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2.
Diving Hyperb Med ; 49(3): 204-208, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523795

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This research reports the epidemiology of diving injuries managed in the Hyperbaric Medicine Unit of the Canary Islands University Hospital. METHODS: Data were extracted from the clinical records of all divers injured and admitted to the unit for treatment of dysbaric diving injuries between 2008 and 2017, inclusive. RESULTS: One-hundred and thirty diving injuries were recorded. Most (71%) occurred in men and 43% were foreigners. Eighteen per cent either had no diving certification or that information was not recorded in the clinical chart. Only a third of the 40% of divers who had some form of on-site first aid treatment received oxygen and oral rehydration. Type 1 decompression sickness (DCS) was diagnosed in 56 divers (43%) and Type 2 in 67 (52%), whilst seven were treated for omitted decompression. At discharge, 122 (94%) were asymptomatic, whilst 5% experienced some residual sensory or other changes. One diver who presented late remained quadriparetic and one, admitted in a state of coma, died. Only 76% of the injured divers had specific diving accident insurance and, of those, 58% were foreign divers. CONCLUSIONS: Over half of the injured divers did not receive any on-site first aid. The majority (94%) of treated injured divers were discharged without sequelae. Based on these data, several public health recommendations for the Canary Islands are made.

3.
Autophagy ; : 1-17, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538542

RESUMO

Growing evidence shows that autophagy is deficient in neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases, and that its induction may have beneficial effects in these conditions. However, as autophagy shares signaling pathways with cell death and interferes with protein synthesis, prolonged use of autophagy inducers available nowadays is considered unwise. The search for novel autophagy inducers indicates that DRD2 (dopamine receptor 2)-DRD3 ligands may also activate autophagy, though critical aspects of the action mechanisms and effects of dopamine ligands on autophagy are still unknown. In order to shed light on this issue, DRD2- and DRD3-overexpressing cells and drd2 KO, drd3 KO and wild-type mice were treated with the DRD2-DRD3 agonist pramipexole. The results revealed that pramipexole induces autophagy through MTOR inhibition and a DRD3-dependent but DRD2-independent mechanism. DRD3 activated AMPK followed by inhibitory phosphorylation of RPTOR, MTORC1 and RPS6KB1 inhibition and ULK1 activation. Interestingly, despite RPS6KB1 inhibition, the activity of RPS6 was maintained through activation of the MAPK1/3-RPS6KA pathway, and the activity of MTORC1 kinase target EIF4EBP1 along with protein synthesis and cell viability, were also preserved. This pattern of autophagy through MTORC1 inhibition without suppression of protein synthesis, contrasts with that of direct allosteric and catalytic MTOR inhibitors and opens up new opportunities for G protein-coupled receptor ligands as autophagy inducers in the treatment of neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. Abbreviations: AKT/Protein kinase B: thymoma viral proto-oncogene 1; AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; BECN1: beclin 1; EGFP: enhanced green fluorescent protein; EIF4EBP1/4E-BP1: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1; GPCR; G protein-coupled receptor; GFP: green fluorescent protein; HEK: human embryonic kidney; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; MAP2K/MEK: mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase; MAPK1/ERK2: mitogen-activated protein kinase 1; MAPK3/ERK1: mitogen-activated protein kinase 3; MDA: malonildialdehyde; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; PPX: pramipexole; RPTOR/raptor: regulatory associated protein of MTOR, complex 1; RPS6: ribosomal protein S6; RPS6KA/p90S6K: ribosomal protein S6 kinase A; RPS6KB1/p70S6K: ribosomal protein S6 kinase B1; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; WT: wild type.

4.
J Crit Care ; 54: 94-98, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401543

RESUMO

PURPOSE: DNA and RNA oxidative damage occurs during sepsis. Higher urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels (from oxidation of guanosine from DNA) have been found in non-surviving patients than in surviving septic patients. However, the relation between DNA and RNA oxidative damage and mortality in septic patients has never been published; thus, the objective of this study was to determine the existence of this association. METHODS: This prospective and observational study including septic patients was conducted in 8 Spanish Intensive Care Units. Serum concentrations of the three oxidizied guanine species (OGS) (8-OHdG from DNA, 8-hydroxyguanosine from RNA, and 8-hydroxyguanine from DNA or RNA) were determined, and malondialdehyde (to estimate lipid peroxidation) in the diagnosis of sepsis. Mortality at 30 days was the end-point study. RESULTS: Non-surviving patients (n = 78) compared to surviving patients (n = 139) showed higher serum concentrations of OGS (p = .004) and malondialdehyde (p < .001). Simultaneously, an association between serum OGS concentrations and mortality in logistic regression analysis was found (OR = 1.105; 95% CI = 1.024-1.193; p = .01), and a positive correlation between serum levels of OGS and malondialdehyde (rho = 0.21; p = .002). CONCLUSIONS: The new findings from our study were that oxidative DNA and RNA damage in septic patients was associated with mortality and lipid peroxidation.

