Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 292
Filtrar
1.
Sci Total Environ ; 776: 145916, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639464

RESUMO

In order to make adequate projections on the consequences of climate change stressors on marine organisms, it is important to know how impacts of these stressors are affected by the presence of other species. Here we assessed the direct effects of ocean warming (OW) and acidification (OA) along with non-consumptive effects (NCEs) of a predatory crab and/or a predatory snail on the habitat-forming mussel Perumytilus purpuratus. Mussels were exposed for 10-14 weeks to contrasting pCO2 (500 and 1400 µatm) and temperature (15 and 20 °C) levels, in the presence/absence of cues from one or two predator species. We compared mussel traits at sub-organismal (nutritional status, metabolic capacity-ATP production-, cell stress condition via HSP70 expression) and organismal (survival, oxygen consumption, growth, byssus biogenesis, clearance rates, aggregation) levels. OA increased the mussels' oxygen consumption; and OA combined with OW increased ATP demand and the use of carbohydrate reserves. Mussels at present-day pCO2 levels had the highest protein content. Under OW the predatory snail cues induced the highest cell stress condition on the mussels. Temperature, predator cues and the interaction between them affected mussel growth. Mussels grew larger at the control temperature (15 °C) when crab and snail cues were present. Mussel wet mass and calcification were affected by predator cues; with highest values recorded in crab cue presence (isolated or combined with snail cues). In the absence of predator cues in the trails, byssus biogenesis was affected by OA, OW and the OA × OW and OA × predator cues interactions. At present-day pCO2 levels, more byssus was recorded with snail than with crab cues. Clearance rates were affected by temperature, pCO2 and the interaction between them. The investigated stressors had no effects on mussel aggregation. We conclude that OA, OW and the NCEs may lead to neutral, positive or negative consequences for mussels.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290153

RESUMO

Background and Objective: Studies have suggested that birth weight (BW) is associated with body mass index (BMI), but its association with waist circumference (WC) in children should be further explored. To determine the association between central obesity (OB) in 9-year-old Argentinean schoolchildren and high BW. Methods: Schoolchildren (n = 2567, 1157 males) aged 8.7 ± 2.1 years from 10 elementary schools in 5 states in Argentina were examined between April 2017 and September 2019. Mothers submitted children's BW information. Pediatricians assessed anthropometric measures and blood pressure (BP). Central OB was defined for children as WC ≥90th percentile for age and gender. Results: The prevalence of overweight (OW) and OB (OW/OB) was 42.7% (1095) and that of central OB was 34.8% (856) in 9-year-old children. The prevalence of low BW (<2500 grams) and high BW (>4000 grams) was 6.6% (n = 169) and 7.4% (n = 190), respectively. BW (3.25 vs. 3.36 kg), weight (31.38 vs. 42.88 kg), BMI (17.29 vs. 22.25 kg/m2), BMI z-scores (z-BMI; 0.25 vs. 1.63), systolic BP (96 vs. 98 mmHg), and diastolic BP (59 vs. 60 mmHg) were significantly lower in 9-year-old children without central OB than in those with central OB, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis using central OB as the dependent variable showed that high BW [odds ratio, 1.98 (95% confidence interval 1.44-2.73)] was associated with central OB, adjusted for age, gender, and systolic and diastolic BP. Conclusion: This study shows that central OB in 9-year-old children was associated with high BW. Future longitudinal studies should be performed to confirm this finding. Clinical Registration number, IATIMET-08102019.

3.
P R Health Sci J ; 39(4): 300-305, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320458

RESUMO

Malaria is considered an important health threat around the world. Travelers from non-endemic countries are at risk of contracting the parasite that causes malaria. Those traveling on humanitarian missions and military personnel are at the greatest risk. Mosquito avoidance is an important intervention, but chemoprophylaxis is the most effective method for the prevention of this infection. The selection of a specific regimen can be a difficult task. It is a decision that is not based solely on the region in which a given patient is traveling but also on that patient's comorbidities and the potential adverse effects of the medications to be used. This review is intended to be a simple guide for the primary care physician. We discuss the selection of chemoprophylaxis for patients in the general population. We also address the specifics of chemoprophylaxis during pregnancy and breast feeding and in people diagnosed with epilepsy.

