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1.
J Clin Pathol ; 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980558

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of the bone marrow infiltration found in a series of clinically defined lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL)/Waldenström macroglobulinaemia (WM) and IgM-monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and to perform a targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) for the identification of additional somatic mutations to MYD88p.L265P in LPL/WM. METHODS: We have reviewed a series of 35 bone marrow biopsies from 28 patients with a clinical diagnosis of LPL/WM (24 cases) or MGUS (4 cases). Bone marrow infiltration characteristics by morphology, immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry (FCM), allele-specific real-time PCR for the detection of MYD88p.L265P mutation, targeted exonic amplicon-based NGS of 35 lymphoma-related genes and direct sequencing were analysed. RESULTS: Our findings show that bone marrow trephine biopsy evaluation is superior to FCM in the identification of significant lymphoid infiltrates. A combined paratrabecular and interstitial infiltration pattern is the most common feature in LPL/WM while a patchy interstitial pattern characterises IgM-MGUS cases. MYD88p.L265P mutation was found by allele-specific-PCR in 92% of the LPL cases (22 out of 24) and 25% of IgM-MGUS cases (1 out of 4 cases). In addition to MYD88p.L265P somatic mutations in CXCR4, KMT2D, PRDM1/Blimp1, MYC and ID3 were found by NGS and direct sequencing in 4 cases. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, bone marrow core biopsy evaluation is critical in the identification of unequivocal bone marrow infiltration by LPL/WM. In addition to MYD88p.L265P, somatic mutations in CXCR4, KMT2D, PRDM1/Blimp1, MYC and ID3 can appear in a fraction of LPL/WM.

2.
Br J Haematol ; 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782146

RESUMO

The International Prognostic Index (IPI) is the most widely used score for non-Hodgkin lymphoma but lacks the ability to identify a high-risk population in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Low absolute lymphocyte count and high monocytes have proved to be unfavourable factors. Red-cell distribution width (RDW) has been associated with inflammation and beta-2 microglobulin (B2M) with tumour load. The retrospective study included 992 patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP. In the multivariate analysis, age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG-PS), stage, bulky mass, B2M, RDW, and lymphocyte/monocyte ratio (LMR) were independently related to progression-free survival (PFS). A new prognosis score was generated with these variables including age categorized into three groups (0, 1, 2 points); ECOG ≥ 3-4 with two; stage III/IV, bulky mass, high B2M, LMR < 2·25 and RDW > 0·96 with one each; for a maximum of 9. This score could improve the discrimination of a very high-risk subgroup with five-year PFS and overall survival (OS) of 19% and 24% versus 45% and 59% of R (revised)-IPI respectively. This score also showed greater predictive ability than IPI. A new score is presented including complete blood cell count variables and B2M, which are readily available in real-life practice without additional tests. Compared to R-IPI, it shows a more precise high-risk assessment and risk discrimination for both PFS and OS.

4.
Br J Haematol ; 185(3): 480-491, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793290

RESUMO

The use of immunochemotherapy has improved the outcome of follicular lymphoma (FL). Recently, complete response at 30 months (CR30) has been suggested as a surrogate for progression-free survival. This study aimed to analyse the life expectancy of FL patients according to their status at 30 months from the start of treatment in comparison with the sex and age-matched Spanish general population (relative survival; RS). The training series comprised 263 patients consecutively diagnosed with FL in a 10-year period who needed therapy and were treated with rituximab-containing regimens. An independent cohort of 693 FL patients from the Grupo Español de Linfomas y Trasplante Autólogo de Médula Ósea (GELTAMO) group was used for validation. In the training cohort, 188 patients were in CR30, with a 10-year overall survival (OS) of 53% and 87% for non-CR30 and CR30 patients, respectively. Ten-year RS was 73% and 100%, showing no decrease in life expectancy for CR30 patients. Multivariate analysis indicated that the FL International Prognostic Index was the most important variable predicting OS in the CR30 group. The impact of CR30 status on RS was validated in the independent GELTAMO series. In conclusion, FL patients treated with immunochemotherapy who were in CR at 30 months showed similar survival to a sex- and age-matched Spanish general population.