5.
Neurocrit Care ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The hyperoxidative state in traumatic brain injury (TBI) could produce oxidative damage on the ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Oxidative damage to nucleic acids in TBI patients has been studied, and higher concentrations of 8-OHdG were found in postmortem brain samples of subjects who died following TBI than in subjects who died from sudden cardiac death. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine whether there is an association between serum DNA and RNA oxidative damage and mortality in TBI patients. METHODS: We included patients with severe isolated TBI defined as a lower score than 9 points in the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and lower than 9 points in non-cranial aspects in the Injury Severity Score. We determined serum concentrations of the three oxidized guanine species (OGS) (8-OHdG from DNA, 8-hydroxyguanosine from RNA, and 8-hydroxyguanine from DNA or RNA) and malondialdehyde (to estimate lipid peroxidation) on the day of TBI. Mortality at 30 days was the end-point study. RESULTS: We found higher serum concentrations of OGS (p < 0.001) and malondialdehyde (p < 0.001) in non-surviving (n = 34) than in surviving patients (n = 90), an association between serum OGS levels and 30-day mortality after control for CGS, age, and computed tomography findings (OR = 1.397; 95% CI = 1.137-1.716; p = 0.001), and a positive correlation between serum levels of OGS and malondialdehyde (rho = 0.24; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, our study is the largest series reporting data on DNA oxidative damage in TBI patients and is the first reporting DNA and RNA oxidative damage in TBI patients associating lipid peroxidation and mortality.

6.
Biomater Sci ; 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463512

RESUMO

Immunomodulatory biomaterials have emerged as a promising approach to engineer wound healing. To achieve this task, the bioactivity of the biomaterials and an easy application are two key desirable characteristics. This work reports an injectable gel system containing immune cells primed for wound healing. By combining the self-assembly of type I collagen, cross-linked with trifunctional oligourethanes, and silica particle entrapment, the structured collagen network acts as a delivery vehicle for macrophages. This structured collagen network primes the macrophages for an anti-inflammatory response. Rheological measurements suggest that the mixture of liquid precursors can be safely stored at low temperatures and low pH (4 °C, pH 3) for at least one month. After pH neutralization and injection, gels with a storage modulus of 50-80 Pa are obtained in five minutes. Several immunocytochemistry and ELISA tests strongly suggest that mouse and human macrophages are stimulated by the material to up-regulate the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, while down-regulating the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The injection of gel in an ex vivo inflammation model of intervertebral discs demonstrated that it is possible to transit from a pro-inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory microenvironment. Altogether, the results suggest that this gel can polarize the macrophage response and promote a surrounding anti-inflammatory microenvironment ready for injection for wound healing applications.

8.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 34(4): 376-384, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31258107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Within out-of-hospital emergencies, primary health care (PHC) nurses must face life-threatening emergencies (LTEs), which are defined as "a situation associated with an imminent life risk that entails the start-up of resources and special means to resolve the situation." OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to know the training received for out-of-hospital LTEs by PHC nurses of Asturias, Spain and the perception they have about their theoretical knowledge and practical skills in a series of emergency procedures or techniques used in LTE emergencies; as well as to analyze the differences according to the geographical area of their work. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, descriptive, and observational study was conducted in 2018 of a sample of PHC service nurses of Asturias, Spain. METHODS: A total of 236 nurses from PHC service centers of Asturias, Spain, from among the total of 730 nurses who make up the staff of nurses of the PHC service of Asturias, between April and May 2018, were surveyed. The survey was designed ad hoc using the Doctrinal Body of Emergency Nursing (DBEN) proposed by the Spanish Society of Emergency Medicine (SEMES; Madrid, Spain), which indicates the theoretical and practical procedures that must be acquired by the PHC nurses. It is composed of 37 procedures or techniques employed in LTEs using an 11-point Likert scale rating to detect their self-perception about theoretical knowledge and practical skills from zero ("Minimum") to ten ("Maximum"). RESULTS: There were significant differences in the mean of theoretical knowledge and practical skills in many procedures or techniques studied, depending on the different areas of work. CONCLUSIONS: All PHC nurses must be perfectly trained to provide initial quality assistance to the LTE, with both theoretical and practical knowledge of the different techniques, so that it can continue to be attended by the corresponding Emergency Service.