4.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 54(3): 125-131, sept.-dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147402

RESUMO

Introducción: diversos estudios han sugerido que el bajo y alto peso al nacer (PN) se asocian a obesidad (OB) y sobrepeso (SP) durante la infancia y la edad adulta. Objetivos: determinar la asociación entre PN y OB en escolares de 9 años de tres regiones de Argentina. Materiales y métodos: las medidas antropométricas y la presión arterial (PA) se tomaron en 1.131 escolares (505 masculinos) de 8,8±2,1 años de edad promedio, en tres regiones de Argentina durante el año 2019. Se interrogó, además, acerca del peso al nacer y el estilo de vida. Resultados: el 21,1% (239) de los niños presentaba SP (IMC>85 <95 percentilo según CDC) y el 21,8% (246) OB (IMC>95 percentilo). La prevalencia de PN bajo (<2.500 g) fue de fue de 6,2% (n=70) y de PN alto (>4.000 g) de 7,3% (n=82). El puntaje z-IMC de los niños de 9 años aumentaba significativamente con el aumento del PN: PN bajo (z-IMC=0,33), normal (z-IMC=0,72) y alto (z-IMC=1,12). En modelos de regresión logística múltiple se observó que el PN bajo se asoció inversamente a la OB (OR, 0.41 [IC del 95%: 0,19-0,92]), mientras que el PN alto se asoció directamente con la OB ajustado por edad y sexo (OR, 2.48 [95% IC 1,53-4,02]). Conclusiones: nuestros datos indican que el alto PN, pero no el bajo PN, se asocia con OB en niños en edad escolar de 9 años, mientras que el bajo PN está inversamente asociado con OB.


Introduction: several studies have suggested that low and high birth weight are associated with obesity (OB) and overweight (OW) during childhood and adulthood. Objectives: to determine the association between birth weight and OB in 9-year-old schoolchildren from three areas of Argentina. Materials and methods: anthropometric measurements and blood pressure (BP) were taken in 1.131 schoolchildren (505 males) of an average age of 8.8±2.1 years in three areas of Argentina during 2019. Mothers were asked about their children's birth weight and lifestyle. Results: 21.1% (239) of the children had OW (BMI>85 <95 percentile according to the CDC) and 21.8% (246) OB (BMI>95 percentile). The prevalence of low birth weight (<2.500 g) was 6.2% (n=70) and of high birth weight (>4.000 g) was 7.3% (n=82). The 9-year-old z-BMI score increased significantly with increasing birth weight: low birth weight (z-BMI=0.33), normal (z-BMI=0.72) and high (z-BMI=1.12). In multiple logistic regression models, it was found that low birth weight was inversely associated with OB (OR, 0.41 [95% CI: 0.19-0.92]), while high birth weight was directly associated with OB adjusted for age and sex (OR, 2.48 [95% CI 1.53-4.02]). Conclusions: our data indicate that high birth weight, but not low birth weight, is associated with OB in 9-year-old schoolchildren, while low birth weight is inversely associated with OB


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Peso ao Nascer , Sobrepeso , Adiposidade , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade
5.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143587, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218819

