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1.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of dietary pattern with the risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is little understood and has scarcely been investigated. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the association of several complete dietary patterns [Mediterranean, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and Pro-vegetarian dietary pattern] with the risk of BCC, conducting a nested case-control study (4 controls for each case). METHODS: Cases and controls were selected from the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) cohort using risk set sampling. Cases were identified among subjects free of skin cancer at baseline but who later reported a physician-made BCC diagnosis during the follow-up period. In the cohort we identified 101 incident cases of BCC. RESULTS: In multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression analyses, better adherence to the Mediterranean diet (highest compared with lowest quintile) was associated with a 72% relative reduction in the odds of BCC (OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.77; Ptrend = 0.014); the DASH diet was associated with a 68% RR reduction (OR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.76; Ptrend = 0.013) for the comparison between extreme quintiles. No association was found between a Pro-vegetarian dietary pattern and BCC. Higher fruit consumption (highest compared with lowest quintile, OR: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.64; Ptrend < 0.001) and low-fat dairy products (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.92; Ptrend = 0.014) were associated with a lower BCC risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that Mediterranean and DASH dietary patterns may be associated with a lower risk of BCC, but confirmatory studies are required.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We prospectively assessed the association between a healthy lifestyle score (HLS) and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a Mediterranean cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: We followed up 11,005 participants initially free of diabetes diagnosis in the "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" (SUN) cohort. We evaluated the influence of lifestyle-related factors based on a score previously related to a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Only one incident case of T2DM was found among those with a baseline BMI ≤22 kg/m2. Therefore, we excluded the BMI item and restricted the analysis to participants with a baseline BMI >22 kg/m2. We measured the baseline adherence of a HLS that included: never smoking, physical activity, Mediterranean diet adherence, moderate alcohol consumption, avoidance of binge drinking, low television exposure, taking a short nap, spending time with friends and working hours. Incident cases of T2DM were self-reported by participants and confirmed by a physician. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were fitted to assess the association between HLS and the incidence of T2DM. After a median follow-up of 12 years, 145 incident cases of T2DM were observed. Among participants with a BMI >22 kg/m2, the highest category of HLS adherence (7-9 points) showed a significant 46% relatively decreased hazard of T2DM compared with the lowest category (0-4 points) (multivariable adjusted HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Higher adherence to a HLS, including some factors not typically studied, may reduce T2DM risk. Preventive efforts should preferentially focus on weight control. However, this score may promote a comprehensive approach to diabetes prevention beyond weight reduction.

3.
J Phys Chem B ; 124(25): 5156-5162, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520561

RESUMO

The asymmetric distribution of lipids in the cell membrane is maintained by protein transporters, and in the absence of proteins, by spontaneous flip-flop of lipids that involve the formation of transient pores in the membrane. The composition of the cell membranes influences the metabolism of the cell by modulating the function of transmembrane proteins, and flip-flop processes are therefore of key importance. Membranes are in direct contact with aqueous solutions, containing ions of different compositions that interact with the lipid head groups or cross the cell membrane through transmembrane channels. The impact of the ions on the lipid flip-flop rates is, however, an outstanding question. Here, we show that the flip-flop rate slows down significantly with the increasing valence of the cation, from minutes for monovalent cations (Na+, K+) to hours for divalent (Mg2+, Ca2+) or days for trivalent cations (Yb3+).

4.
Soft Matter ; 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538402

RESUMO

Lipid asymmetry is a crucial property of biological membranes and significantly influences their physical and mechanical properties. It is responsible for maintaining different chemical environments on the external and internal surfaces of cells and organelles and plays a vital role in many biological processes such as cell signalling and budding. In this work we show, using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations, that thermal fields can induce lipid asymmetry in biological membranes. We focus our investigation on cholesterol, an abundant lipid in the plasma membrane, with a rapid flip-flop rate, significantly influencing membrane properties. We demonstrate that thermal fields induce membrane asymmetry with cholesterol showing thermophobic behaviour and therefore accumulating on the cold side of the membrane. This work highlights a possible experimental route to preparing and controlling asymmetry in synthetic membranes.

