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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 265: 113347, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890715

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The members of the genus Ranunculus have counter-irritating properties and thus, they are traditionally used for treating anti-inflammatory disorders and other skin conditions. Ranunculus macrophyllus Desf. is a wild medicinal plant growing in Algeria and traditionally used to treat some cutaneous skin disorders. AIM: The aim of this study was to characterize the composition of the ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts from Ranunculus macrophyllus Desf. as well as to elucidate and to compare their effect against acute skin inflammation. Moreover, both the antioxidant activity and the acute toxicity of the plant extracts were also studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods were employed to identify and quantify phenolic compounds and triterpenoids from R. macrophyllus Desf. fractions. The antioxidant activity was estimated using the phosphomolebdenum, DPPH, reducing power and ß-carotene bleaching assays. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts were screened for their anti-inflammatory activities using ex-vivo membrane stabilizing assays and in-vivo acute skin inflammation model. RESULTS: Ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest amounts of total phenolic compounds (413 ± 4 µg GAE/mg extract) and triterpenoids (70.4 ± 1.8 µg UAE/mg extract). Rutin, hesperidin, myricetin and kaempferol were the major compounds identified in the different fractions. Ethyl acetate fraction exhibited strong DPPH• radical scavenging ability (IC50 1.6 ± 0.2 µg/mL), high total antioxidant capacity (447 ± 7 µg AAE/mg extract) and reducing power (514 ± 8 µg AAE/mg extract). Ethyl acetate fraction inhibited (73.4 ± 0.3) % of linoleic acid peroxidation. Ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions did not have any visible toxicity at 2000 mg/kg and presented excellent membrane stabilizing ability. The inhibition of xylene induced ear inflammation was (38 ± 4) % and (46 ± 1) % for RM-B and RM-EA, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The high content of both phenolic compounds and triterpenoids combined with the remarkable anti-inflammatory effect and antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts from R. macrophyllus Desf. support the wide spread use of this traditional plant on some skin disorders (inflammatory skin disorders).

2.
Food Chem ; 337: 127998, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919276

RESUMO

Grape (Vitis vinifera L. var. Albariño) and mulberry (Morus nigra L.) seeds pomace were characterized in terms of tocopherols, organic acids, phenolic compounds and bioactive properties. Higher contents of tocopherols (28 ± 1 mg/100 g fw) were obtained in mulberry, whilst grape seeds were richer in organic acids (79 ± 4 mg/100 g fw). The phenolic analysis of hydroethanolic extracts characterised grape seeds by catechin oligomers (36.0 ± 0.3 mg/g) and mulberry seeds by ellagic acid derivatives (3.14 ± 0.02 mg/g). Both exhibited high antimicrobial activity against multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus MIC = 5 mg/mL) and no cytotoxicity against carcinogenic and non-tumour primary liver (PLP) cells. Mulberry seeds revealed the strongest inhibition (p < 0.05) against thiobarbituric reactive substances (IC50 = 23 ± 2 µg/mL) and oxidative haemolysis (IC50 at 60 min = 46.0 ± 0.8 µg/mL). Both seed by-products could be exploited for the developing of antioxidant-rich ingredients with health benefits for industrial application.

4.
J Crit Care ; 59: 207-214, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717592

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We explore the hypothesis that critically ill patients developing ICU-acquired pneumonia (ICU-AP) have worse outcomes and an altered inflammatory response if their ICU admission was sepsis-related. METHODS: Prospective cohort study in two centers. Patients with ICU-AP were evaluated according to their previous exposure to sepsis at ICU-admission. Demographic variables, comorbidities, severity scores at admission and at the time of acquisition of ICU-AP, and serum biomarkers of the inflammatory response were evaluated. PRIMARY OUTCOME: 90-day mortality. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: ICU and hospital length of stay, mortality at days 28 and 180, in-hospital mortality, ventilator-free days (day-28), and inflammatory response. Propensity scoring weighted the risk of previously-acquired sepsis. Multivariate analysis evaluated the risk of mortality by day-90. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the primary outcome in different subgroups. RESULTS: Of 341 patients enrolled, 147 had sepsis on ICU-admission. Adjusted risk of mortality at 90 days did not differ overall [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.94(CI:0.65-1.37)], nor in subpopulations with a confirmed etiology of pneumonia [HR = 0.93(CI:0.57-1.53)] or sepsis [HR = 0.91(0.54-1.55)], ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) [HR = 1.01(CI:0.61-1.68)], nor non-VAP ICU-AP [HR = 0.83(CI:0.40-1.71)]. No differences were found in clinical secondary outcomes, the inflammatory response was similar. CONCLUSIONS: Previous sepsis does not appear to predispose to higher mortality nor worse outcomes in patients who develop ICU-acquired pneumonia.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353673