9.
Emergencias ; 31(3): 161-166, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210447

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore whether episodes of exposure to atmospheric Saharan dust is a risk factor for hospitalization in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) attended in a hospital emergency department (ED). METHODS: Single-center retrospective study of patients with AHF. The cohort was analyzed in 2 groups: ED patients hospitalized with AHF and patients discharged home from the ED. Air pollution on the 5 days leading to ED admission for AHF was recorded as the average concentration of breathable particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of no more than 10 µm (PM10) in the following ranges: fine PM (diameter less than 2.5 µm) or coarse PM (diameters between 2.5 and 10 µm). High Saharan dust pollution exposure was defined by mean daily PM10 concentrations between 50 and 200 µg/m3. Multivariable analysis was used to estimate risk for AHF in relation to PM10 exposure in the 5 days before the ED visit. RESULTS: A total of 1097 patients with AHF were treated in the ED; 318 of them (29%) were hospitalized and 779 (71%) were discharged home. Hospitalized patients were older, had more concomitant illnesses, and more episodes of exposure to Saharan dust (P < .0001). Multivariable analysis confirmed the association between Saharan dust exposure and hospital admission in these patients (odds ratio, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.21-4.58; P = .01). CONCLUSION: In the absence of prospective studies, the results of this series suggest that exposure to high levels of Saharan dust (PM10 concentrations between 50 and 200 µg/m3) may be a precipitating factor for hospitalization in AHF episodes.

11.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 31(3): 161-166, jun. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: ibc-ET2-1931

RESUMO

Objetivo: Evaluar si la exposición a episodios de polvo sahariano predice los ingresos hospitalarios de los pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca aguda (ICA) atendidos en un servicio de urgencias hospitalario (SUH). Método: Estudio unicéntrico, de cohorte retrospectiva, de pacientes con ICA atendidos en un SUH. La población de estudio se dividió en 2 grupos: pacientes ingresados por ICA y pacientes con ICA dados de alta directa a domicilio desde el SUH. Se analizaron las concentraciones medias de material partículado (PMx) (respirables, diámetro aerodinámico, da < 10 µm), PM2,5 (finas, da < 2,5 µm) y PM2,5-10 (gruesas, da 2,5-10 µm) desde el día de la llegada al SUH hasta 5 días previos. Se definió exposición intensa al polvo sahariano cuando las concentraciones medias diarias de PM10 estaban entre 50 y 200 µg/m3. La relación para estimar el riesgo de ingresar por ICA en función de la exposición de PMx durante los 5 días previos a su llegada a urgencias se analizó mediante análisis multivariable. Resultados: Se incluyeron 1.097 pacientes con ICA, ingresaron 318 pacientes (29%), 779 (71%) se dieron de alta. Los pacientes ingresados por ICA tenían mayor edad, elevada comorbilidad y mayor proporción de pacientes expuestos a episodios intensos de polvo sahariano (p < 0,0001). En el análisis multivariable la exposición a episodios de polvo sahariano intensos se relacionó con el ingreso hospitalario en los pacientes con ICA (OR = 2,36; IC 95% 1,21-4,58; p = 0,01). Conclusiones: En ausencia de estudios prospectivos, los resultados obtenidos de la serie analizada sugieren que la presencia de concentraciones elevadas de polvo sahariano (PM10: 50-200 µg/m3) puede constituir un factor precipitante de ingreso por ICA


Objective: To explore whether episodes of exposure to atmospheric Saharan dust is a risk factor for hospitalization in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) attended in a hospital emergency department (ED). Methods: Single-center retrospective study of patients with AHF. The cohort was analyzed in 2 groups: ED patients hospitalized with AHF and patients discharged home from the ED. Air pollution on the 5 days leading to ED admission for AHF was recorded as the average concentration of breathable particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of no more than 10 µm (PM10) in the following ranges: fine PM (diameter less than 2.5 µm) or coarse PM (diameters between 2.5 and 10 µm). High Saharan dust pollution exposure was defined by mean daily PM10 concentrations between 50 and 200 µg/m3. Multivariable analysis was used to estimate risk for AHF in relation to PM10 exposure in the 5 days before the ED visit. Results: A total of 1097 patients with AHF were treated in the ED; 318 of them (29%) were hospitalized and 779 (71%) were discharged home. Hospitalized patients were older, had more concomitant illnesses, and more episodes of exposure to Saharan dust (P < .0001). Multivariable analysis confirmed the association between Saharan dust exposure and hospital admission in these patients (odds ratio, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.21-4.58; P = .01). Conclusions: In the absence of prospective studies, the results of this series suggest that exposure to high levels of Saharan dust (PM10 concentrations between 50 and 200 µg/m3) may be a precipitating factor for hospitalization in AHF episodes