RESUMO

In mid rocky intertidal habitats the mussel Perumytilus purpurarus monopolizes the substratum to the detriment of many other species. However, the consumption of mussels by the shell-crushing crab Acanthocyclus hassleri creates within the mussel beds space and habitat for several other species. This crab uses its disproportionately large claw to crush its shelled prey and plays an important role in maintaining species biodiversity. This study evaluated the consequences of projected near-future ocean acidification (OA) and warming (OW) on traits of A. hassleri linked with their predatory performance. Individual A. hassleri were maintained for 10-16 weeks under contrasting pCO2 (~500 and 1400 µatm) and temperature (~15 and 20 °C) levels. We compared traits at the organismal (oxygen consumption rate, survival, calcification rate, feeding rates, crusher claw pinching strength, self-righting speed, sarcomere length of the crusher claw muscles) and cellular (nutritional status ATP provisioning capacity through citrate synthase activity, expression of HSP70) level. Survival, calcification rate and sarcomere length were not affected by OA and OW. However, OW increased significantly feeding and oxygen consumption. Pinching strength was reduced by OA; meanwhile self-righting was increased by OA and OW. At 20 °C, carbohydrate content was reduced significantly by OA. Regardless of temperature, a significant reduction in energy reserves in terms of protein content by OA was found. The ATP provisioning capacity was significantly affected by the interaction between temperature and pCO2 and was highest at 15 °C and present day pCO2 levels. The HSP70 levels of crabs exposed to OW were higher than in the control crabs. We conclude that OA and OW might affect the amount and size of prey consumed by this crab. Therefore, by reducing the crab feeding performance these stressors might pose limits on their role in generating microhabitat for other rocky intertidal species inhabiting within mussel beds.

6.
New Phytol ; 2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070379

RESUMO

Cytokinin and auxin are key regulators of plant growth and development. During the last decade transport mechanisms have turned out to be the key for the control of local and long-distance hormone distributions. In contrast with auxin, cytokinin transport is poorly understood. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana AZG2, a member of the AZG purine transporter family, acts as cytokinin transporter involved in root system architecture determination. Even though purines are substrates for both AZG1 and AZG2, we found distinct transport mechanisms. The expression of AZG2 is restricted to a small group of cells surrounding the lateral root (LR) primordia and induced by auxins. Compared to the wild-type (WT), mutants carrying loss-of-function alleles of AZG2 have higher LR density, suggesting that AZG2 is part of a regulatory pathway in LR emergence. Moreover, azg2 is partially insensitive to exogenous cytokinin, which is consistent with the observation that the cytokinin reporter TCSnpro :GFP showed lower fluorescence signal in the roots of azg2 compared to the WT. These results indicate a defective cytokinin signalling pathway in the region of LR primordia. The integration of AZG2 subcellular localization and cytokinin transport capacity data allowed us to propose a local cytokinin : auxin signalling model for the regulation of LR emergence.

8.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medication reconciliation errors, also known as unintentional discrepancies, are frequent during admission, especially in chronic patients, and have an impact on safety. Educational interventions can be a reduction strategy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Quasi-experimental study, before-after design. Participants were chronic patients admitted into hospitalization services. Medication reconciliation was conducted at admission. The intervention consisted of a training to each prescribing physician with study contents and printed educational material. To study the association between intervention and change of frequency of unintentional discrepancies was made a logistic regression model, adjusting for selected variables. RESULTS: A sample of 54 patients was studied in each stage. In the first stage it was observed that 42.6% of patients had at least one unintentional discrepancy. After intervention the proportion of patients with at least one unintentional discrepancy decreased to 24.1% (p = 0.041). In both stages, omission was the main category of unintentional discrepancy. The significant reduction after the intervention is maintained by controlling for variables such as emergency admission and pre-admission service. CONCLUSIONS: Incidence of unintentional discrepancies in admission is high in chronic hospitalized patients and can be reduced through an educative strategy.