5.
Br J Haematol ; 182(4): 534-541, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29978453

RESUMO

The Grupo Español de Linfomas y Trasplantes de Médula Ósea International Prognostic Index (GELTAMO-IPI) stratifies four risk groups in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients treated with immunochaemotherapy: low (LR), low-intermediate (LIR), high-intermediate (HIR), and high (HR). The present study explores the effect of GELTAMO-IPI in the DLBCL subtypes defined by the immunohistochaemistry-based Hans algorithm, Germinal Centre B (GCB) and non-GCB. A multivariate Cox regression model including GELTAMO-IPI risk groups, cell of origin (COO) subtypes and their product was developed to evaluate interaction between the two variables. The COO subtype was available in 839 patients (380 GCB; 459 non-GCB) and both the GELTAMO-IPI and the COO subtype in 780 (353 GCB; 427 non-GCB). There were no differences in 5-year overall survival (OS) between the two subtypes. The Cox model revealed interaction between the GELTAMO-IPI risk groups and the COO subtypes (P = 0·005), indicating that GELTAMO-IPI has a different effect in the two subtypes. Three risk groups were stratified in both COO subtypes: in the GCB subtype, LR, LIR and the combined HIR+HR had 5-year OS of 100%, 75% and 52%, respectively. In the non-GCB subtype, LR, the combined LIR+HIR and HR had a 5-year OS of, 97%, 82% and 35% respectively. GELTAMO-IPI identifies a genuine poor outcome group of patients in the DLBCL non-GCB subtype.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Centro Germinativo , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Centro Germinativo/metabolismo , Centro Germinativo/patologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/metabolismo , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/mortalidade , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29629945

RESUMO

Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the central nervous system (CNS) is an aggressive subtype of DLBCL with characteristic clinicopathologic features. Relapse outside the CNS involving extranodal locations has been found in a fraction of cases (16%). Here we describe a case of DLBCL arising in the CNS that relapsed 18 months after the initial diagnosis in the testis and bilateral adrenal glands. Both tumors showed equivalent morphology, phenotype, cytogenetic features, and clonal relationship. Somatic mutation analysis by next generation sequencing demonstrated MYD88L265P mutation in both tumors and de novo CD79B Y196S mutation exclusive to the relapse. The pattern of mutations suggest that the 2 tumors might have evolved from a common progenitor clone with MYD88L265P being the founder mutation. A meta-analysis of the literature shows a significantly high frequency of concurrent MYD88L265P and CD79B ITAM mutations in primary CNS lymphoma and testicular DLBCL, underscoring the role of B cell receptor and nuclear factor kB activation by somatic mutations in these lymphomas that colonize immune-privileged sites. In summary, here we illustrate that targeted next generation sequencing for the detection of hot spot somatic mutations in relapsed DLBCL is useful to confirm ABC phenotype and discovers relevant information that might influence therapeutic decision.

