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1.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2449, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824476

RESUMO

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) characterized by mucosa damage associated with an uncontrolled inflammatory response. This immunological impairment leads to altered inflammatory mediators such as IL-33, which is shown to increase in the mucosa of active UC (aUC) patients. MicroRNAs present a distorted feature in inflamed colonic mucosa and are potential IL-33 regulating candidates in UC. Therefore, we studied the microRNA and mRNA profiles in inflamed colonic samples of UC patients, evaluating the effect of a microRNA (selected by in silico analysis and its expression in UC patients), on IL-33 under inflammatory conditions. We found that inflamed mucosa (n = 8) showed increased expression of 40 microRNAs and 2,120 mRNAs, while 49 microRNAs and 1,734 mRNAs were decreased, as determined by microarrays. In particular, IL-33 mRNA showed a 3.8-fold increase and eight members of a microRNA family (miR-378), which targets IL-33 mRNA in the 3'UTR, were decreased (-3.9 to -3.0 times). We selected three members of the miR-378 family (miR-378a-3p, miR-422a, and miR-378c) according to background information and interaction energy analysis, for further correlation analyses with IL-33 expression through qPCR and ELISA, respectively. We determined that aUC (n = 24) showed high IL-33 levels, and decreased expression of miR-378a-3p and miR-422a compared to inactive UC (n = 10) and controls (n = 6). Moreover, both microRNAs were inversely correlated with IL-33 expression, while miR-378c does not show a significant difference. To evaluate the effect of TNFα on the studied microRNAs, aUC patients with anti-TNF therapy were compared to aUC receiving other treatments. The levels of miR-378a-3p and miR-378c were higher in aUC patients with anti-TNF. Based on these findings, we selected miR-378a-3p to exploring the molecular mechanism involved by in vitro assays, showing that over-expression of miR-378a-3p decreased the levels of an IL-33 target sequence ß-gal-reporter gene in HEK293 cells. Stable miR-378a-3p over-expression/inhibition inversely modulated IL-33 content and altered viability of HT-29 cells. Additionally, in an inflammatory context, TNFα decreased miR-378a-3p levels in HT-29 cells enhancing IL-33 expression. Together, our results propose a regulatory mechanism of IL-33 expression exerted by miR-378a-3p in an inflammatory environment, contributing to the understanding of UC pathogenesis.

3.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 23(5): 685-691, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522993

RESUMO

Phenylketonuric (PKU) patients are a population at risk for sleep disorders due to deficits in neurotransmitter synthesis. We aimed to study the prevalence of sleep disorders in early-treated PKU children and adolescents and assessed correlations with dopamine and serotonin status. We compared 32 PKU patients (16 females, 16 males; mean age 12 years), with a healthy control group of 32 subjects (16 females, 16 males; mean age 11.9 years). 19 PKU patients were under dietary treatment and 13 on tetrahydrobiopterin therapy. Concurrent phenylalanine (Phe), index of dietary control and variability in Phe in the last year, tyrosine, tryptophan, prolactin, and ferritin in plasma, platelet serotonin concentration, and melatonin, homovanillic and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid excretion in urine were analyzed. Sleep was assessed using Bruni's Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children. Sleep disorders were similar in both groups, 15.6% in control group and 12.5% in PKU group. In PKU patients, no correlations were found with peripheral biomarkers of neurotransmitter synthesis nor different Phe parameters, 43.3% had low melatonin excretion and 43.8% low platelet serotonin concentrations. Despite melatonin and serotonin deficits in early-treated PKU patients, the prevalence of sleep disorders is similar to that of the general population.


Assuntos
Dopamina/sangue , Fenilcetonúrias/complicações , Serotonina/sangue , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melatonina/sangue , Fenilcetonúrias/sangue , Fenilcetonúrias/terapia , Prevalência , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/sangue , Adulto Jovem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377809

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Xerostomia in SS patients has been associated with low quality and quantity of salivary mucins, which are fundamental for the hydration and protection of the oral mucosa. The aim of this study was to evaluate if cytokines induce aberrant mucin expression and whether tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is able to counteract such an anomaly. METHODS: Labial salivary glands from 16 SS patients and 15 control subjects, as well as 3D acini or human submandibular gland cells stimulated with TNF-α or IFN-γ and co-incubated with TUDCA, were analysed. mRNA and protein levels of Mucin 1 (MUC1) and MUC7 were determined by RT-qPCR and western blot, respectively. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence assays for mucins and GRP78 [an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein] were also performed. mRNA levels of RelA/p65 (nuclear factor-κB subunit), TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, SEL1L and EDEM1 were determined by RT-qPCR, and RelA/p65 localization was evaluated by immunofluorescence. RESULTS: MUC1 is overexpressed and accumulated in the ER of labial salivary gland from SS patients, while MUC7 accumulates throughout the cytoplasm of acinar cells; however, MUC1, but not MUC7, co-precipitated with GRP78. TUDCA diminished the overexpression and aberrant accumulation of MUC1 induced by TNF-α and IFN-γ, as well as the nuclear translocation of RelA/p65, together with the expression of inflammatory and ER stress markers in 3D acini. CONCLUSION: Chronic inflammation alters the secretory process of MUC1, inducing ER stress and affecting the quality of saliva in SS patients. TUDCA showed anti-inflammatory properties decreasing aberrant MUC1 accumulation. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of TUDCA in restoring glandular homeostasis in SS patients.

6.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1394, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281317

RESUMO

In colorectal cancer (CRC), cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the most abundant component from the tumor microenvironment (TM). CAFs facilitate tumor progression by inducing angiogenesis, immune suppression and invasion, thus altering the organization/composition of the extracellular matrix (i.e., desmoplasia) and/or activating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Soluble factors from the TM can also contribute to cell invasion through secretion of cytokines and recently, IL-33/ST2 pathway has gained huge interest as a protumor alarmin, promoting progression to metastasis by inducing changes in TM. Hence, we analyzed IL-33 and ST2 content in tumor and healthy tissue lysates and plasma from CRC patients. Tissue localization and distribution of these molecules was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (using localization reference markers α-smooth muscle actin or α-SMA and E-cadherin), and clinical/histopathological information was obtained from CRC patients. In vitro experiments were conducted in primary cultures of CAFs and normal fibroblasts (NFs) isolated from tumor and healthy tissue taken from CRC patients. Additionally, migration and proliferation analysis were performed in HT29 and HCT116 cell lines. It was found that IL-33 content increases in left-sided CRC patients with lymphatic metastasis, with localization in tumor epithelia associated with abundant desmoplasia. Although ST2 content showed similarities between tumor and healthy tissue, a decreased immunoreactivity was observed in left-sided tumor stroma, associated to metastasis related factors (advanced stages, abundant desmoplasia, and presence of tumor budding). A principal component analysis (including stromal and epithelial IL-33/ST2 and α-SMA immunoreactivity with extent of desmoplasia) allowed us to distinguish clusters of low, intermediate and abundant desmoplasia, with potential to develop a diagnostic signature with benefits for further therapeutic targets. IL-33 transcript levels from CAFs directly correlated with CRC cell line migration induced by CAFs conditioned media, with rhIL-33 inducing a mesenchymal phenotype in HT29 cells. These results indicate a role of IL-33/ST2 in tumor microenvironment, specifically in the interaction between CAFs and epithelial tumor cells, thus contributing to invasion and metastasis in left-sided CRC, most likely by activating desmoplasia.

7.
Front Immunol ; 10: 277, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30915065

RESUMO

Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), collectively known as Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD), are caused by a complex interplay between genetic, immunologic, microbial and environmental factors. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome is increasingly considered to be causatively related to IBD and is strongly affected by components of a Western life style. Bacteria that ferment fibers and produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are typically reduced in mucosa and feces of patients with IBD, as compared to healthy individuals. SCFAs, such as acetate, propionate and butyrate, are important metabolites in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Several studies have indeed shown that fecal SCFAs levels are reduced in active IBD. SCFAs are an important fuel for intestinal epithelial cells and are known to strengthen the gut barrier function. Recent findings, however, show that SCFAs, and in particular butyrate, also have important immunomodulatory functions. Absorption of SCFAs is facilitated by substrate transporters like MCT1 and SMCT1 to promote cellular metabolism. Moreover, SCFAs may signal through cell surface G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), like GPR41, GPR43, and GPR109A, to activate signaling cascades that control immune functions. Transgenic mouse models support the key role of these GPCRs in controlling intestinal inflammation. Here, we present an overview of microbial SCFAs production and their effects on the intestinal mucosa with specific emphasis on their relevance for IBD. Moreover, we discuss the therapeutic potential of SCFAs for IBD, either applied directly or by stimulating SCFAs-producing bacteria through pre- or probiotic approaches.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 793, 2019 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30692599

RESUMO

Identifying diseases displaying chronic low plasma Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) values may be important to prevent possible cardiovascular dysfunction. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate plasma CoQ concentrations in a large cohort of pediatric and young adult patients. We evaluated plasma CoQ values in 597 individuals (age range 1 month to 43 years, average 11 years), studied during the period 2005-2016. Patients were classified into 6 different groups: control group of healthy participants, phenylketonuric patients (PKU), patients with mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS), patients with other inborn errors of metabolism (IEM), patients with neurogenetic diseases, and individuals with neurological diseases with no genetic diagnosis. Plasma total CoQ was measured by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection and ultraviolet detection at 275 nm. ANOVA with Bonferroni correction showed that plasma CoQ values were significantly lower in the PKU and MPS groups than in controls and neurological patients. The IEM group showed intermediate values that were not significantly different from those of the controls. In PKU patients, the Chi-Square test showed a significant association between having low plasma CoQ values and being classic PKU patients. The percentage of neurogenetic and other neurological patients with low CoQ values was low (below 8%). In conclusión, plasma CoQ monitoring in selected groups of patients with different IEM (especially in PKU and MPS patients, but also in IEM under protein-restricted diets) seems advisable to prevent the possibility of a chronic blood CoQ suboptimal status in such groups of patients.

9.
J Autoimmun ; 97: 88-99, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30391023

RESUMO

Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune exocrinopathy associated with severe secretory alterations by disruption of the glandular architecture integrity, which is fundamental for a correct function and localization of the secretory machinery. Syt-1, PI(4,5)P2 and Ca2+ are significant factors controlling exocytosis in different secretory cells, the Ca2+ role being the most studied. Salivary acinar cells from SS-patients show a defective agonist-regulated intracellular Ca2+ release together with a decreased IP3R expression level, and this condition may explain a reduced water release. However, there are not reports where Syt-1, PI(4,5)P2 and Ca2+ in acinar cells of SS patients had been studied. In the present study, we analyzed the expression and/or localization of Syt-1 and PI(4,5)P2 in acinar cells of labial salivary gland biopsies from SS-patients and control individuals. Also, we evaluated whether the overexpression of Syt-1 and the loss of cell polarity induced by TNF-α or loss of interaction between acinar cell and basal lamina, alters directionality of the exocytosis process, Ca2+ signaling and α-amylase secretion in a 3D-acini model stimulated with cholinergic or ß-adrenergic agonists. In addition, the correlation between Syt-1 protein levels and clinical parameters was evaluated. The results showed an increase of Syt-1 mRNA and protein levels, and a high number of co-localization points of Syt-1/STX4 and PI(4,5)P2/Ezrin in the acinar basolateral region of LSG from SS-patients. With regard to 3D-acini, Syt-1 overexpression increased exocytosis in the apical pole compared to control acini. TNF-α stimulation increased exocytic events in the basal pole, which was further enhanced by Syt-1 overexpression. Additionally, altered acinar cell polarity affected Ca2+ signaling and amylase secretion. Overexpression of Syt-1 was associated with salivary gland alterations revealing that the secretory dysfunction in SS-patients is linked to altered expression and/or localization of secretory machinery components together with impaired epithelial cell polarity. These findings provide a novel insight on the pathological mechanism implicated in ectopic secretory products to the extracellular matrix of LSG from SS-patients, which might initiate inflammation.

10.
Tumour Biol ; 40(11): 1010428318810059, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419802

RESUMO

A complex network of chemokines can influence cancer progression with the recruitment and activation of hematopoietic cells, including macrophages to the supporting tumor stroma promoting carcinogenesis and metastasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between tissue and plasma chemokine levels involved in macrophage recruitment with tumor-associated macrophage profile markers and clinicopathological features such as tumor-node-metastases stage, desmoplasia, tumor necrosis factor-α, and vascular endothelial growth factor plasma content. Plasma and tumor/healthy mucosa were obtained from Chilean patients undergoing colon cancer surgery. Chemokines were evaluated from tissue lysates (CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, and CX3CL1) by Luminex. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon match-paired test ( p < 0.05). Macrophage markers (CD68, CD163, and iNOS) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry samples derived from colorectal cancer patients. Correlation analysis between chemokines and macrophage markers and clinicopathological features were performed using Spearman's test. Plasmatic levels of chemokines and inflammatory mediators' vascular endothelial growth factor and tumor necrosis factor-α were evaluated by Luminex. Tumor levels of CCL2 (mean ± standard deviation = 530.1 ± 613.9 pg/mg), CCL3 (102.7 ± 106.0 pg/mg), and CCL4 (64.98 ± 48.09 pg/mg) were higher than those found in healthy tissue (182.1 ± 116.5, 26.79 ± 22.40, and 27.06 ± 23.69 pg/mg, respectively p < 0.05). The tumor characterization allowed us to identify a positive correlation between CCL4 and the pro-tumor macrophages marker CD163 ( p = 0.0443), and a negative correlation of iNOS with desmoplastic reaction ( p = 0.0467). Moreover, we identified that tumors with immature desmoplasia have a higher CD163 density compared to those with a mature/intermediated stromal tissue ( p = 0.0288). Plasmatic CCL4 has shown a positive correlation with inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-α and vascular endothelial growth factor) that have previously been associated with poor prognosis in patients. In conclusion High expression of CCL4 in colon cancer could induce the infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages and specifically a pro-tumor macrophage profile (CD163+ cells). Moreover, plasmatic chemokines could be considered inflammatory mediators associated to CRC progression as well as tumor necrosis factor-α and vascular endothelial growth factor. These data reinforce the idea of chemokines as potential therapeutic targets or biomarker in CRC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL3/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL4/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
11.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 13(1): 188, 2018 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30367646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite dietary intervention, individuals with early treated phenylketonuria (ETPKU) could present neurocognitive deficits and white matter (WM) abnormalities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microstructural integrity of WM pathways across the whole brain in a cohort of paediatric ETPKU patients compared with healthy controls (HCs), by collecting DTI-MRI (diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging) data and diffusion values (mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD) and fractional anisotropy (FA)). METHODS: DTI-MRI data and diffusion values (MD, RD, FA) from WM tracts across the whole brain were analized using Tract Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS), in 15 paediatrics TPKU patients (median age: 12 years) and compared with 11 HCs. Areas showing abnormal values in the patient group were correlated (Pearson) with age, lifetime Phe values, last year median and mean Phe, concurrent Phe values in plasma, urine neurotransmitters status biomarkers, and with a processing speed task. RESULTS: ETPKU showed bilaterally decreased MD values compared with HCs in the body and splenium of the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, corona radiata and in the posterior limb of the internal capsule. RD values followed a similar pattern, although decreased RD values in PKU patients were also found in the anterior limb of the internal capsule and in the cerebral peduncle. Decreased MD and RD values within the aforementioned regions had significant negative correlations with age, last year median and mean Phe and concurrent Phe values. No correlations were found with monoamines in urine or processing speed task. CONCLUSIONS: ETPKU patients showed MD and RD values significantly decreased across the whole brain when compared with HCs, and this damage was associated with high Phe values and the age of patients. Despite this microstructural damage, no affectation in processing speed was observed in patients with good metabolic control. DTI-MRI sequences could be used as a technique to quantify WM damage that is difficult to be detect in T1 or T2-weighted images, but also to quantify damage of WM through the follow up of patients with poor metabolic control in prospective studies.


Assuntos
Fenilcetonúrias/dietoterapia , Fenilcetonúrias/patologia , Substância Branca/patologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenilcetonúrias/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
12.
Clin Immunol ; 196: 85-96, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29894742

RESUMO

Here, we determined the 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-methylcytosine (5mC), Ten Eleven Translocation (TETs), and DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) levels in epithelial and inflammatory cells of labial salivary glands (LSG) from Sjögren's syndrome (SS)-patients and the effect of cytokines on HSG cells. LSG from SS-patients, controls and HSG cells incubated with cytokines were analysed. Levels of 5mC, 5hmC, DNMTs, TET2 and MeCP2 were assessed by immunofluorescence. In epithelial cells from SS-patients, an increase in TET2, 5hmC and a decrease in 5mC and MeCP2 were observed, additionally, high levels of 5mC and DNMTs and low levels of 5hmC were detected in inflammatory cells. Cytokines increased TET2 and 5hmC and decreased 5mC levels. Considering that the TET2 gene.promoter contains response elements for transcription factors activated by cytokines, together to in vitro results suggest that changes in DNA hydroxymethylation, resulting from altered levels of TET2 are likely to be relevant in the Sjögren's syndrome etiopathogenesis.


Assuntos
5-Metilcitosina/análogos & derivados , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Glândulas Salivares Menores/metabolismo , Síndrome de Sjogren/genética , 5-Metilcitosina/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Citidina Desaminase/genética , Citidina Desaminase/metabolismo , Citocinas/imunologia , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferase 1/genética , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferase 1/metabolismo , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Dioxigenases/genética , Dioxigenases/imunologia , Dioxigenases/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lábio , Masculino , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética , Oxigenases de Função Mista/imunologia , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/imunologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Glândulas Salivares Menores/citologia , Glândulas Salivares Menores/imunologia , Síndrome de Sjogren/imunologia , Síndrome de Sjogren/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 13(1): 97, 2018 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29925411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperammonaemia is a key sign of decompensation in organic acidurias (OAs) and can contribute to severe neurological complications, thus requiring rapid treatment. METHODS: A post-hoc analysis of two retrospective studies analysed the efficacy of carglumic acid ± ammonia (NH3) scavengers compared with scavengers alone for reducing plasma NH3 levels in patients with OAs and hyperammonaemia (plasma NH3 > 60 µmol/L) during decompensation episodes. NH3 was analysed in 12-h periods at 0-48 h and 24-h periods at 48-120 h. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were recorded. RESULTS: Of 98 episodes, 38 were treated with carglumic acid (34 patients), 33 with NH3 scavengers (22 patients) and 27 with carglumic acid combined with NH3 scavengers (27 patients). Overall, 45% (carglumic acid group), 46% (NH3 scavengers group) and 74% (combination group) of episodes occurred in neonates. Median episode duration was 6 days for the carglumic acid and combination groups, and 9 days for the NH3 scavenger group. Median baseline NH3 level was: 199 µmol/L, carglumic acid; 122 µmol/L, NH3 scavengers; and 271 µmol/L, combination; 13, 30 and 11% of episodes required extracorporeal detoxification (ED), respectively. Data were censored at ED initiation. While baseline NH3 levels were higher in the combination and carglumic acid groups, mean reduction in NH3 levels to 72 h in both groups was greater than the NH3 scavengers' group; reductions were greatest in the combination group. Mean change in plasma NH3 vs baseline in the carglumic acid, NH3 scavengers and combination groups, respectively, was - 13, + 12% and - 27% at 0-12 h (p < 0.05 NH3 scavengers vs combination); - 47, - 22% and - 52% at 12-24 h (not significant); - 44, - 5% and - 61% at 24-48 h; and - 66, - 16% and - 76% at 48-72 h (p < 0.05 carglumic acid/combination groups vs NH3 scavengers for both timepoints). The number of TEAEs was similar between groups and mainly related to the disease/condition. CONCLUSIONS: Carglumic acid is a well-tolerated and efficacious treatment for OA decompensation episodes. When given alone or combined with NH3 scavengers, the reduction in NH3 was greater than with NH3 scavengers alone in the first 72 h.


Assuntos
Amônia/sangue , Glutamatos/uso terapêutico , Hiperamonemia/sangue , Hiperamonemia/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Autoimmun Rev ; 17(8): 796-808, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29890347

RESUMO

For many years, researchers in the field of autoimmunity have focused on the role of the immune components in the etiopathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. However, some studies have demonstrated the importance of target tissues in their pathogenesis and the breach of immune tolerance. The immune system as well as target tissue cells (plasmatic, ß-pancreatic, fibroblast-like synoviocytes, thyroid follicular and epithelial cells of the lachrymal glands, salivary glands, intestine, bronchioles and renal tubules) share the characteristic of secretory cells with an extended endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The function of these cells depends considerably on a normal ER function and calcium homeostasis, so they can produce and secrete their main components, which include glycoproteins involved in antigenic presentation such as major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II. All these proteins are synthesized and modified in the ER, and for this reason disturbances in the normal functions of this organelle such as protein folding, protein quality control, calcium homeostasis and redox balance, promote accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins, a condition known as ER stress. Autoimmune diseases are characterized by inflammation, which has been associated with an ER stress condition. Interestingly, patients with these diseases contain circulating auto-antibodies against chaperone proteins (such as Calnexin and GRP94), thus affecting the folding and assembly of MHC class I and II glycoproteins and their loading with peptide. The main purpose of this article is to review the involvement of the protein quality control and unfolded protein response (UPR) in the ER protein homeostasis (proteostasis) and their alterations in autoimmune diseases. In addition, we describe the interaction between ER stress and inflammation and evidences are shown of how autoimmune diseases are associated with an ER stress condition, with a special emphasis on the second most prevalent autoimmune rheumatic disease, Sjögren's syndrome.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Dobramento de Proteína , Proteínas/metabolismo , Síndrome de Sjogren/fisiopatologia , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas , Animais , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas/química
15.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1026, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29867993

RESUMO

Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disorder characterized by deregulated inflammation triggered by environmental factors. Notably, adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC), a bacterium with the ability to survive within macrophages is believed to be one of such factors. Glucocorticoids are the first line treatment for CD and to date, it is unknown how they affect bactericidal and inflammatory properties of macrophages against AIEC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of glucocorticoid treatment on AIEC infected macrophages. First, THP-1 cell-derived macrophages were infected with a CD2-a AIEC strain, in the presence or absence of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex) and mRNA microarray analysis was performed. Differentially expressed mRNAs were confirmed by TaqMan-qPCR. In addition, an amikacin protection assay was used to evaluate the phagocytic and bactericidal activity of Dex-treated macrophages infected with E. coli strains (CD2-a, HM605, NRG857c, and HB101). Finally, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory phenotype of macrophages were evaluated by ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively. The microarray analysis showed that CD2-a, Dex, and CD2-a + Dex-treated macrophages have differential inflammatory gene profiles. Also, canonical pathway analysis revealed decreased phagocytosis signaling by Dex and anti-inflammatory polarization on CD2-a + Dex macrophages. Moreover, amikacin protection assay showed reduced phagocytosis upon Dex treatment and TaqMan-qPCR confirmed Dex inhibition of three phagocytosis-associated genes. All bacteria strains induced TNF-α, IL-6, IL-23, CD40, and CD80, which was inhibited by Dex. Thus, our data demonstrate that glucocorticoids impair phagocytosis and induce anti-inflammatory polarization after AIEC infection, possibly contributing to the survival of AIEC in infected CD patients.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/microbiologia , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/imunologia , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aderência Bacteriana , Doença de Crohn/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Humanos , Inflamação , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Análise em Microsséries , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Células THP-1 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
16.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 57(6): 1021-1032, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29534223

RESUMO

Objectives: Labial salivary glands (LSGs) of SS patients show alterations related to endoplasmic reticulum stress. Glandular dysfunction could be partly the consequence of an altered inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α)/X box-binding protein 1 (XBP-1) signalling pathway of the unfolded protein response, which then regulates genes involved in biogenesis of the secretory machinery. This study aimed to determine the expression, promoter methylation and localization of the IRE1α/XBP-1 pathway components in LSGs of SS patients and also their expression induced by IFN-γ in vitro. Methods: IRE1α, XBP-1 and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) mRNA and protein levels were measured by qPCR and western blot, respectively, in LSGs of SS patients (n = 47) and control subjects (n = 37). Methylation of promoters was evaluated by methylation-sensitive high resolution melting, localization was analysed by immunofluorescence and induction of the IRE1α/XBP-1 pathway components by IFN-γ was evaluated in 3D acini. Results: A significant decrease of IRE1α, XBP-1u, XBP-1s, total XBP-1 and GRP78 mRNAs was observed in LSGs of SS patients, which was correlated with increased methylation levels of their respective promoters, and consistently the protein levels for IRE1α, XBP-1s and GRP78 were observed to decrease. IFN-γ decreased the mRNA and protein levels of XBP-1s, IRE1α and GRP78, and increased methylation of their promoters. Significant correlations were also found between IRE1α/XBP-1 pathway components and clinical parameters. Conclusion: Decreased mRNA levels for IRE1α, XBP-1 and GRP78 can be partially explained by hypermethylation of their promoters and is consistent with chronic endoplasmic reticulum stress, which may explain the glandular dysfunction observed in LSGs of SS patients. Additionally, glandular stress signals, including IFN-γ, could modulate the expression of the IRE1α/XBP-1 pathway components.


Assuntos
Endorribonucleases/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Glândulas Salivares/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Sjogren/genética , Proteína 1 de Ligação a X-Box/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Western Blotting , Metilação de DNA , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Endorribonucleases/biossíntese , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/biossíntese , Glândulas Salivares/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Síndrome de Sjogren/metabolismo , Síndrome de Sjogren/patologia , Proteína 1 de Ligação a X-Box/biossíntese , Adulto Jovem
17.
Aging Dis ; 8(5): 546-557, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28966800

RESUMO

Aging intersects with reproductive senescence in women by promoting a systemic low-grade chronic inflammation that predisposes women to several diseases including ovarian cancer (OC). OC risk at menopause is significantly modified by parity records during prior fertile life. To date, the combined effects of age and parity on the systemic inflammation markers that are particularly relevant to OC initiation and progression at menopause remain largely unknown. Herein, we profiled a panel of circulating cytokines in multiparous versus virgin C57BL/6 female mice at peri-estropausal age and investigated how cytokine levels were modulated by intraperitoneal tumor induction in a syngeneic immunocompetent OC mouse model. Serum FSH, LH and TSH levels increased with age in both groups while prolactin (PRL) was lower in multiparous respect to virgin mice, a finding previously observed in parous women. Serum CCL2, IL-10, IL-5, IL-4, TNF-α, IL1-ß and IL-12p70 levels increased with age irrespective of parity status, but were specifically reduced following OC tumor induction only in multiparous mice. Animals developed hemorrhagic ascites and tumor implants in the omental fat band and other intraperitoneal organs by 12 weeks after induction, with multiparous mice showing a significantly extended survival. We conclude that previous parity history counteracts aging-associated systemic inflammation possibly by reducing the immunosuppression that typically allows tumor spread. Results suggest a partial impairment of the M2 shift in tumor-associated macrophages as well as decreased stimulation of regulatory B-cells in aged mice. This long term, tumor-concurrent effect of parity on inflammation markers at menopause would be a contributing factor leading to decreased OC risk.

18.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 10180, 2017 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28860510

RESUMO

The ST2/IL33 signalling pathway has been associated with ulcerative colitis (UC). ST2, encoded by the IL1RL1 gene, is expressed as both a membrane-anchored receptor (ST2L) activated by IL33 and as a soluble receptor (sST2) with anti-inflammatory properties. In UC patients, sST2 is further increased by corticosteroid treatment; however, the glucocorticoid-mediated molecular regulation remains unknown. We therefore tested whether genetic variants in the IL1RL1 distal promoter are involved in UC and affect glucocorticoid-mediated ST2 expression. Serum ST2 levels and genetic variants in the IL1RL1 distal promoter were examined by ELISA and PCR sequencing in UC patients receiving corticosteroids. Glucocorticoid-mediated ST2 production was evaluated in intestinal mucosa cultures. Molecular regulation of glucocorticoid-mediated ST2 was assessed by RT-qPCR, ChIP assay and luciferase reporter assay. Dexamethasone effect on ST2 transcript expression was analyzed in leukocytes and related to IL1RL1 variants. Sequencing of a distal IL1RL1 promoter region demonstrated that SNPs rs6543115(C) and rs6543116(A) are associated with increased sST2 in UC patients on corticosteroids. Dexamethasone up-regulated sST2 transcription through interaction with the glucocorticoid-response element (GRE) carrying rs6543115(C) variant. Our data indicate that IL1RL1 SNPs rs6543115(C) confer susceptibility to UC and is contained in the GRE, which may modulate glucocorticoid-induced sST2 expression.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/farmacologia , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/genética , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regulação para Cima , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Colite Ulcerativa/genética , Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 16: 103, 2016 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27565556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ST2/IL-33 pathway has been related to ulcerative colitis (UC), and soluble ST2 (sST2), to disease severity. We tested the potential usefulness of sST2 as a predictive marker of treatment response and patients' outcome. METHODS: Twenty-six patients with active UC were prospectively recruited and grouped according to an endoscopic score and therapy response. Colonoscopic biopsies were collected at baseline and 6 months or when patients showed clinical activity. The protocol was reinitiated in patients requiring rescue therapy. Blood and stool were collected at baseline, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. Serum and mucosal ST2, and fecal calprotectin (FC) content were determined by ELISA and correlated to Mayo clinical and endoscopic subscore. Intestinal ST2 was evaluated by immunofluorescence. Wilcoxon signed rank test and Spearman correlations (Rs) were applied (p <0.05). RESULTS: Follow-up was completed in 24 patients. sST2 levels (median and range) varied from 173.5 [136.6-274.0] to 86.5 [54.6-133.2] in responders (p < 0.05), and 336.3 [211.0-403.2] to 385.3 pg/mL [283.4-517.3] in non-responders at baseline and 6 months, respectively. sST2 levels correlated with Mayo clinical and endoscopic subscore, mucosal ST2 and FC (Rs = 0.57, 0.66, 0.74 and 0.42, respectively; p < 0.0001) and showed a trend similar to that of FC in responders. Non-responders revealed an increased ST2 content, restricted to the lamina propria's cellular infiltrate. CONCLUSIONS: Consecutive sST2 measurement to follow changes in inflammatory activity of UC patients who respond or not to treatment identifies sST2, like FC, as a useful biomarker in predicting clinical outcome of UC patients.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/sangue , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/análise , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Biópsia/métodos , Colite Ulcerativa/terapia , Colonoscopia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fezes/química , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
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