9.
Curr Clin Pharmacol ; 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monogenic diabetes (MFD) represents close to 2% of all the cases of dia- betes diagnosed in people younger than 45 years old. Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), neonatal diabetes, and several syndromic forms of diabetes are included among the most accounts for about typical forms of MDF. MODY is the most frequent type of MFD, with MODY 1, 2, 3, and 5 being the most prevalent forms. The aim of this narrative review is to describe preg- nancy associated changes in the pharmacological profile of the antidiabetic drugs used in women with the most frequent MODY subtypes. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was carried out to identify eligible studies from MED- LINE/PubMed, EMBASE, and SCIELO databases from 1970 to 2019 first semester. RESULTS: Pregnancy introduces changes in the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profile of some of the treatments used in MODY. MODY 3 (also known as HNF1-A MODY) is the most fre- quent MDF. MODY 3 patients are highly sensitive to sulfonylureas (SU). This is also the case for MODY pregnant women. This high sensitivity to SU is also registered in patients with MODY 1 (HNF4-A MODY). Pharmacodynamic changes have been proposed to explain this behavior (E- pac2 hyperactivity). However, changes in expression/activity of the metabolizing CYP2C9 cy- tochrome and/or alterations in the drug transporters oatp1 (Slc21a1), Lst-1 (Slc21a6), OATPD (SL- C21A11), and oat2 may better explain, at least in part, this phenomenon by an increase in the con- centration of the active drug. CONCLUSION: The impact of changes in the pharmacological behavior of drugs like SU and other metabolized/transported by mechanisms altered in a pregnancy complicated by MODY is un- known. However, switching-to-insulin recommendation formulated for MODY 1 and 3 seems to be justified. Further research in this field is needed for a better understanding of changes in drug ac- tivity associated with this particular subset of patients with MFD.

10.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 20(3): 251-254, sept. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1123083

RESUMO

La comorbilidad COVID-19/tuberculosis (TB) es poco mencionada en la bibliografía y en general se considera que existe poca interacción entre ambas enfermedades. Presentamos 23 casos (4 pediátricos) diagnosticados en 5 hospitales de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires entre marzo y junio de 2020. El promedio de edad de los adultos fue de 36,9 años; 78% eran de sexo masculino; 57% fueron extranjeros y 74% pertenecían a poblaciones de barrios vulnerables. En la Institución que más casos reportó, la incidencia de TB entre los pacientes COVID-19 fue tan alta como 1635/100 000. La radiología de las formas pulmonares de TB mostró el predominio de imágenes cavitarias; en cuanto a la infección por SARS-CoV-2 se hallaron opacidades en vidrio esmerilado a predominio periférico y consolidaciones. Ambos tipos de imágenes fueron concomitantes en el 78% de los pacientes. El 65% de los casos no tenía diagnóstico de TB y éste fue efectuado a partir de imágenes radiológicas compatibles, confirmadas luego por la bacteriología. Las comorbilidades más frecuentes fueron las adicciones (tabaquismo y drogas ilícitas) y el VIH. La tuberculosis fue tratada con el esquema estándar, aunque se emplearon drogas de segunda línea en los casos de reacciones adversas graves (4 pacientes) y en los multirresistentes. El período de internación fue más prolongado de lo habitual para pacientes no UTI. La mortalidad superó a la del COVID-19 del país 1.8% vs. 8.7%. Se discuten las implicancias de la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2 sobre la reemergencia de la tuberculosis en la denominada era "postpandemia"


The COVID-19/tuberculosis comorbidity is scarcely mentioned in the literature and it is generally considered that there is little interaction between both diseases. We report 23 cases (4 pediatric) diagnosed in 5 hospitals in the City of Buenos Aires between March and June 2020. The mean age of the adults was 36.9 years: 78% were male, 57% were foreigners and 74% belonged to vulnerable populations. In the institution that reported most cases, the incidence of TB among COVID-19 patients was as high as 1635/100 000. In the radiological presentation of the pulmonary forms, cavitary images of TB predominated; regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection, ground glass opacities with a peripheral predominance and consolidation were found. Both types of images were concomitant in 78% of patients; 65% of the cases did not have a diagnosis of TB and this was made from compatible radiological images, later confirmed by bacteriology. The most frequent comorbidities were addictions (smoking and illicit drugs) and HIV. Tuberculosis was treated with the standard regimen, although second-line drugs were used in cases of serious adverse reactions (4 patients) and in multidrug-resistant TB. The hospitalization period was longer than usual for non-ICU patients. Mortality was higher than that of the country's COVID-19: 1.8% vs. 8.7%. The implications of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on the re-emergence of tuberculosis in the so-called "post-pandemic" era are discussed.