RESUMO

This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of foliar sprays containing boron (B) nano-fertilizer (NF) on the growth and physiology of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and zucchini (Cucurbita pepo). Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions for 60 days on a modified Hoagland solution with the presence and absence of boron (+B or -B). A synthesized B-NF foliar spray and a commercial B foliar fertilizer (Bortrac™ 150, BT) was applied at a concentration of 30 mg B L-1 at 10-d intervals throughout the experiment. The B-NF treatment increased the growth of lettuce 2.7- and 1.9-fold for shoots and roots, respectively, with an average production of lettuce biomass by ~58%. Similarly, the NF increased the growth of zucchini by 18 and 66% compared with Control-B (the absence of B), and 13 and 36% compared with BT, both for shoots and roots, respectively. Nevertheless, NF + B mostly decreased lettuce growth with symptoms of B toxicity in leaves. In lettuce, addition of B did not affect concentrations of phenols; however, in zucchini, Control-B induced a higher production of phenolic compounds possibly related to B deficiency. The B addition in lettuce reduced the DPPH activity by 32 and 21% in NF and BT, respectively, compared to Control-B. These responses were similar in zucchini; however, the effect of B was product of its presence in mineral solution rather than due the foliar product applied. This suggests that a NF-based delivery system for B may be highly effective at boosting plant productivity on B-limited soils.


Assuntos
Boratos , Compostos de Cálcio , Cucurbita , Fertilizantes , Alface , Nanopartículas , Boratos/química , Compostos de Cálcio/química , Cucurbita/metabolismo , Alface/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 725: 138453, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298902

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) at very low doses has important functions for humans. Unfortunately, the low levels of Se in soils in various regions of the world have implemented the agronomic biofortification of crops by applying Se-enriched fertilizers (mainly based on selenate). Lately, the use of nanofertilizers is growing in interest as their low size reduces the amount of chemicals and minimizes nutrient losses in comparison with conventional bulk fertilizers. However, the knowledge on their fate and environmental impact is still scarce. This study aims to evaluate the biotransformation of chitosan-modified Se nanoparticles (Ch-SeNPs) as well as their effect on the metabolism of essential metals (Fe, Cu, Zn and Mo) when applied to hydroponic cultivation of R. sativus and B. juncea. In house-synthesized Ch-SeNPs were characterized in both synthesis and hydroponic culture media by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). The composition of one-tenth strength Hoagland's solution did not affect the size, shape and concentration in number of particles per mL of Ch-SeNPs. The plants were grown inside a box at 25 °C during the months of May-July in 2018. After a week of treatment with Ch-SeNPs, plants were harvested and divided into roots and aerial part. The biotransformation of Ch-SeNPs was evaluated through a process of enzymatic hydrolysis and subsequent analysis by HPLC-ICP-MS and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The results confirmed the transformation of Ch-SeNPs to seleno-amino acids: Selenomethionine (SeMet), Semethylselenocysteine (SeMetSeCys) and É£-glutamyl-Se-MetSeCys. Moreover, Multiple-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that, regardless the plant species, Ch-SeNPs supplementation affected the absorption of Zn.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Raphanus , Selênio , Mostardeira , Ácido Selênico , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
7.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(24): 6485-6497, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322953

RESUMO

Extracellular accumulation of amyloid beta peptide (Aß) is believed to be one of the main factors responsible for neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Metals could induce Aß aggregation, by their redox activity or binding properties to amyloid ß fibrils, leading to their accumulation and deposition outside neurons. For this reason, metal chelation may have an acknowledged part to play in AD prevention and treatment. In the current work, the role of different selenium species, including selenium nanoparticles, in Aß aggregation, was studied by evaluating their metal-chelating properties and their ability both to inhibit metal-induced Aß1-42 aggregation fibrils and to disaggregate them once formed. Transition biometals such as Fe(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) at 50 µM were selected to establish the in vitro models. The DPPH assay was used to determine the antioxidant capacity of the evaluated selenium species. Selenium nanoparticles stabilized with chitosan (Ch-SeNPs) and with both chitosan and chlorogenic acid polyphenol (CGA@ChSeNPs) showed the highest antioxidant properties with EC50 of 0.9 and 0.07 mM, respectively. UV-Vis and d1(UV-Vis) spectra also revealed that selenium species, in particular selenomethionine (SeMet), were able to interact with metals. Regarding Aß1-42 incubation experiments, Fe(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) induced Aß aggregation, in a similar way to most of the evaluated selenium species. However, Ch-SeNPs produced a high inhibition of metal-induced Aß aggregation, as well as a high disaggregation capacity of Aß fibrils in both the presence and absence of biometals, in addition to reducing the length and width (20% of reduction in the presence of Zn(II)) of the generated Aß fibrils. Graphical abstract.

8.
Artif Organs ; 44(6): 647-654, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951029

RESUMO

Beta-trace protein (BTP), a low molecular weight protein of 23-29 kDa, has been proposed as a promising biomarker to estimate residual renal function (RRF) in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD). Indeed, BTP is cleared by native kidney but not during conventional HD session. By contrast, the removal rate of BTP using convective processes (mainly hemodiafiltration [HDF]) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) has been little or not investigated. Therefore, an aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of dialysis procedures (high-flux HD, on-line post-dilution HDF and PD) on BTP removal in comparison with beta-2 microglobulin (B2M) and cystatin C (CYSC) removals after a single session. In addition, the ability of BTP to predict RRF in PD was assessed. This observational cross-sectional study included a total of 82 stable chronic kidney disease patients, 53 patients were on maintenance dialysis (with n = 26 in HD and n = 27 in HDF) and 29 were on PD. Serum concentrations of BTP, B2M, and CYSC were measured (a) before and after a single dialysis session in HD and HDF anuric patients to calculate reduction percentages, (b) in serum, 24-hour-dialysate and 24-hour-urine in PD patients to compute total, peritoneal, and urinary clearance. RRF was estimated using four equations developed for dialysis patients without urine collection and compared to the mean of the urea and creatinine clearances in PD. The concentrations of the three studied molecules were significantly reduced (P < .001) after dialysis session with significantly higher reduction ratio using HDF compared to HD modality (P < .001): BTP 49.3% vs 17.5%; B2M 82.3% vs 69.7%; CYSC 77.4% vs 66% in HDF and HD, respectively. In non-anuric PD patients, B2M and CYSC were partly removed by peritoneal clearance (72.3% and 57.6% for B2M and CYSC, respectively). By contrast, BTP removal by the peritoneum was negligible and a low bias for the BTP-based equation to estimate RRF (-1.4 mL/min/1.73 m2 ) was calculated. BTP is significantly removed by high-flux HD or HDF, thereby compromising its use to estimate RRF. By contrast, BTP appears as a promising biomarker to estimate RRF in PD patients since it is not affected by peritoneal clearance, unlike B2M and CYSC, and it is well correlated to RRF.

9.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1175-1194, out.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-994982

RESUMO

Este artigo se propõe a analisar a situação da psicanálise nos cursos de psicologia das universidades do Rio de Janeiro, estabelecendo uma comparação com o caso de Buenos Aires. Para tal fim, utiliza um método de análise que implica construção documental, entrevistas e estudo teórico sobre a história e a atualidade da psicologia e da psicanálise nessas cidades. Entende-se que, além da chamada "crise" da psicanálise, ela mantém uma posição predominante nesses cursos. Espera-se que este trabalho contribua para uma discussão contextualizada dos cursos de psicologia em suas revisões curriculares.(AU)


We aim to analyse the situation of psychoanalysis in psychology undergraduate courses from universities of Rio de Janeiro, comparing these with the ones from Buenos Aires. For that purpose, we use a method of analysis that involves documental construction, interviews and theoretical study on the past history and the present reality of psychology and psychoanalysis in those cities. We understand that, besides the so-called "crisis" of psychoanalysis, this theoretical orientation maintains a predominant position in those courses. We expect that this work contributes to a contextualized discussion of psychology undergraduate courses and their curricular revisions.(AU)


Se propone analizar la situación del psicoanálisis en las carreras de psicología de universidades de Rio de Janeiro, estableciendo una comparación con el caso de Buenos Aires. Para tal fin, se utiliza un método de análisis que implica construcción documental, entrevista y estudio teórico, sobre la historia y actualidad de la psicología y el psicoanálisis en esas ciudades. Se entiende que, más allá de la llamada "crisis" del psicoanálisis, éste mantiene una posición predominante en esos cursos. Se espera que este trabajo contribuya a una discusión contextualizada de las carreras de Psicología y sus revisiones curriculares.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Psicanálise , Psicologia , Argentina , Universidades , Brasil
10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17706, 2019 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776434

RESUMO

A valorization process of spent coffee grounds (SCG) was studied. Thus, a two-stage process, the first stage of polyphenols extraction and synthesis of a carbonaceous precursor and a subsequent stage of obtaining activated carbon (AC) by means of a carbonization process from the precursor of the previous stage, was performed. The extraction was carried out with a hydro-alcoholic solution in a pressure reactor, modifying time, temperature and different mixtures EtOH:H2O. To optimize the polyphenols extraction, a two-level factorial experimental design with three replicates at the central point was used. The best results were obtained by using a temperature of 80 °C during 30 min with a mixture of EtOH:H2O 50:50 (v/v). Caffeine and chlorogenic acid were the most abundant compounds in the analysed extracts, ranging from 0.09 to 4.8 mg∙g-1 and 0.06 to 9.7 mg∙g-1, respectively. Similarly, an experimental design was realized in order to analyze the influence of different variables in the AC obtained process (reaction time, temperature and KOH:precursor ratio). The best results were 1 h, 850 °C, and a mixture of 2.5:1. The obtained activated carbons exhibit a great specific surface (between 1600 m2∙g-1 and 2330 m2∙g-1) with a microporous surface. Finally, the adsorption capacity of the activated carbons was evaluated by methylene blue adsorption.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599372

RESUMO

Biochar (BC) is a porous, carbonaceous material produced by slow pyrolysis of biomass under oxygen-limited conditions. BC production has been attracting research interest because it modifies soil physicochemical characteristics and improves the growth of plants in problem soils. These benefits may be best actualized for soils contaminated by metals, where remediation is hampered by metal toxicity to both plants and soil microbial communities. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of the addition of chicken manure biochar (CMB), oat hull biochar (OHB), or pine bark biochar (PBB) on copper (Cu) bioavailability in a Cu-contaminated soil, the effectiveness of these BCs promoting plant growth, and its effects on soil microbial communities supporting these plants. A sandy soil (338 mg Cu kg-1) was amended with CMB, OHB, and PBB, and the metallophyte Oenothera picensis or the agricultural species Solanum lycopersicum and Lolium perenne were grown for 3 months. The BCs produced an increase in soil pH, reduced the exchangeable Cu, and increased Cu bound to organic matter and residual fractions. All BCs enhanced the quality of contaminated soil and increased the plant biomass production, notably for S. lycopersicum, which grew until 12 times more than plants in non-amended soil. While BC addition reduced the concentration of Cu in soil pore water, the amendment did not reduce the concentrations of Cu in shoot tissues. BC additions also stimulated soil microorganisms, increasing basal respiration and DHA activity and modifying microbial communities, especially in soils supporting L. perenne. These results indicate that BCs represent an effective tool to remediate Cu-contaminated sandy soils.