5.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Epidemiological data on iron status and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are still controversial. The aim of this study was to determine whether low serum iron (SI) levels are associated with an increased odds of first CVD event in a population at high cardiovascular risk. METHODS: Case-control study design nested within the "PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea" (PREDIMED) trial. A total of 207 participants diagnosed with CVD (myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death) during follow-up period (2003-2010) were matched by sex, age and intervention group to 436 controls by incidence density sampling. Median time between serum sample collection and subsequent CVD event occurrence was 0.94 years. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis was used to determine SI levels. In-person interviews, medical record reviews, and validated questionnaires were used to assess covariates. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of CVD were calculated with conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Mean SI levels were higher in men than in women (1224.0 µg/L vs. 1093.8 µg/L; p < 0.001). Among women, but not in men, the mean SI concentration was lower in cases than in controls (1008.5 µg/L vs. 1132.9 µg/L; p = 0.030). There was a gradual decrease in the multivariable-adjusted ORs of CVD with increasing SI levels (highest vs. lowest quartile: OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.32-0.93; ptrend = 0.020). This inverse relationship was more pronounced among women (highest vs. lowest quartile: OR = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03-0.69; ptrend = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: The present findings are consistent with previously reported inverse associations between SI and CVD. SI levels as an independent marker of short-term cardiovascular risk may be useful for risk assessment in older populations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.controlled-trials.com; International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 35,739,639. Registered 5 October 2005. Retrospectively registered.

6.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 64(12): e2000178, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378786

RESUMO

SCOPE: The plasma metabolomics profiles of protein intake have been rarely investigated. The aim is to identify the distinct plasma metabolomics profiles associated with overall intakes of protein as well as with intakes from animal and plant protein sources. METHODS AND RESULTS: A cross-sectional analysis using data from 1833 participants at high risk of cardiovascular disease is conducted. Associations between 385 identified metabolites and the intake of total, animal protein (AP), and plant protein (PP), and plant-to-animal ratio (PR) are assessed using elastic net continuous regression analyses. A double 10-cross-validation (CV) procedure is used and Pearson correlations coefficients between multi-metabolite weighted models and reported protein intake in each pair of training-validation datasets are calculated. A wide set of metabolites is consistently associated with each protein source evaluated. These metabolites mainly consisted of amino acids and their derivatives, acylcarnitines, different organic acids, and lipid species. Few metabolites overlapped among protein sources (i.e., C14:0 SM, C20:4 carnitine, GABA, and allantoin) but none of them toward the same direction. Regarding AP and PP approaches, C20:4 carnitine and dimethylglycine are positively associated with PP but negatively associated with AP. However, allantoin, C14:0 SM, C38:7 PE plasmalogen, GABA, metronidazole, and trigonelline (N-methylnicotinate) behave contrarily. Ten-CV Pearson correlation coefficients between self-reported protein intake and plasma metabolomics profiles range from 0.21 for PR to 0.32 for total protein. CONCLUSIONS: Different sets of metabolites are associated with total, animal, and plant protein intake. Further studies are needed to assess the contribution of these metabolites in protein biomarkers' discovery and prediction of cardiometabolic alterations.

7.
Prev Med ; 137: 106124, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437702

RESUMO

Several healthy diet indices have been associated with mortality risk. However, the ideal diet should not only be healthy but also environmentally friendly and affordable. The study aimed to determine if a new Sustainable Diet Index (SDI), which takes into account the nutritional quality, environmental impacts and market price of diets, was associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Using data from the "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" Project, a prospective cohort study of Spanish university graduates, the study included 15,492 participants who were recruited between December 1999 and March 2014 and followed-up for a median of 10 years. Cox regression was used to determine the relationship of SDI and its components with all-cause and cause-specific mortality risk. Hazard ratios with adjustment for several confounders were calculated. The weights for the foods contributing to the SDI were assessed with multiple regression analyses and variability with nested regression analyses. The highest quartile of the SDI scores was associated with a 59% relative reduction in all-cause mortality (HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.23-0.75; ptrend < 0.001) and 79% reduction in cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.21, 95% CI 0.05-0.85; ptrend < 0.001). SDI was positively correlated with beans and potato consumption but negatively correlated with red meat intake. Red and processed meats, fatty dairy products and fish consumption accounted for most of the variability in the SDI. Altogether, dietary patterns accounting not only for nutritional quality of the food but also the impact on the environment and affordability could still provide health benefits.

8.
J Org Chem ; 2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441100

RESUMO

This study reports a new application area of difluoro enol silyl ethers, which can be easily obtained from trifluoromethyl ketones. The main focus has been directed to the electrophilic fluoroalkylation and arylation methods. The trifluoromethylthiolation of difluoro enol silyl ethers can be used for the construction of a novel trifluoromethylthio-α,α-difluoroketone (-COCF2SCF3) functionality. The -CF2SCF3 moiety has interesting properties due to the electron-withdrawing, albeit lipophilic, character of the SCF3 group, which can be combined with the high electrophilicity of the difluoroketone motif. The methodology could also be extended to difluoro homologation of the trifluoromethyl ketones using the Togni reagent. In addition, we presented a method for transition-metal-free arylation of difluoro enol silyl ethers based on hypervalent iodines.

9.
Am J Prev Med ; 2020 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430220

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lifestyle-related habits have a strong influence on morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study investigates the association between a multidimensional healthy lifestyle score and all-cause mortality risk, including in the score some less-studied lifestyle-related factors. METHODS: Participants (n=20,094) of the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra cohort were followed up from 1999 to 2018. The analysis was conducted in 2019. A 10-point healthy lifestyle score previously associated with a lower risk of major cardiovascular events was applied, assigning 1 point to each of the following items: never smoking, moderate-to-high physical activity, moderate-to-high Mediterranean diet adherence, healthy BMI, moderate alcohol consumption, avoidance of binge drinking, low TV exposure, short afternoon nap, time spent with friends, and working ≥40 hours per week. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 10.8 years, 407 deaths were documented. In the multivariable adjusted analysis, the highest category of adherence to the score (7-10 points) showed a 60% lower risk of all-cause mortality than the lowest category (0-3 points) (hazard ratio=0.40, 95% CI=0.27, 0.60, p<0.001 for trend). In analyses of the healthy lifestyle score as a continuous variable, for each additional point in the score, a 18% relatively lower risk of all-cause mortality was observed (adjusted hazard ratio=0.82, 95% CI=0.76, 0.88). CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to a healthy lifestyle score, including some less-studied lifestyle-related factors, was longitudinally associated with a substantially lower mortality rate in a Mediterranean cohort. Comprehensive health promotion should be a public health priority.

10.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32455971

RESUMO

A 14-Item Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) questionnaire was developed and validated in face-to-face interviews, but not via telephone. The aims of this study were to evaluate the validity and reliability of a telephone-administered version of the MEDAS as well as to validate the Portuguese version of the MEDAS questionnaire. A convenience community-based sample of adults (n = 224) participated in a three-stage survey. First, trained researchers administered MEDAS via a telephone. Second, the Portuguese version of Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), and MEDAS were administered in a semi-structured face-to-face interview. Finally, MEDAS was again administered via telephone. The telephone-administered MEDAS questionnaire was compared with the face-to-face-version using several metrics. The telephone-administered MEDAS was significantly correlated with the face-to-face-administered MEDAS [r = 0.805, p < 0.001; interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.803, p < 0.001] and showed strong agreement (k = 0.60). The MEDAS scores that were obtained in the first and second telephone interviews were significantly correlated (r = 0.661, p < 0.001; ICC = 0.639, p < 0.001). The overall agreement between the Portuguese version of MEDAS and the FFQ-derived Mediterranean diet adherence score had a Cohen's k = 0.39. The telephone-administered version of MEDAS is a valid tool for assessing the adherence to the Mediterranean diet and acquiring data for large population-based studies.

12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many food items included in the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) are rich in polyamines, small aliphatic amines with potential cardioprotective effects. The consumption of a MedDiet could increase polyamine concentrations. Based on experimental models, polyamine concentrations may be also influenced by physical activity (PA). OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate whether an intervention based on an energy-restricted MedDiet (er-MedDiet) and PA promotion, in comparison with an energy-unrestricted MedDiet and traditional health care, influences the serum pattern of polyamines and related metabolites in subjects at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: This was a substudy from the PREDIMED-Plus trial, an ongoing randomized clinical trial including 6874 participants allocated either to an intensive weight-loss lifestyle intervention based on er-MedDiet, PA promotion, and behavioral support (er-MedDiet + PA group), or to an energy-unrestricted MedDiet and traditional health care group (MedDiet group). A total of 75 patients (n = 38, er-MedDiet + PA group; n = 37, MedDiet group) were included in this study. Serum concentrations of arginine, ornithine, polyamines, and acetyl polyamines at baseline and 26 wk of intervention were measured by an ultra-high-performance LC-tandem MS platform. RESULTS: At week 26, study groups had similar adherence to the MedDiet but patients randomly assigned to the er-MedDiet + PA group showed significantly lower mean energy intake (-340.3 kcal/d; 95% CI: -567.3, -113.4 kcal/d; P = 0.004), higher mean PA (1290.6; 95% CI: 39.9, 2541.3 metabolic equivalent tasks · min/d; P = 0.043), and higher mean decrease in BMI (in kg/m2) (-1.3; 95% CI: -1.8, -0.6; P < 0.001) than the MedDiet group. However, no significant differences in serum polyamines or related metabolites were found between study groups after 26 wk of intervention and no significant between-group differences were found in glycated hemoglobin, HDL-cholesterol, or triglyceride concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: In individuals at high CVD risk, an er-MedDiet with increased PA did not result in significant changes of serum concentrations of polyamines or related metabolites in comparison with an energy-unrestricted MedDiet and no increase in PA. This trial was registered at isrctn.com as ISRCTN89898870.

13.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(2): 403-407, mar.-abr. 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET2-5635

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: comunicar los datos de nutrición parenteral domiciliaria (NPD) obtenidos del registro del grupo NADYA-SENPE (www.nadya-senpe.com) del año 2018. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: análisis descriptivo de los datos recogidos de pacientes adultos y pediátricos con NPD en el registro NADYA-SENPE del 1 de enero al 31 de diciembre de 2018. RESULTADOS: se registraron 278 pacientes (54,7 % mujeres), 23 niños y 255 adultos, procedentes de 45 hospitales españoles, lo que representa una tasa de prevalencia de 5,95 pacientes/millón de habitantes/año 2018. El diagnóstico más frecuente en adultos fue "oncológico paliativo" (22,0 %), seguido de "otros". En niños fue la enfermedad de Hirschsprung junto con la enterocolitis necrotizante, con cuatro casos (17,4 %). El primer motivo de indicación fue síndrome de intestino corto tanto en niños (60,9 %) como en adultos (35,7 %). El tipo de catéter más utilizado fue el tunelizado tanto en niños (81,0 %) como en adultos (41,1 %). Finalizaron 75 episodios, la causa más frecuente fue el fallecimiento (52,0 %) y el paso a vía oral (33,3 %). CONCLUSIONES: el número de centros y profesionales colaboradores en el registro de pacientes que reciben NPD se mantiene estable, así como las principales indicaciones y los motivos de finalización de la NPD


AIM: to communicate home parenteral nutrition (HPN) data obtained from the HPN registry of the NADYA-SENPE group (www.nadya-senpe.com) for the year 2018. MATERIAL AND METHODS: descriptive analysis of the data collected from adult and pediatric patients with HPN in the NADYA-SENPE group registry from January 1st, 2018 to December 31st, 2018. RESULTS: there were 278 patients from 45 Spanish hospitals (54.7 % women), 23 children and 255 adults, which represent a prevalence rate of 5.95 patients/million inhabitants/year 2018. The most frequent diagnosis in adults was "palliative cancer" (22.0 %), followed by "others". In children it was Hirschsprung's disease together with necrotizing enterocolitis, with four cases (17.4 %). The first indication was short bowel syndrome in both children (60.9 %) and adults (35.7 %). The most frequently used type of catheter was tunneled in both children (81.0 %) and adults (41.1 %). Ending 75 episodes, the most frequent cause was death (52.0 %) and change to oral feeding (33.3 %). CONCLUSIONS: the number of centers and collaborating professionals in the registry of patients receiving HPN remains stable, as well as the main indications and reasons for termination of HPN

14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(6): 1259-1266, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telomere length (TL) is a marker of biological age that may be affected by dietary factors through oxidation and inflammation mechanisms. In addition, ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption has increased worldwide and it has been associated with the risk of developing several diseases. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the association between UPF consumption and the risk of having short telomeres in an elderly population of the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Project. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 886 participants (645 men and 241 women) aged 57-91 y recruited from the SUN Project (Spain, 1999-2018). TL was measured from saliva samples by real-time qPCR at baseline and UPF consumption was collected using a validated 136-item FFQ and classified according to the NOVA system. We evaluated the association between consumption of energy-adjusted UPF categorized into quartiles (low, medium-low, medium-high, and high consumption) and the risk of having short telomeres (<20th percentile) using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Those participants with the highest UPF consumption had almost twice the odds of having short telomeres compared with those with the lowest consumption (adjusted OR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.05, 3.22; P-trend = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: A higher consumption of UPF (>3 servings/d) was associated with higher risk of having shorter telomeres in an elderly Spanish population of the SUN Project.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02669602.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Telômero/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha , Telômero/genética , Encurtamento do Telômero
15.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 73(3): 205-211, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET5-842

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: La estrategia Life's Simple 7 de la American Heart Association propuso 7 métricas de salud cardiovascular ideal: índice de masa corporal (IMC)<25, no fumar, dieta saludable, actividad física moderada ≥ 150min a la semana, colesterol total <200mg/dl, presión arterial sistólica <120mmHg y diastólica <80mmHg y glucemia basal <100mg/dl. Resulta de gran interés valorar el efecto combinado de estas 7 metas. Se analizó prospectivamente el impacto de las métricas basales Life's Simple 7 en la incidencia de eventos cardiovasculares mayores en la cohorte PREDIMED (el 57,5% mujeres; media de edad inicial, 67 años). MÉTODOS: La métrica de dieta saludable se definió como alcanzar al menos 9 puntos en una escala validada de 14 puntos de adhesión a dieta mediterránea. Se definió evento cardiovascular mayor incidente como infarto de miocardio, ictus o muerte de causa cardiovascular. Se usó regresión de Cox para estimar hazard ratios (HR) ajustadas multivariables con intervalos de confianza del 95% (IC95%) para categorías sucesivas de métricas de salud cardiovascular. RESULTADOS: Tras seguir a 7.447 participantes durante una mediana de 4,8 años, se registraron 288 eventos. Respecto a los participantes con solo 0-1 métricas, tras ajustar por edad, sexo, centro y grupo de intervención, se observaron HR (IC95%) 0,73 (0,54-0,99), 0,57 (0,41-0,78) y 0,34 (0,21-0,53), para 2, 3 y 4 o más métricas respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: En una población española con alto riesgo cardiovascular, la presencia de un mayor número de métricas se asoció progresivamente con una reducción sustancial en la tasa de eventos cardiovasculares mayores


INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The Life's Simple 7 strategy of the American Heart Association proposes 7 metrics of ideal cardiovascular health: body mass index (BMI) <25mg/m2, not smoking, healthy diet, moderate physical activity ≥ 150min/wk, total blood cholesterol <200mg/dL, systolic and diastolic blood pressures <120 and <80mmHg, respectively, and fasting blood glucose <100mg/dL. It is important to assess the combined effect of these 7 metrics in the Spanish population. We prospectively analyzed the impact of baseline Life's Simple 7 metrics on the incidence of major cardiovascular events in the PREDIMED cohort (57.5% women, average baseline age, 67 years). METHODS: The healthy diet metric was defined as attaining ≥ 9 points on a validated 14-item Mediterranean diet adherence screener. An incident major cardiovascular event was defined as a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death. Cox regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for successive categories of health metrics. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 4.8 years in 7447 participants, there were 288 major cardiovascular events. After adjustment for age, sex, center, and intervention group, HRs (95%CI) were 0.73 (0.54-0.99), 0.57 (0.41-0.78), and 0.34 (0.21-0.53) for participants with 2, 3, and ≥ 4 metrics, respectively, compared with participants with only 0 to 1 metrics. CONCLUSIONS: In an elderly Spanish population at high cardiovascular risk, better adherence to Life's Simple 7 metrics was progressively associated with a substantially lower rate of major cardiovascular events

16.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(15): 1729-1739, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Olive oil intake has been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Mediterranean populations, but little is known about these associations in the U.S population. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine whether olive oil intake is associated with total CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD), and stroke risk. METHODS: This study included 61,181 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1990 to 2014) and 31,797 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1990 to 2014) who were free of cancer, heart disease, and stroke at baseline. Diet was assessed using food frequency questionnaires at baseline and then every 4 years. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: During 24 years of follow-up, this study documented 9,797 incident cases of CVD, including 6,034 CHD cases and 3,802 stroke cases. After adjusting for major diet and lifestyle factors, compared with nonconsumers, those with higher olive oil intake (>0.5 tablespoon/day or >7 g/day) had 14% lower risk of CVD (pooled HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.79 to 0.94) and 18% lower risk of CHD (pooled HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.73 to 0.91). No significant associations were observed for total or ischemic stroke. Replacing 5 g/day of margarine, butter, mayonnaise, or dairy fat with the equivalent amount of olive oil was associated with 5% to 7% lower risk of total CVD and CHD. No significant associations were observed when olive oil was compared with other plant oils combined. In a subset of participants, higher olive oil intake was associated with lower levels of circulating inflammatory biomarkers and a better lipid profile. CONCLUSIONS: Higher olive oil intake was associated with lower risk of CHD and total CVD in 2 large prospective cohorts of U.S. men and women. The substitution of margarine, butter, mayonnaise, and dairy fat with olive oil could lead to lower risk of CHD and CVD.

17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3472, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103064

RESUMO

Physical activity (PA) has been hypothesized to be effective to maintaining cognitive function and delay cognitive decline in the elderly, but physical fitness (PF) could be a better predictor of cognitive function. We aimed to study the association between PA and PF with cognitive function and quality of life using cross-sectional data from 6874 participants of the PREDIMED-Plus trial (64.9 ± 4.9 years, 48.5% female). PF and PA were measured with a Chair Stand Test, the REGICOR and Rapid Assessment Physical Activity questionnaires. Cognitive function was measured with Mini-mental State Examination, Control Oral Word Association Test, Trail Making Test and Digit Span tests; whereas health-related quality of life was assessed with the SF36-HRQL test. Cognitive and quality of life scores were compared among PF quartiles and PA levels (low, moderate and high) with ANCOVA and with Chair Stand repetitions and energy expenditure from total PA with multivariable linear regression adjusted for confounding factors. PF associated with higher scores in phonemic and semantic verbal fluency tests and with lower TMT A time. However, PA was not associated with the neurocognitive parameters evaluated. Both PF and PA levels were strongly associated with a better quality of life. We concluded that PF, but not PA, is associated with a better cognitive function. This trial was retrospectively registered at the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial (ISRCTN89898870, https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN89898870?q=ISRCTN89898870&filters=&sort=&offset=1&totalResults=1&page=1&pageSize=10&searchType=basic-search) on 07/24/2014.

18.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(4): 835-844, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites have been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the associations of these metabolites with T2D incidence and the potential effect of dietary interventions remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the association of baseline and 1-y changes in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and TCA cycle metabolites with insulin resistance and T2D incidence, and the potential modifying effect of Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) interventions. METHODS: We included 251 incident T2D cases and 638 noncases in a nested case-cohort study within the PREDIMED Study during median follow-up of 3.8 y. Participants were allocated to MedDiet + extra-virgin olive oil, MedDiet + nuts, or control diet. Plasma metabolites were measured using a targeted approach by LC-tandem MS. We tested the associations of baseline and 1-y changes in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and TCA cycle metabolites with subsequent T2D risk using weighted Cox regression models and adjusting for potential confounders. We designed a weighted score combining all these metabolites and applying the leave-one-out cross-validation approach. RESULTS: Baseline circulating concentrations of hexose monophosphate, pyruvate, lactate, alanine, glycerol-3 phosphate, and isocitrate were significantly associated with higher T2D risk (17-44% higher risk for each 1-SD increment). The weighted score including all metabolites was associated with a 30% (95% CI: 1.12, 1.51) higher relative risk of T2D for each 1-SD increment. Baseline lactate and alanine were associated with baseline and 1-y changes of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. One-year increases in most metabolites and in the weighted score were associated with higher relative risk of T2D after 1 y of follow-up. Lower risks were observed in the MedDiet groups than in the control group although no significant interactions were found after adjusting for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a panel of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis-related metabolites that was significantly associated with T2D risk in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular disease risk. A MedDiet could counteract the detrimental effects of these metabolites.This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639.


Assuntos
Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Dieta Mediterrânea , Gluconeogênese , Glicólise , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Clin Nutr ; 39(3): 853-861, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Few studies have compared micronutrient intake and fulfilment of average requirements (EAR) in non-diabetic, pre-diabetic and diabetic adults at high cardiovascular risk. We assessed these variables in a large sample of participants in the PREDIMED-PLUS randomized trial of primary cardiovascular prevention with diet and physical activity. DESIGN: Baseline assessment of nutritional adequacy in n = 5792 men and women, aged 55-75 years, with overweight/obesity and some metabolic syndrome features. METHODS: Participants were categorised as non-diabetic (n = 2390), pre-diabetic (n = 1322) or diabetic (n = 2080) by standard criteria. Food and nutrient intake were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Micronutrients examined were vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, A, C, D, E and folic acid; Ca, K, P, Mg, Fe, Se, Cr, Zn, and iodine. The proportion of micronutrient inadequacy was evaluated using the EAR or adequate intake (AI) cut-offs. Diet quality was also determined using a 17-item energy-restricted Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) questionnaire. RESULTS: Compared to non-diabetic participants, those with pre-diabetes had lower intakes of total carbohydrates (CHO) and higher intakes of total fat and saturated fatty acids (SFA) and were more likely to be below EAR for folic, while diabetic participants had lower intakes of total CHO and higher intakes of protein, total fat, monounsaturated fatty acids, SFA and cholesterol and were less likely to be below EAR for vitamins B2, and B6, Ca, Zn and iodine. Diabetic participants disclosed higher adherence to the MedDiet than the other two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Older Mediterranean individuals with metabolic syndrome and diabetes had better nutrient adequacy and adherence to the MedDiet than those with pre-diabetes or no diabetes.

20.
Clin Nutr ; 39(4): 1161-1173, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic disparities and lifestyle factors are likely to determine the overall quality of the diet. In addition, overeating is compatible with inadequate micronutrient intake and it can lead to adverse health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To assess adequacy of dietary nutrient intake and to investigate the influence of socioeconomic and lifestyle factors on nutrient density in a large primary cardiovascular prevention trial conducted in healthy participants with metabolic syndrome (MetS) to assess the cardiovascular effects of an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet (PREDIMED-Plus). METHODS: Baseline cross-sectional analysis of the PREDIMED-Plus trial with 6646 Spanish participants (aged 55-75 years in men and 60-75 years in women) with overweight/obesity and MetS. Energy and nutrient intake (for 10 nutrients) were calculated using a validated 143-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and nutrient density was estimated dividing the absolute nutrient intake by total energy intake. The prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated according to dietary reference intakes. Multivariable linear regression models were fitted to examine associations between socioeconomic status or lifestyle factors and nutrient density. RESULTS: A considerable proportion of the screened participants showed a deficient intake of vitamins A, D, E, B9, calcium, magnesium and dietary fibre. Inadequate intake of four or more of the ten nutrients considered was present in 17% of participants. A higher nutrient density was directly and significantly associated with female sex, higher educational level and a better adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Lifestyle factors such as non-smoking and avoidance of sedentary lifestyles were also independently associated with better nutrient density. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with MetS, despite being overweight, exhibited suboptimal nutrient intake, especially among men. Low nutrient density diet can be largely explained by differences in socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. These results highlight the importance of focussing on nutritional education in vulnerable populations, taking into account nutrient requirements.

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