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Tuberculose , Comorbidade , Vírus da SARS , Pandemias
11.
J Plant Res ; 133(5): 739-749, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740857

RESUMO

Plants can respond and adapt to changes in the internal content of carbon and nitrogen by using organic compounds that widely differ in their carbon/nitrogen ratio. Among them, the amides asparagine and glutamine are believed to be preferred by most plants, including Arabidopsis. However, increases in the ureides allantoin and/or allantoate concentrations have been observed in different plant species under several environmental conditions. In this work, changes in the ratio between carbon skeletons and reduced nitrogen were investigated by varying the concentrations of nitrogen and sucrose in the growth media. Allantoin accumulation was observed when plants were grown in media with high ammonia concentrations. This increase was reverted by adding sucrose as additional carbon source. Moreover, mutant plants with a decreased capability to degrade allantoin showed a compromised growth compared to WT in ammonia supplemented media. Together, our results indicate that allantoin accumulation is induced by low carbon/nitrogen ratio and suggest that its degradation is critical for proper plant growth and development.


Assuntos
Alantoína , Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Alantoína/metabolismo , Amidoidrolases , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Nitrogênio , Folhas de Planta
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655498

RESUMO

Autophagy is an evolutionarily preserved degradation process of cytoplasmic cellular constituents, which participates in cell response to disease. We previously characterized VMP1 (Vacuole Membrane Protein 1) as an essential autophagy related protein that mediates autophagy in pancreatic diseases. We also demonstrated that VMP1-mediated autophagy is induced by HIF-1A (hypoxia inducible factor 1 subunit alpha) in colon-cancer tumor cell lines, conferring resistance to photodynamic treatment. Here we identify a new molecular pathway, mediated by VMP1, by which gemcitabine is able to trigger autophagy in human pancreatic tumor cell lines. We demonstrated that gemcitabine requires the VMP1 expression to induce autophagy in the highly resistant pancreatic cancer cells PANC-1 and MIAPaCa-2 that carry activated KRAS. E2F1 is a transcription factor that is regulated by the retinoblastoma pathway. We found that E2F1 is an effector of gemcitabine-induced autophagy and regulates the expression and promoter activity of VMP1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that E2F1 binds to the VMP1 promoter in PANC-1 cells. We have also identified the histone acetyltransferase EP300 as a modulator of VMP1 promoter activity. Our data showed that the E2F1-EP300 activator/co-activator complex is part of the regulatory pathway controlling the expression and promoter activity of VMP1 triggered by gemcitabine in PANC-1 cells. Finally, we found that neither VMP1 nor E2F1 are induced by gemcitabine treatment in BxPC-3 cells, which do not carry oncogenic KRAS and are sensitive to chemotherapy. In conclusion, we have identified the E2F1-EP300-VMP1 pathway that mediates gemcitabine-induced autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells. These results strongly support that VMP1-mediated autophagy may integrate the complex network of events involved in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma chemo-resistance. Our experimental findings point at E2F1 and VMP1 as novel potential therapeutic targets in precise treatment strategies for pancreatic cancer.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32477265

RESUMO

Proteins to be secreted through so-called "conventional mechanisms" are characterized by the presence of an N-terminal peptide that is a leader or signal peptide, needed for access to the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus for further secretion. However, some relevant cytosolic proteins lack of this signal peptides and should be secreted by different unconventional or "non-canonical" processes. One form of this unconventional secretion was named secretory autophagy (SA) because it is specifically associated with the autophagy pathway. It is defined by ATG proteins that regulate the biogenesis of the autophagosome, its representative organelle. The canonical macroautophagy involves the fusion of the autophagosomes with lysosomes for content degradation, whereas the SA pathway bypasses this degradative process to allow the secretion. ATG5, as well as other factors involved in autophagy such as BCN1, are also activated as part of the secretory pathway. SA has been recognized as a new mechanism that is becoming of increasing relevance to explain the unconventional secretion of a series of cytosolic proteins that have critical biological importance. Also, SA may play a role in the release of aggregation-prone protein since it has been related to the autophagosome biogenesis machinery. SA requires the autophagic pathway and both, secretory autophagy and canonical degradative autophagy are at the same time, integrated and highly regulated processes that interact in ultimate cross-talking molecular mechanisms. The potential implications of alterations in SA, its cargos, pathways, and regulation in human diseases such as metabolic/aging pathological processes are predictable. Further research of SA as potential target of therapeutic intervention is deserved.

14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8130, 2020 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424160

RESUMO

Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene. The expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat of the encoded protein leads to protein misfolding and aggregation, resulting in increased neuronal cell death. DNAJ co-chaperones play a crucial role in transferring misfolded/unfolded proteins to HSP70 chaperones, which play an essential role for protein folding. Here, we investigated the effect of knock out (KO) of three individual DNAJ genes in HEK293 cells expressing polyglutamine74exon1 huntingtin (polyQ74htt). Flourescence microscopy analysis revealed that KO of DNAJB6 resulted in a 5-fold increase in polyQ74htt aggregation and that DNAJA1 KO resulted in a 4-fold decrease of polyQ74htt aggregation. KO of DNAJB1 did not change the propensity of polyQ74htt to aggregate in cells. These findings where confirmed both by fluorescence microscopy analysis and filter trap assay (FTA). DNAJB6 KO cells displayed an increased rate of cell death as assessed by trypan blue exclusion and propidium iodide (PI) uptake assays. These results demonstrate that the DNAJ proteins DNAJA1 and DNAJB6 can modulate polyQ aggregation in opposite manners, and thus that fine-tuning the cellular levels of DNAJ proteins is critical for suppression of polyQ aggregation and cell survival.

15.
Clin Chim Acta ; 507: 280-285, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We determined the association between schoolchildren's OW/OB with age, sex, lifestyle behaviors, and cardiometabolic markers. METHODS: Age, sex, anthropometric measures, and BP (blood pressure) were recorded in 1249 (554 M) schoolchildren. OW/OB was defined as BMI > 85%ile and BMI > 95%ile respectively. A validated questionnaire for lifestyle behaviors was performed. We offered free laboratory testing to a subgroup of 168 children. RESULTS: Schoolchildren aged 8.8 ± 2.1 y from 9 elementary schools in 4 areas of Argentina were examined between April and September 2019. 265 (21.2%) of the children were OW, 265 (21.2%) were OB, and 425 (35%) had central OB. OW/OB was associated with low milk intake (OR = 1.92; 95% CI, 1.1-3.3), skipping breakfast (OR = 2.00; 95% CI, 1.2-3.4), a family history of hypertension (OR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.1-2.9), and systolic BP (OR = 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.05); adjusted for confounding variables. The subgroup analysis showed that OW/OB children had lower iron (83 vs. 94 ug/dl, respectively) and HDL-C (43 vs. 47 mg/dl) levels, but higher non-HDL-C (107 vs. 99 mg/dl) levels than normal-weight children. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that OW/OB was inversely associated with iron (OR = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98-0.998) and HDL-C (OR = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91-0.97) levels; adjusted for confounding variables. CONCLUSION: Adiposity in schoolchildren was associated with unhealthy lifestyle behaviors, higher atherogenic risk, and lower iron concentrations, suggesting that OW/OB children are at increased risk for anemia and cardiometabolic disease.

16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5395, 2020 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214166

RESUMO

In this study, newly identified small molecules were examined for efficacy against 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in commercial groves of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) and white grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) trees. We used benzbromarone and/or tolfenamic acid delivered by trunk injection. We evaluated safety and efficacy parameters by performing RNAseq of the citrus host responses, 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize citrus-associated microbial communities during treatment, and qRT-PCR as an indirect determination of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' viability. Analyses of the C. sinensis transcriptome indicated that each treatment consistently induced genes associated with normal metabolism and growth, without compromising tree viability or negatively affecting the indigenous citrus-associated microbiota. It was found that treatment-associated reduction in 'Ca. L. asiaticus' was positively correlated with the proliferation of several core taxa related with citrus health. No symptoms of phytotoxicity were observed in any of the treated trees. Trials were also performed in commercial groves to examine the effect of each treatment on fruit productivity, juice quality and efficacy against 'Ca. L. asiaticus'. Increased fruit production (15%) was observed in C. paradisi following twelve months of treatment with benzbromarone and tolfenamic acid. These results were positively correlated with decreased 'Ca. L. asiaticus' transcriptional activity in root samples.

17.
Front Plant Sci ; 11: 222, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210995

RESUMO

Herein, an analytical method was developed for extraction and quantification of benzbromarone and tolfenamic acid in citrus and soil matrices using liquid-liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The compounds were extracted using 0.1% formic acid in 6:4 ethyl acetate and n-hexane solution, and the analytes were separated using a mixture of 0.1% formic acid in ultrapure water and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile as mobile phase. A six-point in-matrix calibration curve was constructed providing good linearity with coefficients of determination R 2 ≥ 0.98. The limits of detection and quantification for benzbromarone and tolfenamic acid were 3.0 and 10.0 µg/kg in roots, peel, juice, and soil, and 4.0 and 12.0 µg/kg for leaves samples, respectively. The method yielded excellent recoveries between 81.3 and 101.2%, with relative standard deviation ≤9.5% in the matrices. The developed technique provides a simple and sensitive method for the determination of the chemicals and can be applied to agricultural practices.

18.
Sci Total Environ ; 719: 137239, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126405

RESUMO

We evaluated the effects of projected, near future ocean acidification (OA) and extreme events of temperature (warming or cooling) on the thermal tolerance of Concholepas concholepas, a coastal benthic keystone species. Three separate trials of an experiment were conducted by exposing juvenile C. concholepas for 1 month to one of two contrasting pCO2 levels (~500 and ~1200 µatm). In addition, each pCO2 level was combined with one of four temperature treatments. The control was 15 °C, whilst the other temperatures were 10 °C (Trial 1), 20 °C (Trial 2) and 25 °C (Trial 3). At the end of each trial, we assessed Critical Thermal maximum (CTmax) and minimum (CTmin) via self-righting success, calculated partial thermal tolerance polygons, measured somatic growth, determined transcription of Heat Shock Proteins 70 (HSP70) and measured oxygen consumption rates. Regardless of pCO2 level, HSP70 transcript levels were significantly higher in juveniles after exposure to extreme temperatures (10 °C and 25 °C) indicating physiological stress. Oxygen consumption rates increased with increasing temperature from 10 °C to 20 °C though showed a decrease at 25 °C. This rate was not affected by pCO2 or the interaction between temperature and pCO2. Juveniles exposed to present-day and near future pCO2 levels at 20 °C showed similar thermal tolerance polygonal areas; whilst changes in both CTmin and CTmax at 25 °C and 10 °C caused narrower and broader areas, respectively. Temperature affected growth, oxygen consumption and HSP70 transcription in small juvenile C. concholepas. Exposure to elevated pCO2 did not affect thermal tolerance, growth or oxygen consumption at temperatures within the thermal range normally experienced by this species in northern Chile (15-20 °C). At elevated pCO2 conditions, however, exposure to warmer (25 °C) or colder (10 °C) temperatures reduced or increased the thermal area, respectively. This study demonstrates the importance of examining the thermal-tolerance edges to better understand how OA and temperature will combine to physiologically challenge inter-tidal organisms.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Animais , Dióxido de Carbono , Chile , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Água do Mar , Temperatura
19.
Plant Physiol ; 182(3): 1310-1325, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862838