12.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1081: 72-80, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446967

RESUMO

A new calibration method based on the use of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and in-fiber internal standardization, combined with gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed for quantifying Se volatile organic species released by plants exposed to chitosan-modified selenium nanoparticles (Cs-SeNPs). The effect of several parameters affecting extraction and separation of the selected organic species of selenium (dimethylselenium (DMSe), diethylselenium (DESe) and dimethyldiselenium (DMDSe)) and deuterated dimethyl sulphide (d6-DMS) employed as internal standard were studied and optimized using an experimental design. The developed methodology was applied for quantifying the volatile selenium compounds produced over time by the plant species Raphanus sativus and Brassica juncea grown in hydroponic solution containing 5 mg Se L-1 in the form Cs-SeNPs. The procedure employed consisted in two steps. Volatile selenium species released from the plants were first extracted in the SPME fiber located at the headspace of a box with a fixed volume. Subsequently, the internal standard placed in a vial subjected to the same conditions as plants was extracted on the same fiber than the one previously used for extracting selenium compounds. Finally the extracted compounds were separated and analyzed by GC/MS. Results evidenced Cs-SeNPs biotransformation into DMSe and DMDSe by both plants species during growing stage, in amounts of the order of ng. Additionally, the resulting data were submitted to multifactorial ANOVA to evaluate the influence of plant type and time of exposure to Cs-SeNPs on the production of volatile selenium compounds.


Assuntos
Compostos Organosselênicos/análise , Plantas/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Quitosana/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Mostardeira/química , Nanopartículas/química , Raphanus/química , Selênio/química , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos
13.
Waste Manag ; 96: 15-24, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376959

RESUMO

A solid-liquid extraction method using ethanol-water mixtures was combined with cLC-DAD, LC-MS/MS and chemometric analyses for establishing the optimum extraction conditions of valuable polyphenols from spent coffee grounds. Chlorogenic and p-coumaric acids were the most abundant polyphenols found, ranging from 0.02 to 4.8 mg g-1 and 0.173-0.50 mg g-1, respectively. In addition, total polyphenol content (9-29 mg GAE g-1 DW), total flavonoid content (11-27 mg QE g-1 DW), total antioxidant activity (0.3-7 mg GAE g-1 DW) and free radical scavenging ability (DPPH assay, 64-927 µg extract g-1 at EC50) of obtained extracts were determined. Response surface methodology allowed obtaining predictive models for the extraction of each individual polyphenol. On the other hand, multifactorial ANOVA was used to establish differences between coffee and spent coffee ground extracts. Principal component analysis was also employed to relate antioxidant activities, total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents with both the polyphenols extracted and the residue coffee type. The overall results suggested that spent coffee grounds could be reused as a promising, inexpensive and natural source of bioactive polyphenols with potential industrial applications, thus minimizing the waste disposal and environmental impact.


Assuntos
Café , Polifenóis , Antioxidantes , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
14.
Food Chem ; 295: 289-299, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174761

RESUMO

A method combining solid-liquid extraction based on ethanolic aqueous solution, cLC-DAD and chemometrics, was performed to extract and quantify polyphenols from citrus peels. LC-MS/MS was also employed for chemical profiling. The effect of extraction variables on the recovery was examined by experimental factorial design. Data were evaluated using multifactorial-ANOVA, response surface analysis and Principal Component Analysis. trans-Ferulic and p-coumaric antioxidants were found in lower quantities (<1.4 mg·g-1) in all peel extracts. Narangin flavonoid was also identified in all samples, while rutin flavonol was determined in the concentration range of 3.3-4.7 mg·g-1. The most abundant polyphenol in the extracts obtained from all evaluated citrus samples was the flavanone hesperidin (280-673 mg·g-1). Furthermore, peel extracts were evaluated in terms of total polyphenol and flavonoid content, total antioxidant activity and DPPH free radical scavenging. The obtained results suggested that evaluated citrus peel by-products could be reused as a source of polyphenols and transformed into value-added products.


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Resíduos/análise , Análise de Variância , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Hesperidina/análise , Hesperidina/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
15.
J Chromatogr A ; 1601: 255-265, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103200

RESUMO

A simple and efficient low-cost matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) extraction based on TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) and diatomaceous earth has been developed for the recovery of phenolic compounds from residual brewing yeast. Experimental conditions for MSPD extraction were optimized by an experimental design approach. A screening factorial design plus replicates at the center point, followed by surface response analysis were used. The simultaneous identification and quantification of eleven main natural polyphenols: caffeic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, 3,4-dihydroxibenzoic, trans-ferulic and gallic acids, kaempferol, myricetin, naringin, quercetin and rutin, was possible by combining MSPD and capillary liquid chromatography couple to a diode array detection system (cLC-DAD) and liquid chromatography couple to a triple quadrupole analyzer (LC-MS/MS). Moreover, residual brewing yeast extracts were evaluated in terms of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity. Polyphenol-nanoparticle interaction was studied by UV-vis spectroscopy and electron transmission microscopy (TEM), pointing out a stable interplay that assists phenolic isolation. The extracted polyphenol quantities were within the 3.2-1,500 µg g-1 range, and the high antioxidant activity estimated suggested that developed MSPD is a successful, simple, efficient and rapid method for the extraction and recovery of bioactive phenolic compounds, which promotes the reuse and re-evaluation of brewing yeast agri-food by-products.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Nanopartículas/química , Fenóis/análise , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Extração em Fase Sólida , Titânio/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Terra de Diatomáceas/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/química , Quercetina/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
16.
J Environ Manage ; 242: 171-177, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035179

RESUMO

The immobilization of Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) onto biochar was studied in a series of batch experiments. CRL sorption behavior was evaluated as a function of pH, enzyme concentration, temperature and ionic strength. As the immobilized lipase was used for the catalytic esterification of oleic acid, its resistance to solvents and thermal stability were evaluated. CRL adsorption increased by increasing temperature, and with higher pH, reaching a maximum at pH 7.0. Immobilization increased lipase stability at 40 °C by more than 80% when compared to the free enzyme. Moreover, immobilized CRL showed high stability in the presence of tert-butanol, which prevents premature deactivation of the enzyme caused by alcohols during the reaction. Immobilization of CRL increased the oleic acid conversion rate. Our results suggest that biochar is a highly promising material for the immobilization of CRL lipase for the catalytic production of esters.


Assuntos
Lipase , Ácido Oleico , Biocatálise , Candida , Carvão Vegetal , Estabilidade Enzimática , Enzimas Imobilizadas , Esterificação
17.
Talanta ; 188: 393-403, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30029393

RESUMO

The combination of UV-vis spectrophotometry with a chemometric calibration tool based on partial least squares (PLS) has allowed us the development of a multivariate analytical method that simultaneously estimates the concentration and size of mixtures of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in environmental water samples. The method is based on changes in the surface plasmon resonance band (SPRB) of AgNPs when they form aggregated/assembled structures with L-cysteine (L-cys). Measurementts were performed by employed a fixed-time kinetics method that implies that the final spectra (response) are obtained by subtstracting the solutions spectra at fixed times. Optimization of experimental conditions affecting aggregation such as time, temperature, pH and concentration of aggregating substance was performed by experimental design and response surface methodologies (RSM). A multivariate calibration model using AgNPs of known diameter size ((20 ±â€¯3), (41 ±â€¯3), (59 ±â€¯5) and (79 ±â€¯7) nm) within a concentration range between 0.62 and 2.5 mg L-1 was constructed by using a mixture experimental design and PLS. The method was finally applied to estimate size and concentration of AgNPs in AgNPs-spiked river and tap water samples. Water samples were spiked with individual, binary and ternary mixtures of AgNPs of different sizes and by using two types of AgNPs: citrate-coated AgNPs (cit-AgNPs) and polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs). A good correspondence was obtained between predicted values and the total amount of AgNPs added with recovery values ranged within 80-160% for the individual mixtures, 68-108% for the binary mixtures and 60-64% for the ternary mixtures of AgNPs. Finally, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements were performed for those cases where discrepancies between the expected and the obtained values were observed. TEM micrographs evidenced the presence of agglomerates or aggregates of AgNPs in some of the mixtures or water tested.

