesto de resultados clínicos adversos. RESULTADOS: se incluyeron 80 pacientes, de los cuales 31 (39 %) presentaron el criterio de valoración primario. El VDD tendió a predecir un mayor riesgo de desarrollar COVID-19 grave después de ajustar edad, sexo, obesidad, enfermedad cardíaca y enfermedad renal [OR: 3,2 (IC 95 %: 0,9-11,4), p = 0,07]. La edad tuvo una interacción negativa con el efecto de la VDD en el resultado compuesto (p = 0,03), lo que indica que el efecto fue más notable a edades más tempranas. Además, el género masculino se asoció con la VDD y con la COVID-19 grave en las edades más jóvenes. CONCLUSIONES: en este estudio retrospectivo, la deficiencia de vitamina D mostró una tendencia de asociación con la infección grave por COVID-19. Se observó una interacción significativa con la edad, lo que sugiere que la VDD puede tener un mayor impacto en los pacientes más jóvenes. Estos hallazgos deben confirmarse en estudios más grandes, prospectivos y con potencia adecuada


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/dietoterapia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/dietoterapia , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Deficiência de Vitamina D/dietoterapia , Receptor Tipo 2 de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Fatores Etários
18.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 32(5): 320-331, oct. 2020. mapas, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197083

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Estimar el impacto del brote pandémico de COVID-19 en diversos aspectos organizativos de los servicios de urgencias hospitalarios (SUH) españoles e investigar si difirió en función de la comunidad autónoma, tamaño del hospital e incidencia local de la pandemia. MÉTODO: Encuesta a los responsables de los 283 SUH españoles de uso público, quienes valoraron el impacto de la pandemia en aspectos organizativos, disponibilidad de recursos, y bajas del personal durante marzo-abril de 2020, diferenciando dicho impacto por quincenas. Los resultados se analizaron en conjunto, por comunidad autónoma, según tamaño del hospital y según incidencia local de la pandemia. RESULTADOS: Se recibieron 246 encuestas (87% de los SUH españoles). La mayoría de SUH reorganizaron el triaje, primera asistencia y observación y habilitó nuevos espacios específicos para pacientes con sospecha de COVID-19. Un 83% aumentó dotación enfermera (sin diferencias entre grupos) y un 59% la dotación de médicos (más frecuente en hospitales grandes y zonas de alta incidencia). El recurso que más escaseó fue el test diagnóstico de SARS-CoV-2 (55% del tiempo insuficiente con cierta o mucha frecuencia), seguido de mascarillas FPP2-FPP3 (38%), batas impermeables (34%) y espacio asistencial (32%). Hubo más del 5% de médicos/enfermería/otro personal de baja el 20%/19%/16% del tiempo. Estos déficits fueron máximos la segunda quincena de marzo, excepto para los test diagnósticos (primera quincena de marzo). Los SUH de grandes centros tuvieron menos escasez de tests diagnósticos, y los de zonas de alta incidencia pandémica más profesionales de baja. Existieron marcadas diferencias en todas estos déficits entre comunidades autónomas, no siempre concordantes con el grado de afectación pandémica en cada comunidad. CONCLUSIONES: La pandemia COVID-19 generó cambios estructurales en los SUH, que sufrieron una escasez considerable en ciertos recursos, con diferencias marcadas entre comunidades autónomas


OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the organization of Spanish hospital emergency departments (EDs). To explore differences between Spanish autonomous communities or according to hospital size and disease incidence in the area. METHODS: Survey of the heads of 283 EDs in hospitals belonging to or affiliated with Spain's public health service. Respondents evaluated the pandemic's impact on organization, resources, and staff absence from work in March and April 2020. Assessments were for 15-day periods. Results were analyzed overall and by autonomous community, hospital size, and local population incidence rates. RESULTS: A total of 246 (87%) responses were received. The majority of the EDs organized a triage system, first aid, and observation wards; areas specifically for patients suspected of having COVID-19 were newly set apart. The nursing staff was increased in 83% of the EDs (with no subgroup differences), and 59% increased the number of physicians (especially in large hospitals and locations where the COVID-19 incidence was high). Diagnostic tests for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 were the resource the EDs missed most: 55% reported that tests were scarce often or very often. Other resources reported to be scarce were FPP2 and FPP3 masks (38% of the EDs), waterproof protective gowns (34%), and space (32%). More than 5% of the physicians, nurses, or other emergency staff were on sick leave 20%, 19%, and 16% of the time. These deficiencies were greatest during the last half of March, except for tests, which were most scarce in the first 15 days. Large hospital EDs less often reported that diagnostic tests were unavailable. In areas where the COVID-19 incidence was higher, the EDs reported higher rates of staff on sick leave. Resource scarcity differed markedly by autonomous community and was not always associated with the incidence of COVID-19 in the population. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic led to organizational changes in EDs. Certain resources became scarce, and marked differences between autonomous communities were detected


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Pandemias , Absenteísmo , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Surtos de Doenças , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Recursos Humanos em Hospital , Espanha/epidemiologia , Triagem/organização & administração , Mão de Obra em Saúde
19.
Nutr Hosp ; 37(5): 1039-1042, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960622

RESUMO

Introduction: Background: coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can induce an exaggerated inflammatory response. Vitamin D is a key modulator of the immune system. We hypothesized that vitamin D deficiency (VDD) could increase the risk of developing severe COVID-19 infection. Methods: patients with confirmed COVID-19 seen at the emergency department of our hospital with recent measurements of 25(OH)D were recruited. We explored the association of vitamin D deficiency (VDD), defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D < 20 ng/mL, with a composite of adverse clinical outcomes. Results: we included 80 patients, of which 31 (39 %) presented the endpoint. VDD tended to predict an increased risk of developing severe COVID-19 after adjusting for age, gender, obesity, cardiac disease, and kidney disease [OR 3.2 (95 % CI: 0.9-11.4), p = 0.07]. Age had a negative interaction with the effect of VDD on the composite outcome (p = 0.03), indicating that the effect was more noticeable at younger ages. Furthermore, male gender was associated with VDD and with severe COVID-19 at younger ages. Conclusions: in this retrospective study, vitamin D deficiency showed a signal of association with severe COVID-19 infection. A significant interaction with age was noted, suggesting VDD may have a greater impact in younger patients. These findings should be confirmed in larger, prospective, adequately powered studies.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Cardiopatias/complicações , Humanos , Nefropatias/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/sangue
20.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e189, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843127

RESUMO

Despite SARS-CoV-19 infection has a stereotypical clinical picture, isolated cases with unusual manifestations have been reported, some of them being well-known to be triggered by viral infections. However, the real frequency in COVID-19 is unknown. Analysing data of 63 822 COVID patients attending 50 Spanish emergency department (ED) during the COVID outbreak, before hospitalisation, we report frequencies of (myo)pericarditis (0.71‰), meningoencephalitis (0.25‰), Guillain-Barré syndrome (0.13‰), acute pancreatitis (0.71‰) and spontaneous pneumothorax (0.57‰). Compared with general ED population, COVID patients developed more frequently Guillain-Barré syndrome (odds ratio (OR) 4.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.09-9.90), spontaneous pneumothorax (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.40-2.79) and (myo)pericarditis (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.07-1.97), but less frequently pancreatitis (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.33-0.60).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/complicações , Miocardite/complicações , Pancreatite/complicações , Pericardite/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumotórax/complicações , Betacoronavirus , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/virologia , Humanos , Miocardite/virologia , Pancreatite/virologia , Pandemias , Pericardite/virologia , Pneumotórax/virologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA