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1.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(6): 2453-2459, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146106

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is a public health problem in the Americas. We assessed ZIKV knowledge, attitudes, and future ZIKV vaccine intent among medical students. In this cross-sectional study, a convenience sample of medical students in San José, Costa Rica, were surveyed to assess knowledge, attitudes, vaccine intent, and sources of information about ZIKV. Knowledge and attitude scores were calculated. Factors associated with vaccine intent were determined by bivariate analysis using a chi-square test. Of 468 participants surveyed, majority were females (299, 63.8%) and lived in urban areas (411, 87%). The participant mean knowledge score was 12.2 (SD: 3.65) out of a possible 20. Students residing in suburban or rural areas (odds ratio [OR]: 0.432; CI: 0.24-0.78), first- or second-year students (OR: 0.423; CI: 0.27-0.67), and aged < 20 years (OR: 0.586; CI: 0.36-0.97) had significantly lower knowledge scores. The participant mean attitude score was 30.2 (SD: 4.76) on a scale of 13-65, with lower numbers indicating a concern for ZIKV severity. A majority of the participants indicated they would be likely or extremely likely to receive a ZIKV vaccine (420, 89.7%) and recommend the vaccine to their patients (439, 93.8%). Vaccine intent was not influenced by demographics, total knowledge, and attitude scores. Students (388, 83%) identified the Internet as their primary source of ZIKV information. A majority of students demonstrated a positive attitude toward ZIKV and willingness to accept and recommend a vaccine. Low knowledge scores underscore the need for ZIKV education, especially in the early years of medical school. Use of the Internet should be considered in dissemination of ZIKV education.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudantes de Medicina , Infecção por Zika virus , Costa Rica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Internet , Masculino , Razão de Chances , População Rural , População Suburbana , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem , Zika virus/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
2.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 942020 11 27.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226011

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Nursing homes are high-risk environments for the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, as they are a closed environment, with patients who present atypical manifestations of the disease, high risk of unfavorable evolution, and staff who frequently present a high mobility in relation to their jobs. On the other hand, in a pandemic situation, numerous hospitals have suffered periods of great healthcare pressure. The objective of this work was to present an experience of medicalization of a residence where almost 50% of the residents contracted the disease. METHODS: A multidisciplinary intervention was carried out in a publicly owned nursing home with 99 residents. Specialists from Internal Medicine, Primary Care and health technicians worked together, in close collaboration with the residence workers. The presence of nursing personnel 24 hours a day and medical personnel with daily visits was enabled. The center was provided with the necessary means to administer the medication (oral and intravenous) and oxygen therapy necessary to care for patients with the disease. Analytical results were available within 24 hours. For data analysis, the percentages were calculated and the mean was used as a measure of central tendency. RESULTS: Forty-eight residents (48.5%) and fifteen workers contracted the disease. The total number of deaths during that period was thirteen (13.1%), seven of them diagnosed with COVID-19 (mean age 84.4 years), with a fatality rate of 14.6%. Eleven patients (22%) diagnosed with COVID-19 were hospitalized, two of whom died during admission. CONCLUSIONS: The medicalization of nursing homes can help to reduce the pressure on care in hospitals and optimize care for these vulnerable people with more humanized care, which can ultimately lead to better health outcomes.


Assuntos
/terapia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/organização & administração , Medicalização/organização & administração , Casas de Saúde/organização & administração , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/organização & administração , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Medicalização/métodos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Espanha , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Biomedicines ; 8(10)2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081182

RESUMO

Fetal undernutrition programs hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, and resistance artery remodeling may be a contributing factor. We aimed to assess if fetal undernutrition induces resistance artery remodeling and the relationship with hypertension. Sprague-Dawley dams were fed ad libitum (Control) or with 50% of control intake between days 11 and 21 of gestation (maternal undernutrition, MUN). In six-month-old male and female offspring we assessed blood pressure (anesthetized and tail-cuff); mesenteric resistance artery (MRA) structure and mechanics (pressure myography), cellular and internal elastic lamina (IEL) organization (confocal microscopy) and plasma MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity (zymography). Systolic blood pressure (SBP, tail-cuff) and plasma MMP activity were assessed in 18-month-old rats. At the age of six months MUN males exhibited significantly higher blood pressure (anesthetized or tail-cuff) and plasma MMP-9 activity, while MUN females did not exhibit significant differences, compared to sex-matched controls. MRA from 6-month-old MUN males and females showed a smaller diameter, reduced adventitial, smooth muscle cell density and IEL fenestra area, and a leftward shift of stress-strain curves. At the age of eighteen months SBP and MMP-9 activity were higher in both MUN males and females, compared to sex-matched controls. These data suggest that fetal undernutrition induces MRA inward eutrophic remodeling and stiffness in both sexes, independent of blood pressure level. Resistance artery structural and mechanical alterations can participate in the development of hypertension in aged females and may contribute to adverse cardiovascular events associated with low birth weight in both sexes.

4.
Rev. cient. (Guatem.) ; 29(2)21 de oct. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1123356

RESUMO

Los desechos agroindustriales se generan en grandes cantidades, y en la mayoría de los casos son depositados en vertederos lo cual constituye un problema ambiental. Estos residuos lignocelulósicos pueden utilizarse como materia prima o sustrato de crecimiento de hongos anamorfos, que a través de procesos de fermentación pueden producir biocombustibles, enzimas, vitaminas, antioxidantes, alimentos para animales, antibióticos y otros productos químicos. En este estudio se determinó la capacidad de producción de α-amilasas de 20 cepas nativas de hongos anamorfos del cepario de hongos del Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, de la USAC a través de fermentación en estado sólido, utilizando como sustrato cascarilla de arroz. La extracción de las enzimas se realizó por microfiltración y la actividad amilolítica fue medida por espectrofotometría. De las cepas evaluadas se encontró que las amilasas de Aspergillus sp. SL15319 mostraron la mayor actividad media (desviación estándar), tanto libres, 930.26 (1.56) UA/dl, como inmovilizadas, 900.34 (3.21) UA/dl, seguido por las de Beltrania rhombica, 905.02 (10.72) y 879.07 (3.87) UA/dl y Aspergillus sp. SL15119, 907.46 (5.17) y 875.95 (9.39) UA/dl (p < .05). La importancia de este estudio radica en dar a conocer el potencial de los hongos anamorfos nativos de Guatemala para el aprovechamiento de los residuos agroindustriales como materia prima para la producción de sustancias de utilidad para el ser humano, y en la reducción de la carga contaminante que se desecha al medio ambiente.


Agroindustrial wastes are generated in large quantities and in most cases deposited in landfills as waste. These lignocellulosic residues can be raw material or substrate for anamorphic fungi, which through fermentation processes can produce biofuels, enzymes, vitamins, antioxidants, animal feed, antibiotics and other chemical products. In this study, the α-amylase production capacity of 20 native strains of anamorphic fungi from the fungal strain collection of Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, USAC was determined through solid state fermentation, using rice husk as a substrate. The extraction of the enzymes was carried out by microfiltration and the amylolytic activity was measured by spectrophotometry. Of the strains evaluated, it was found that the amylases of Aspergillus sp. SL15319 showed the highest mean activity (standard deviation), both free, 930.26 (1.56) UA/dl, and immobilized, 900.34 (3.21) UA/dl, followed by those of Beltrania rhombica, 905.02 (10.72) and 879.07 (3.87) UA/dl and Aspergillus sp. SL15119 907.46 (5.17) and 875.95 (9.39) UA/dl (p < .05). The importance of this study lies in making known the potential of native anamorphic fungi in Guatemala for the use of agro-industrial waste as a raw material for the production of substances of use to humans, and in reducing the pollutant load that is discharged into the environment.

5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 587, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are no published cases of tonic-clonic seizures and posterior bilateral blindness during pregnancy and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus (COV) 2 (SARS-COV-2) infection. We do not just face new and unknown manifestations, but also how different patient groups are affected by SARS-COV-2 infection, such as pregnant women. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), preeclampsia, eclampsia and posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy share endothelium damage and similar pathophysiology. CASE PRESENTATION: A 35-year-old pregnant woman was admitted for tonic-clonic seizures and SARS-COV-2 infection. She had a normal pregnancy control and no other symptoms before tonic-clonic seizures development. After a Caesarean section (C-section) she developed high blood pressure, and we initiated antihypertensive treatment with labetalol, amlodipine and captopril. Few hours later she developed symptoms of cortical blindness that resolved in 72 h with normal brain computed tomography (CT) angiography. CONCLUSION: The authors conclude that SARS COV-2 infection could promote brain endothelial damage and facilitate neurological complications during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Cegueira Cortical , Cesárea/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Eclampsia , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Convulsões , Adulto , Cegueira Cortical/diagnóstico , Cegueira Cortical/virologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Eclampsia/diagnóstico , Eclampsia/terapia , Eclampsia/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Exame Neurológico/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/etiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/etiologia , Convulsões/terapia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Cytokine ; 136: 155290, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956948

RESUMO

Male fetal sex associates with higher rates of materno-fetal complications. Inflammation and inadequate vasoactive responses are mechanisms implicated in obstetric complications, and alterations in maternal plasma cytokine profile and nitric oxide (NO) metabolites are potential predictive biomarkers. We aimed to assess if these parameters are influenced by fetal sex. A prospective, observational study was carried out in 85 healthy pregnant women with singleton pregnancies in the first trimester of gestation. A blood sample was extracted at the tenth week of gestation. In plasma, we assessed: 1) cytokines (micro-array): pro-inflammatory (IL1α, IL1 ß, IL6, TNFα), anti-inflammatory (IL4, IL10, IL13), and chemoattractant (IL8, MCP1, IFNγ), and 2) NO metabolites (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and Griess reaction): L-arginine, ADMA, SDMA, nitrates (NOx). Women with a male fetus (n = 50) exhibited, compared with those with a female (n = 35): higher IL1ß (OR = 1.09 with 95% CI: 0.97-1.28), and lower IL13 (OR = 0.93 with 95% CI: 0.87-0.99), and higher plasma NOx (OR = 1.14 with 95% CI: 1.03-1.31). Our data suggest that fetal sex influences maternal plasma cytokine profile and NO in early pregnancy. Women with a male fetus may have a worse capacity to counteract an inflammatory response. They may have better vasodilator capacity, but in the presence of an oxidative environment, a higher nitrosative damage may occur. These data reinforce the need to include sex as variable in predictive models.

12.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(4)2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218124

RESUMO

Twin pregnancies are increasing due to the rise in mothers' childbearing age and have a higher risk of fetal growth restriction (FGR) and prematurity. Therefore, early prediction of these events is important. Our aim was to analyze in the first trimester of pregnancy a possible association between antioxidants, including melatonin, in maternal plasma and the development of fetal complications in twin pregnancies. A single-center, prospective, and observational study was performed in 104 twin-pregnant women. A blood sample was extracted between the 9th and the 11th week of gestation, and plasma was obtained. Antioxidants (thiols, reduced glutathione, phenolic compounds, catalase, superoxide dismutase) and oxidative damage biomarkers (carbonyl groups and malondialdehyde) were assessed by spectrophotometry, and global scores were calculated from these parameters (Antiox-S, Prooxy-S). Melatonin and cortisol were evaluated by a competitive immunoassay. In the first trimester of pregnancy, Antiox-S was significantly lower in women who developed FGR compared to those with normal fetal growth; plasma melatonin was significantly lower in women with preterm compared to those with full-term births and exhibited a positive correlation with birth weight. Maternal cortisol showed a negative correlation with birth weight. We conclude that, for twin gestations, maternal plasma antioxidant status and melatonin could be potential biomarkers to be included in algorithms to predict FGR and preterm labor.

13.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 94: 0-0, 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-FGT-6084

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Las residencias de ancianos son entornos de alto riesgo para la transmisión del coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, por tratarse de ambientes cerrados, con personas que muestran manifestaciones atípicas de la enfermedad, con altas posibilidades de evolucionar desfavorablemente y con personal que frecuentemente presenta una elevada movilidad en relación a los puestos de trabajo. Por otro lado, en una situación de pandemia, numerosos centros hospitalarios han soportado periodos de gran presión asistencial. El objetivo de este trabajo fue presentar una experiencia de medicalización de una residencia donde casi el 50% de los residentes contrajo la enfermedad. MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo una intervención multidisciplinar en una residencia de ancianos de titularidad pública con 99 residentes. Trabajaron de forma conjunta especialistas de Medicina Interna, Atención Primaria y técnicos de salud, en estrecha colaboración con los trabajadores de la residencia. Se habilitó la presencia de personal de Enfermería las 24 horas y personal médico con visita diaria. Se dotó al centro de los medios necesarios para la administración de la medicación (oral e intravenosa) y la oxigenoterapia necesaria para atender a los pacientes con la enfermedad. Los resultados analíticos estaban disponibles en 24 horas. Para el análisis de los datos se calcularon los porcentajes y se empleó la media como medida de tendencia central. RESULTADOS: Cuarenta y ocho residentes (48,5%) y quince trabajadores contrajeron la enfermedad. El número total de fallecimientos durante ese periodo fue de trece (13,1%), siete de ellos con diagnóstico de COVID-19 (edad media de 84,4 años), siendo la tasa de letalidad del 14,6%. Once pacientes (22%) con diagnóstico de COVID-19 fueron hospitalizados, falleciendo dos durante el ingreso. CONCLUSIONES: La medicalización de las residencias puede contribuir a disminuir la presión asistencial en los centros hospitalarios, así como a optimizar los cuidados a estas personas vulnerables con una asistencia más humanizada, lo que puede redundar, finalmente, en mejores resultados en salud


OBJECTIVE: Nursing homes are high-risk environments for the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, as they are a closed environment, with patients who present atypical manifestations of the disease, high risk of unfavorable evolution, and staff who frequently present a high mobility in relation to their jobs. On the other hand, in a pandemic situation, numerous hospitals have suffered periods of great healthcare pressure. The objective of this work was to present an experience of medicalization of a residence where almost 50% of the residents contracted the disease. METHODS: A multidisciplinary intervention was carried out in a publicly owned nursing home with 99 residents. Specialists from Internal Medicine, Primary Care and health technicians worked together, in close collaboration with the residence workers. The presence of nursing personnel 24 hours a day and medical personnel with daily visits was enabled. The center was provided with the necessary means to administer the medication (oral and intravenous) and oxygen therapy necessary to care for patients with the disease. Analytical results were available within 24 hours. For data analysis, the percentages were calculated and the mean was used as a measure of central tendency. RESULTS: Forty-eight residents (48.5%) and fifteen workers contracted the disease. The total number of deaths during that period was thirteen (13.1%), seven of them diagnosed with COVID-19 (mean age 84.4 years), with a fatality rate of 14.6%. Eleven patients (22%) diagnosed with COVID-19 were hospitalized, two of whom died during admission. CONCLUSIONS: The medicalization of nursing homes can help to reduce the pressure on care in hospitals and optimize care for these vulnerable people with more humanized care, which can ultimately lead to better health outcomes


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/organização & administração , Medicalização/organização & administração , Casas de Saúde/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Pessoal de Saúde/organização & administração , Hospitalização , Medicalização/métodos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus , Espanha , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Chem Biol Interact ; 311: 108798, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433962

RESUMO

Natural products are a valuable source of anticancer agents, with many naturally derived compounds currently used in clinical and preclinical treatments. This study aims to investigate the antiproliferative activity and potential mechanism of action of the xanthoquinodin JBIR-99, isolated from fungi Parengyodontium album MEXU 30,054 and identified by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Cytotoxicity of xanthoquinodin was evaluated in a panel of human cancer cells lines and CCD-112-CoN normal colon cells, using the sulforhodamine B assay. PC-3 prostate cancer cells were used in biochemical assays including cell cycle, mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and caspase activity. Expression levels of apoptosis-pathway-related proteins were analyzed by Western blot. The in vivo toxicity of xanthoquinodin was determined using a zebrafish model. Xanthoquinodin showed cytotoxicity in all cancer cell lines but demonstrated relative selective potency against PC-3 cells with an IC50 1.7 µM. In CCD-112-CoN cells, xanthoquinodin was non-cytotoxic at 100 µM. In PC-3 cells, the compound induced loss of MTP, production of ROS, and cell cycle arrest in S phase. The expression and activity of caspase-3 was increased, which correlates with the upregulation of Cyt c, Bax, nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) (p65) and IKKß, and downregulation of poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP-1) and Bcl-2. Lastly, xanthoquinodin did not cause any visible developmental toxicity in zebrafish at 50 µM. These results demonstrate xanthoquinodin induces apoptosis in PC-3 prostate cancer cells by activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. In addition, the non-toxic effect in vivo indicates that xanthoquinodin could be a useful lead in the development of a novel, anti-cancer agent that is selective for prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ascomicetos/química , Cromonas/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromonas/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Humanos , Quinase I-kappa B/metabolismo , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Conformação Molecular , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem da Fase S do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216820, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dronedarone is a new multichannel-blocking antiarrhythmic for the treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation. Our group has demonstrated that dronedarone produces regression of cardiac remodeling; however, its effect on the remodeling of the elastic arteries has not yet been reported. We aim to assess the effects of dronedarone on the regression of thoracic aortic remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). METHOD: Ten-month-old male SHRs were randomly assigned to an intervention group (SHR-D), where the animals received dronedarone treatment (100 mg/kg), to a control group (SHR) where rats were given vehicle, or to a group (SHR-A) where they were given amiodarone. A fourth group of normotensive control rats (Wistar-Kyoto rats, WKY) was also added. After two weeks of treatment, we studied the structure, the elastic fiber content of the thoracic aorta using histological techniques and confocal microscopy, and the vascular mechanical properties using an organ bath and isometric tension analysis. A mass spectrometric determination of symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) concentrations was performed. RESULTS: SHR group developed the classic remodeling expected from the experimental model: outward hypertrophic remodeling, increased elastic fiber content and wall stiffness. However, the SHR-D group showed statistically significantly lower values for aortic tunica media thickness, wall to lumen ratio, external diameter, cross-sectional area, volume density of the elastic fibers, wall stiffness, and aortic SDMA concentration when compared to the SHR group. These parameters were similar in the SHR and SHR-A groups. Interestingly, the values for tunica media thickness, volume density of the elastic fibers, wall stiffness, and SDMA concentration obtained from the SHR-D group were similar to those measured in the WKY group. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that dronedarone improves the structure and passive mechanical properties of the thoracic aorta in hypertensive rats, and that this protective effect could be associated with a reduction in the concentration of aortic SDMA.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/metabolismo , Arginina/análogos & derivados , Dronedarona/farmacologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aorta Torácica/patologia , Arginina/metabolismo , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/patologia , Masculino , Microscopia Confocal , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY
17.
Nutr Hosp ; 36(1): 80-86, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30836761

RESUMO

Introduction: Background: the aim of this study was to evaluate the intake of nutrients, anthropometric parameters, health indicators, adipokines and insulin levels in a population of young undergraduates. Method: in this study, 378 young undergraduates were invited to participate. Due to the inclusion criteria and their own decision of participating, 90 attended the anthropometric, health indicators: waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR), waist to height ratio (WHtR), and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) studies and completed the questionnaire of frequency of food intake; and 34 participants were selected to perform the determination of biochemical parameters, insulin and adipokines levels: leptin, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Results: according to WC, WHR and WHtR, obese population showed health, cardiovascular and metabolic risk. Overweight population showed cardiometabolic risk. In general, lipid intake was higher than 30%, being animal fat the most consumed. The levels of leptin (women: 17.2 ± 9.2, 28 ± 11.3, 36.8 ± 17.8; men: 4.3 ± 3.6, 9.5 ± 3.1, 24.6 ± 16.4 to lean overweight and obese, respectively) and insulin (women: 408 ± 182, 438 ± 187, 768 ± 167; men: 244 ± 88, 520 ± 256, 853 ± 590) increased along with body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BFP), visceral fat area (VFA), WC, WHR and WHtR. Lean (2.4 ± 1.3), overweight (2.2 ± 0.9) and obese (4.3 ± 1.1) women and overweight (2.8 ± 1.2) and obese (5.0 ± 3.1) men showed insulin resistance according to HOMA-IR. Significant correlation between leptin and HOMA-IR was found (p = 0.41). BMI, BFP, VFA, WC, and WHtR positively correlated with leptin (p = 0.67, 0.75, 0.66, 0.60, 0.67, respectively) and insulin (p = 0.37, 0.40, 0.48, 0.49, 0.42, respectively), while WHR only with insulin (p = 0.43). No significant differences were found in the other adipokines. Conclusion: the use of health indicators such VFA, WC, WHR, WHtR and HOMA-IR are useful tools in the determination of health, cardio vascular and metabolic risk and are correlated with levels of leptin and insulin in the studied population.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/sangue , Antropometria , Dieta , Adiposidade , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Adulto Jovem
18.
Neuropsychology ; 33(4): 568-580, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907608

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to comprehensively study the specific neurocognitive constructs underlying verbal memory deficits and their neuroanatomical correlates in first episode psychosis (FEP) patients. METHOD: A total of 218 FEP patients and 145 healthy participants were examined with the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (a widely used verbal memory measure that provides a range of performance indexes to evaluate memory) and voxel-based morphometry (a neuroimaging analysis technique that allows investigation of focal differences in brain anatomy). RESULTS: The analyses showed that the FEP group presented significantly lower scores on acquisition/learning, F(1, 566) = 40.7; p < .001, and delayed recall, F(1, 570) = 74.12; p < .001, as well as higher rates of forgetting, F(1, 566) = 20.03; p < .001. They also exhibited a significant sensitivity to retroactive, F(1, 554) = 8.74; p = .003, but not to proactive interference. Neuroimaging analyses found significant interactions between bilateral frontal lobe morphometry and proactive interference (ρFWE = 0.023). Rate of forgetting also significantly interacted with right occipital cortex morphometry (ρFWE = 0.033). Patients with higher rates of forgetting, proactive and retroactive interference demonstrated further gray matter reductions in frontal and occipital cortical areas. CONCLUSIONS: These findings emphasize the anterior orbitofrontal cortex as the brain region that contributes to verbal memory deficits in FEP patients, and suggest specific relationships between different neuroanatomical structures and discrete verbal memory processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Memória/fisiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(1): 80-86, ene.-feb. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183192

RESUMO

Background: obesity is the excessive accumulation of adipose tissue related to food intake and other factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake of nutrients, anthropometric parameters, health indicators, adipokines and insulin levels in a population of young undergraduates. Method: in this study, 378 young undergraduates were invited to participate. Due to the inclusion criteria and their own decision of participating, 90 attended the anthropometric, health indicators: waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR), waist to height ratio (WHtR), and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) studies and completed the questionnaire of frequency of food intake; and 34 participants were selected to perform the determination of biochemical parameters, insulin and adipokines levels: leptin, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Results: according to WC, WHR and WHtR (women: 104 ± 20, 0.87 ± 0.08, 0.6 ± 0.13; men: 112 ± 10, 0.95 ± 0.09, 0.64 ± 0.06, respectively), obese population showed health, cardiovascular and metabolic risk. Overweight population showed cardiometabolic risk. In general, lipid intake was higher than 30%, being animal fat the most consumed. The levels of leptin (women: 17.2 ± 9.2, 28 ± 11.3, 36.8 ± 17.8; men: 4.3 ± 3.6, 9.5 ± 3.1, 24.6 ± 16.4 to lean overweight and obese, respectively) and insulin (women: 408 ± 182, 438 ± 187, 768 ± 167; men: 244 ± 88, 520 ± 256, 853 ± 590) increased along with body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BFP), visceral fat area (VFA), WC, WHR and WHtR. Lean (2.4 ± 1.3), overweight (2.2 ± 0.9) and obese (4.3 ± 1.1) women and overweight (2.8 ± 1.2) and obese (5.0 ± 3.1) men showed insulin resistance according to HOMA-IR. Significant correlation between leptin and HOMA-IR was found (p = 0.41). BMI, BFP, VFA, WC, and WHtR positively correlated with leptin (p = 0.67, 0.75, 0.66, 0.60, 0.67, respectively) and insulin (p = 0.37, 0.40, 0.48, 0.49, 0.42, respectively), while WHR only with insulin (p = 0.43). No significant differences were found in the other adipokines. Conclusion: the use of health indicators such VFA, WC, WHR, WHtR and HOMA-IR are useful tools in the determination of health, cardio vascular and metabolic risk and are correlated with levels of leptin and insulin in the studied population


Introducción: la obesidad es la acumulación excesiva de tejido adiposo relacionada con la ingesta de alimentos y otros factores. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la ingesta de nutrientes, parámetros antropométricos, indicadores de salud, adipocinas y niveles de insulina en una población de jóvenes universitarios con una dieta habitual. Método: en este estudio se invitó a participar a 378 jóvenes universitarios. Debido a los criterios de inclusión y su propia decisión de participar, 90 asistieron a los estudios antropométricos y de indicadores de salud: circunferencia de cintura (WC), índice de cadera cintura (WHR), índice de cintura-talla (WHtR) y modelo homeostático de evaluación-índice de resistencia a la insulina (HOMA-IR) y completaron el cuestionario de frecuencia de ingesta de alimentos. Treinta y cuatro participantes fueron seleccionados para realizar la determinación de los parámetros bioquímicos, niveles de insulina y adipocinas (leptina, IL-6, IL-8, factor de necrosis tumoral alfa [TNF- α], proteína quimioatractante de monocitos-1 [MCP-1] y factor de crecimiento hepático [HGF]). Resultados: de acuerdo con WC, WHR y WHtR (mujeres: 104 ± 20, 0,87 ± 0,08, 0,6 ± 0,13; hombres: 112 ± 10, 0,95 ± 0,09, 0,64 ± 0,06, respectivamente), la población obesa mostró riesgo cardiovascular, metabólico y para la salud. La población con sobrepeso mostró riesgo cardiometabólico. En general, la ingesta de lípidos fue superior al 30% y la grasa animal fue la más consumida. Los niveles de leptina (mujeres: 17,2 ± 9,2, 28 ± 11,3, 36,8 ± 17,8; hombres: 4,3 ± 3,6, 9,5 ± 3,1, 24,6 ± 16,4 para delgados, sobrepeso y obesos, respectivamente) e insulina (mujeres: 408 ± 182, 438 ± 187, 768 ± 167; hombres: 244 ± 88, 520 ± 256, 853 ± 590) aumentaron junto con el índice de masa corporal (BMI), porcentaje de grasa corporal (BFP), área de grasa visceral (VFA), WC, WHR y WHtR. Las mujeres delgadas (2,4 ± 1,3), con sobrepeso (2,2 ± 0,9) y obesas (4,3 ± 1,1) y los hombres con sobrepeso (2,8 ± 1,2) y obesos (5,0 ± 3,1) mostraron resistencia a la insulina de acuerdo con HOMA-IR. Se encontró una correlación significativa entre leptina y HOMA-IR (p = 0,41). BMI, BFP, VFA, WC y WHtR correlacionaron positivamente con leptina (p = 0,67, 0,75, 0,66, 0,60 y 0,67, respectivamente) e insulina (p = 0,37, 0,40, 0,48, 0,49 y 0,42, respectivamente), mientras que el WHR solo con insulina (p = 0,43). No se encontraron diferencias signifi cativas en las otras adipocinas. Conclusión: el uso de indicadores de salud como VFA, WC, WHR, WHtR y HOMA-IR es una herramienta útil en la determinación del riesgo metabólico, cardiovascular y de salud, y dichos indicadores correlacionaron con los niveles de leptina e insulina en la población estudiada


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adipocinas/sangue , Antropometria , Dieta , Adiposidade , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Resistência à Insulina , Leptina/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril
20.
Rev. cient. (Guatem.) ; 28(1): [32]-[43], 20181107.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-963803

RESUMO

Neolentinus ponderosus y N. lepideus son dos especies de hongos saprobios que poseen uso alimenticio tradicional en comunidades de los departamentos de Huehuetenango y Totonicapán, Guatemala. La capacidad degradadora de ambas especies les confiere potencial para el estudio de la producción de cuerpos fructíferos a nivel de sustrato, por lo que en esta investigación se evaluó el crecimiento de una cepa nativa de N. ponderosus y una de N. lepideus en el medio de cultivo agar extracto de malta (EMA) a diferente pH y también se estudió la degradación de la madera de dos especies de pino (Pinus tecunumanii y P. ayacahuite) en cámaras de podredumbre durante 12 meses. El mayor diámetro de crecimiento miceliar de la cepa N. ponderosus se observó a pH 7.0, en tanto que para N. lepideus se obtuvo a pH 5.0 y 5.6. Las colonias de ambas cepas evidenciaron textura afelpada, borde regular a irregular, color blanco, con o sin pigmento difusible, olor frutal, hifas de 1.0-5.0 µm de diámetro, con clamidosporas y fíbulas. La madera de P. tecunumanii degradada por la cepa de N. ponderosus y la madera de P. ayacahuite por la cepa N. lepideus, presentaron porcentajes de pérdida de peso de 8.76 (±5.58) y 12.07 (±5.66), respectivamente y en ambos casos se alcanzó solamente el estadio temprano de degradación. Los resultados de este estudio sientan las bases para investigaciones posteriores en los que se evalúe el cultivo en troncos de ambas especies para la producción de cuerpos fructíferos con fines alimenticios y comerciales


Neolentinus ponderosus and N. lepideus are two saprophytic fungi species used traditionally in Huehuetenango and Totonicapán, Guatemala. The degradative capacity of both species confers them potential for fruiting bodies production. This study evaluated the mycelial growth of two native strains of N. ponderosus and N. lepideus in malt extract agar (EMA) at different pH and the degradation of wood from two pine species in rot chambers during 12 months. pH 7.0 was the most appropriate for the mycelial growth of N. ponderosus and for N. lepideus were 5.0 and 5.6. The colonies of both strains showed fruity odor, velvety texture, regular to irregular edge, white color, with or without diffusible pigment, hyphae with 1-5 µm width, chlamydospores and clamp connections. Wood from Pinus tecunumanii and P. ayacahuite exhibit weight-loss percentages between 8.76 ± 5.58 and 12.07 ± 5.66, with N. ponderosus 145.2003 and N. lepideus 90.2002, respectively. In both cases reached the early stage of brown-rot decay. These results could be useful for future research that evaluate the fruiting bodies production in logs for food and commercial purposes

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