18.
Food Chem ; 267: 246-254, 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29934164

RESUMO

A method combining aqueous extraction, reversed-phase high-performance capillary liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (cLC-DAD) and chemometric tools, was developed to determine phenolic compounds in residual brewing yeast. The effect of temperature, nature of extraction solvent and method for separation of extract solution were studied to optimize the extraction conditions on the basis of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC) and antioxidant capacity. Polyphenols were determined by cLC-DAD. Flavonols as rutin and kaempferol, flavonoids as naringin, phenolic acids as gallic acid and antioxidants as trans-ferulic and p-coumaric acids were found and quantified in the brewing residue. Data were subjected to evaluation using multifactor ANOVA and principal component analysis (PCA), both showing that lyophilization pretreatment affects the content of individual polyphenols and that residual brewing yeast contains higher polyphenol amounts than the liquid beer waste. The obtained results suggest that residual brewing yeast could be a source of polyphenols.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Polifenóis/análise , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/química , Umidade , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Polifenóis/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 616-617: 960-969, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29096960

RESUMO

Biochar (BC) is gaining attention as a soil amendment that can remediate metal polluted soils. The simultaneous effects of BC on copper (Cu) mobility, microbial activities in soil using metallophytes have scarcely been addressed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of biochar BCs on Cu immobilization and over soil microbial communities in a Cu-contaminated soil evaluated over a two-year trial. A Cu-contaminated soil (338mgkg-1) was incubated with chicken manure biochar (CMB) or oat hull biochar (OHB) at rates of 1 and 5% w/w. Metallophyte Oenothera picensis was grown over one season (six months). The above process was repeated for 3 more consecutive seasons using the same soils. The BCs increased the soil pH and decreased the Cu exchangeable fraction Cu by 5 and 10 times (for OHB and CMB, respectively) by increasing the Cu bound in organic matter and residual fractions, and its effects were consistent across all seasons evaluated. BCs provided favorable habitat for microorganisms that was evident in increased microbial activity. The DHA activity was increased in all BC treatments, reaching a maximum of 7 and 6 times higher than control soils in CMB and OHB. Similar results were observed in microbial respiration, which increased 53% in OHB and 61% in CMB with respect to control. The BCs produced changes in microbial communities in all seasons evaluated. The fungal and bacterial richness were increased by CMB and OHB treatments; however, no clear effects were observed in the microbial diversity estimators. The physiochemical and microbiological effects produced by BC result in an increase of plant biomass production, which was on average 3 times higher than control treatments. However, despite being a metallophyte, O. picensis did not uptake Cu efficiently. Root and shoot Cu concentrations decreased or changed insignificantly in most BC treatments.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Cobre/análise , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Bactérias/metabolismo , Cobre/química , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Fungos/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/química
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(16): 14104-14116, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28417325

RESUMO

We characterized humic substances (HS) extracted from a Cu-contaminated soil without compost addition (C) or amended with a wheat straw-based compost (WSC) (H1), co-composted with Fe2O3 (H2), or co-composted with an allophane-rich soil (H3). Extracted HS were characterized under electron microscopy (SEM/TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (X-EDS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. In addition, HS extracted from WSC (H4) were characterized at pH 4.0 and 8.0 with descriptive purposes. At pH 4.0, globular structures of H4 were observed, some of them aggregating within a large network. Contrariwise, at pH 8.0, long tubular and disaggregated structures prevailed. TEM microscopy suggests organo-mineral interactions at scales of 1 to 200 nm with iron oxide nanoparticles. HS extracted from soil-compost incubations showed interactions at nanoscale with minerals and crystal compounds into the organic matrix of HS. Bands associated to acidic functional groups of HS may suggest potential sorption interactions with transition metals. We conclude that metal ions and pH have an important role controlling the morphology and configuration of HS from WSC. Characterization of H4 extracted from WSC showed that physicochemical protection of HS could be present in composting systems treated with inorganic materials. Finally, the humified fractions obtained from compost-amended soils may have an important effect on metal-retention, supporting their potential use in metal-contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Cobre/química , Substâncias Húmicas , Poluentes do Solo/química , Compostagem , Compostos Férricos , Solo
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