RESUMO

Allantoin is a purine oxidative product involved in long distance transport of organic nitrogen in nodulating legumes and was recently shown to play a role in stress tolerance in other plants. The subcellular localization of enzymes that catalyze allantoin synthesis and degradation indicates that allantoin is produced in peroxisomes and degraded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Although it has been determined that allantoin is mostly synthesized in roots and transported to shoots either for organic nitrogen translocation in legumes or for plant protection during stress in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the mechanism and molecular components of allantoin export from root cells are still unknown. AtUPS5 (Arabidopsis UREIDE PERMEASE 5) is a transmembrane protein that transports allantoin with high affinity when expressed in yeast. The subcellular fate of splicing variants AtUPS5L (long) and AtUPS5S (short) was studied by tagging them with fluorescent proteins in their cytosolic loops. The capability of these fusion proteins to complement the function of the native proteins was demonstrated by nutritional and salt stress experiments. Both variants localized to the ER, but the AtUPS5L variant was also detected in the trans-Golgi network/early endosome and at the plasma membrane. AtUPS5L and AtUPS5S localization indicates that they could have different roles in allantoin distribution between subcellular compartments. Our data suggest that under nonstress conditions UPS5L and UPS5S may function in allantoin degradation for nutrient recycling, whereas under stress, both genes may be involved in vesicular export allowing allantoin translocation from roots to shoots.

20.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224381, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689330

RESUMO

Bacterial expansin-like proteins have synergistically increased cellulose hydrolysis by cellulolytic enzymes during the initial stages of biofuel production, but they have not been tested on livestock feeds. The objectives of this study were to: isolate and express an expansin-like protein (BsEXLX1), to verify its disruptive activity (expansion) on cotton fibers by immunodetection (Experiment 1), and to determine the effect of dose, pH and temperature for BsEXLX1 and cellulase to synergistically hydrolyze filter paper (FP) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) under laboratory (Experiment 2) and simulated ruminal (Experiment 3) conditions. In addition, we determined the ability of BsEXLX1 to synergistically increase hydrolysis of corn and bermudagrass silages by an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (EFE) (Experiment 4) and how different doses of BsEXLX1 and EFE affect the gas production (GP), in vitro digestibility and fermentation of a diet for dairy cows (Experiment 5). In Experiment 1, immunofluorescence-based examination of cotton microfiber treated without or with recombinant expansin-like protein expressed from Bacillus subtilis (BsEXLX1) increased the surface area by > 100% compared to the untreated control. In Experiment 2, adding BsEXLX1 (100 µg/g FP) to cellulase (0.0148 FPU) increased release of reducing sugars compared to cellulase alone by more than 40% (P < 0.01) at optimal pH (4.0) and temperature (50°C) after 24 h. In Experiment 3 and 4, adding BsEXLX1 to cellulase or EFE, synergistically increased release of reducing sugars from FP, corn and bermudagrass silages under simulated ruminal conditions (pH 6.0, 39°C). In Experiment 5, increasing the concentration of BsEXLX1 linearly increased (P < 0.01) GP from fermentation of a diet for dairy cows by up to 17.8%. Synergistic effects between BsEXLX1 and EFE increased in vitro NDF digestibility of the diet by 23.3% compared to the control. In vitro digestibility of hemicellulose and butyrate concentration were linearly increased by BsEXLX1 compared to the control. This study demonstrated that BsEXLX1 can improve the efficacy of cellulase and EFE at hydrolyzing pure substrates and dairy cow feeds, respectively.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Silagem , Proteínas de Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Celulase/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Cynodon/citologia , Cynodon/metabolismo , Fermentação , Hidrólise , Proteínas de Membrana/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Zea mays/citologia , Zea mays/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...