7.
Br J Haematol ; 178(5): 699-708, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28782811

RESUMO

The diagnostic criteria for follicular lymphoma (FL) transformation vary among the largest series, which commonly exclude histologically-documented transformation (HT) mandatorily. The aims of this retrospective observational multicentre study by the Spanish Grupo Español de Linfoma y Transplante Autólogo de Médula Ósea, which recruited 1734 patients (800 males/934 females; median age 59 years), diagnosed with FL grades 1-3A, were, (i) the cumulative incidence of HT (CI-HT); (ii) risk factors associated with HT; and (iii) the role of treatment and response on survival following transformation (SFT). With a median follow-up of 6·2 years, 106 patients developed HT. Ten-year CI-HT was 8%. Considering these 106 patients who developed HT, median time to transformation was 2·5 years. High-risk FL International Prognostic Index [Hazard ratio (HR) 2·6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1·5-4·5] and non-response to first-line therapy (HR 2·9, 95% CI: 1·3-6·8) were associated with HT. Seventy out of the 106 patients died (5-year SFT, 26%). Response to HT first-line therapy (HR 5·3, 95% CI: 2·4-12·0), autologous stem cell transplantation (HR 3·9, 95% CI: 1·5-10·1), and revised International Prognostic Index (HR 2·2, 95% CI: 1·1-4·2) were significantly associated with SFT. Response to treatment and HT were the variables most significantly associated with survival in the rituximab era. Better therapies are needed to improve response. Inclusion of HT in clinical trials with new agents is mandatory.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Linfoma Folicular/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Folicular/patologia , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/efeitos dos fármacos , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Linfoma Folicular/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
8.
Br J Haematol ; 176(6): 918-928, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28106247

RESUMO

The study included 1848 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL)patients treated with chemotherapy/rituximab. The aims were to validate the National Comprehensive Cancer Network International Prognostic Index (NCCN-IPI) and explore the effect of adding high Beta-2 microglobulin (ß2M), primary extranodal presentation and intense treatment to the NCCN-IPI variables in order to develop an improved index. Comparing survival curves, NCCN-IPI discriminated better than IPI, separating four risk groups with 5-year overall survival rates of 93%, 83%, 67% and 49%, but failing to identify a true high-risk population. For the second aim the series was split into training and validation cohorts: in the former the multivariate model identified age, lactate dehydrogenase, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, Stage III-IV, and ß2M as independently significant, whereas the NCCN-IPI-selected extranodal sites, primary extranodal presentation and intense treatments were not. These results were confirmed in the validation cohort. The Grupo Español de Linfomas/Trasplante de Médula ósea (GELTAMO)-IPI developed here, with 7 points, significantly separated four risk groups (0, 1-3, 4 or ≥5 points) with 11%, 58%, 17% and 14% of patients, and 5-year overall survival rates of 93%, 79%, 66% and 39%, respectively. In the comparison GELTAMO IPI discriminated better than the NCCN-IPI. In conclusion, GELTAMO-IPI is more accurate than the NCCN-IPI and has statistical and practical advantages in that the better discrimination identifies an authentic high-risk group and is not influenced by primary extranodal presentation or treatments of different intensity.


Assuntos
Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/sangue , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/mortalidade , Microglobulina beta-2/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Indução de Remissão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 40(7): 943-9, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26945339

RESUMO

Follicular lymphoma in situ (FLIS) and mantle cell lymphoma in situ (MCLIS) are histopathologic findings of undetermined clinical significance. We studied a series of 341 consecutive lymph node resection specimens from patients diagnosed with colorectal (201 cases) and breast (140 cases) adenocarcinoma between 1998 and 2000. Incidental and isolated FLIS was identified in 11/341 patients (3.23%), whereas incidental and isolated MCLIS was found in 2/341 patients (0.59%). None of these cases developed overt lymphoma. A second series of 17 cases of FLIS (16 cases) and MCLIS (1 case) from consultation files was analyzed. Five cases with incidental and isolated FLIS were identified. None of these cases developed overt lymphoma. Overall, none of the 16 cases with incidental and isolated FLIS in both series developed overt FL after a median follow-up of 54 months (range, 7 to 187 mo). However, 12 of these cases with a clinical suspicion of lymphoproliferative disorder showed the association (in different lymph nodes) or combination (in the same sample) of FLIS or MCLIS with other lymphoid neoplasms (FL, splenic marginal zone lymphoma, nodal marginal zone lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, multiple myeloma). In conclusion, the clinical relevance of FLIS and MCLIS seems to strictly depend on the clinical context. Incidental FLIS or MCLIS seem to have a very low risk for transformation, which recommends careful clinical examination after histopathologic diagnosis and conservative management with follow-up for a limited period of time.


Assuntos
Carcinoma in Situ/patologia , Achados Incidentais , Linfoma Folicular/patologia , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma in Situ/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfoma Folicular/epidemiologia , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
11.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; 16(4): 411-21, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26838128

RESUMO

Epstein Barr Virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) most frequently affects elderly patients, without previous immunosuppression, with frequent extra-nodal involvement and whose disease runs an aggressive clinical course with high International Prognostic Index (IPI) scores. Various EBV-related transforming mechanisms, much favored by immunosenescence, have been described, including activation of the NFKB transcriptional program. Elderly patients show poor survival after treatment with conventional CHOP regimens, even after addition of Rituximab. Younger patients, however, have a better outcome with a similar prognosis to EBV-negative DLBCL cases. New therapeutic strategies, including treatments targeting EBV, new drugs directed against specific pathways constitutively activated in these lymphomas, and new specific conjugate antibodies against molecules usually expressed in the tumor cells, such as CD30, are described.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Herpesvirus Humano 4/patogenicidade , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/diagnóstico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/terapia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos B/patologia , Linfócitos B/virologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/patologia , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 4/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Antígeno Ki-1/sangue , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/mortalidade , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/virologia , Masculino , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Prognóstico
12.
Oncotarget ; 7(14): 18036-49, 2016 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26910115

RESUMO

Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous group of aggressive lymphomas that can be classified into three molecular subtypes by gene expression profiling (GEP): GCB, ABC and unclassified. Immunohistochemistry-based cell of origin (COO) classification, as a surrogate for GEP, using three available immunohistochemical algorithms was evaluated in TMA-arranged tissue samples from 297 patients with de novo DLBCL treated by chemoimmunotherapy (R-CHOP and R-CHOP-like regimens). Additionally, the prognostic impacts of MYC, BCL2, IRF4 and BCL6 abnormalities detected by FISH, the relationship between the immunohistochemical COO classification and the immunohistochemical expression of MYC, BCL2 and pSTAT3 proteins and clinical data were evaluated. In our series, non-GCB DLBCL patients had significantly worse progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), as calculated using the Choi, Visco-Young and Hans algorithms, indicating that any of these algorithms would be appropriate for identifying patients who require alternative therapies to R-CHOP. Whilst MYC abnormalities had no impact on clinical outcome in the non-GCB subtype, those patients with isolated MYC rearrangements and a GCB-DLBCL phenotype had worse PFS and therefore might benefit from novel treatment approaches.


Assuntos
Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/classificação , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Algoritmos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Murinos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/genética , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Análise de Sobrevida , Vincristina/administração & dosagem
13.
Histopathology ; 67(6): 918-22, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25953530

RESUMO

AIMS: Here we report two cases of follicular lymphoma that transformed to CD30 positive diffuse large B cell lymphoma and review the literature on this topic. RESULTS: The first case represents an example of early transformation of conventional low-grade follicular lymphoma to CD30-positive large B cell lymphoma. Immunoglobulin (Ig)H and cytogenetic identity was demonstrated between both components. High-dose and auto-stem cell transplant (SCT) was applied and complete response was achieved. The second case represents an example of d'emblee transformation of intrafollicular neoplasia to CD30-positive large B cell lymphoma. Immunoglobulin K deleting element (IgKde) and cytogenetic identity between both phases was demonstrated. The patient was in partial response after four cycles of rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP). CONCLUSIONS: CD30 expression was found to be associated in these cases to the transformation event and could be considered a therapeutic target to add to conventional immunochemotherapeutic regimens, even in combination with auto-SCT. We suggest looking for CD30 expression in transformed follicular lymphoma cases.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Antígeno Ki-1/metabolismo , Linfoma Folicular/patologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Murinos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Linfoma Folicular/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Folicular/metabolismo , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Rituximab , Resultado do Tratamento , Vincristina/uso terapêutico
14.
Hematology ; 20(8): 435-441, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25680074

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare, from a biological and clinical perspective, a significant group of patients with AML with inv(3)(q21q26.2) or t(3;3)(q21;q26.2) with another group of AML carrying different abnormalities of 3q at q21 or q26, the latter named as the AML abn(3q) group. METHODS: We developed a national survey with the participation of 13 Spanish hospitals, and retrospectively reviewed (from 1990 to 2010) these subtypes of AML. Fifty-five patients were collected: 35 with AML inv(3)/t(3;3) and 20 with AML abn(3q). A data collecting page that included main features at diagnosis, therapeutic approach and response, and survival variables, was distributed and completed. RESULTS: We did not find significant differences in sex, age, history of myelodysplastic syndrome or chemo-/radiotherapy, clinical presentation, WBC and platelet counts, hemoglobin level, blasts immunophenotype, serum lactatedehydrogenase, peripheral blood and bone marrow cellular dysplasia, and bone marrow biopsy findings. Although the association with monosomy 7 was significantly more frequent in AML inv(3)/t(3;3), this did not seem to influence outcome. The lack of response to the different modalities of treatment and the aggressive course of the disease were the standard in both cohorts of patients. DISCUSSION: Although not yet recognized by the World Health Organization classification, our results are in agreement with the findings of other authors, who include both subsets of AML together in the same group of adverse prognosis. CONCLUSION: In an attempt to simplify and bound entities with similar genetic background and clinical behavior, it would be desirable to bring together both subgroups of AML in a single section.

15.
Histopathology ; 66(6): 846-55, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25131361

RESUMO

AIMS: CD30-positive primary cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders include several entities with differing clinical presentation but overlapping histological features, including lymphomatoid papulosis and primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (C-ALCL). DUSP22-IRF4 locus translocation is present in 20-57% of C-ALCLs, and has also been described in a series of 11 lymphomatoid papulosis patients, where it was associated with a particular biphasic histological pattern, including pagetoid reticulosis-type epidermal infiltration. We aimed to study whether the presence of this translocation may define distinctive histological features in C-ALCL. METHODS AND RESULTS: We collected three cases of C-ALCL with histological features similar to those described in the new variant of lymphomatoid papulosis with 6p25.3 rearrangement. We studied their histological features and immunophenotype, using a panel of antibodies against CD30, TCR-ßF1, TCR-γ, CD4, CD8, CD20, Ki-67 and ALK. FISH analyses were performed using an IRF4-DUSP22 break-apart probe for the study of the 6p25.3 rearrangement. FISH results were positive in the three cases, which all showed distinctive histological and immunohistochemical features: a diffuse dermal infiltrate of atypical medium-to-large cells, and marked epidermotrophism with small, atypical intra-epidermal lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the presence of 6p25.3 rearrangement might be related to this particular biphasic pattern.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 6/genética , Rearranjo Gênico , Linfoma Anaplásico Cutâneo Primário de Células Grandes/genética , Linfoma Anaplásico Cutâneo Primário de Células Grandes/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Histopathology ; 65(6): 805-13, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25131212

RESUMO

AIMS: Immunoglobulin light-chain expression is used routinely as an indirect marker of clonality for recognizing B cell lymphoproliferative disorders. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here we describe four floral follicular hyperplasia cases in the gastrointestinal tract (appendix and rectum) of children (4 to 6 years). Immunohistochemical studies revealed lambda light-chain restriction that was associated with polyclonal IgH pattern. Clinical features and follow-up of the patients did not reveal any other systemic symptoms, laboratory abnormalities or organ alterations. CONCLUSIONS: Recognition of this phenomenon is useful in the diagnosis of nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the gastrointestinal tract, for avoiding overdiagnosis of lymphoid malignancies, and raises concerns that the identification of light-chain restriction is not necessarily a marker of monoclonality.


Assuntos
Apêndice/patologia , Cadeias Leves de Imunoglobulina , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/patologia , Reto/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperplasia/imunologia , Hiperplasia/patologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/imunologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex
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