12.
Breast J ; 25(4): 654-662, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087408

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of ductography in conjunction with mammography and ultrasound in patients with pathologic nipple discharge, and the incremental role of MRI after triple-modality evaluation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who had presented with pathologic nipple discharge and had undergone mammography and/or ultrasound and ductography between January 1, 2005, and October 31, 2010. We tested the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of combined triple-modality evaluation as well as of MRI performed in addition to these imaging techniques. We used the gold standard of image-guided biopsies, surgical excision, or long-term clinical and imaging follow-up. RESULTS: Among 94 study patients, benign papillomas were identified in 42 (44.7%), abscess in one (1%), duct ectasia in four (4.3%), and malignancy (invasive ductal carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ) or high-risk lesion (atypical ductal hyperplasia) in 10 (10.6%). Forty-six patients (49%) underwent surgical excision; 89.1% of which had presurgical planning with ductography. In 35 (37.2%) with negative imaging, resolution of nipple discharge was confirmed on median clinical and imaging follow-up of 36 months. Two patients with negative imaging were lost to follow-up. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for accurately demonstrating the etiology of pathologic nipple discharge were 13%, 97%, 89%, and 37% respectively for mammography; 73%, 97%, 98%, and 64% respectively for ultrasound; 76%, 72%, 84%, and 61% respectively for ductography; 86%, 70%, 85%, and 72% respectively for combined ultrasound and ductography; and 75%, 100%, 100% and 67% respectively for DCE-MRI. CONCLUSION: The combination of mammography, ultrasound and ductography is highly accurate for identifying the etiology of pathologic nipple discharge. DCE-MRI can be used as an alternate to ductography if necessary.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(7)2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959735

RESUMO

Melatonin administration has been associated with different benefits in animals and patients suffering from liver diseases. However, there is no published data about circulating melatonin levels in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who underwent liver transplantation (LT). Thus, the objective of this observational and retrospective study was to determine whether patients with HCC with lower serum melatonin levels prior to LT have a higher risk of one-year mortality after LT. We measured serum levels of melatonin, malondialdehyde (to assess lipid peroxidation), and total antioxidant capacity (to assess antioxidant state) before LT. One-year surviving LT patients (n = 129) showed higher serum levels of melatonin (p = 0.001) and total antioxidant capacity (p = 0.001) and lower serum levels of malondialheyde (p = 0.01) than non-surviving LT patients (n = 16). Logistic regression analysis showed that high serum melatonin levels prior to LT were associated with lower one-year LT mortality (odds ratio = 0.525; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.331⁻0.834; p = 0.006). We found an association between serum levels of melatonin with serum levels of malondialheyde (rho = -0.22; p = 0.01) and total antioxidant capacity (rho = 0.21; p = 0.01). Thus, the novel findings of our study were the association between high serum melatonin levels prior to LT and survival at first year after LT and the association between serum levels of melatonin with malondialheyde and total antioxidant capacity.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Transplante de Fígado/mortalidade , Melatonina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(4)2019 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813277

RESUMO

Although maritime transport is the backbone of world commerce, its digitalization lags significantly behind when we consider some basic facts. This work verifies the state-of-the-art as it currently applies to eight digital domains: Autonomous vehicles and robotics; artificial intelligence; big data; virtual reality, augmented and mixed reality; internet of things; the cloud and edge computing; digital security; and 3D printing and additive engineering. It also provides insight into each of the three sectors into which this industry has been divided: Ship design and shipbuilding; shipping; and ports. The work, based on a systematic literature review, demonstrates that there are domains on which almost no formal study has been done thus far and concludes that there are major areas that require attention in terms of research. It also illustrates the increasing interest on the subject, arising from the necessity of raising the maritime transport industry to the same level of digitalization as other industries.

18.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(1): 64-67, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927400

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Seasonal influenza causes high morbidity worldwide and high mortality in developing countries. As a result, the development of systems for seasonal influenza surveillance has been of great interest. The aim of this study is to explore the potential role of an Emergency Medical System (EMS) call centre to complement traditional surveillance systems of seasonal influenza. METHODS: Retrospective observational study in which data on influenza from the system of Notifiable Diseases List (Spanish acronym EDO) and Sentinel Physicians Network (Spanish acronym RMC) were compared with information on calls made to the Principality of Asturias EMS call centre that covers all the region population (1,027,659 inhabitants) based on a set of specific criteria to determine differences and explore this emergency call system as a complementary epidemiological surveillance system. Cases registered by different systems have been compared to the same 68 weeks period, from week 45 of 2011 to week 8 of 2013. RESULTS: RMC reported a total of 2,354 cases of influenza, EDO 43,071 cases and EMS call centre 4,360 "case calls" out of 180,720 total emergency calls. Case series of EDO and EMS call centre have shown a positive correlation (R = 0.42, p = 0.003). Case series from EMS call centre and RMC were correlated (R = 0.38, p = 0.007). Case series from EDO and RMC have shown a strong positive correlation (R = 0.91, p < 0.001). Correlation analysis of the cases reported by the three systems have shown a significant positive correlation between them (p < 0.001). The spike of EMS calls related to the studied influenza syndrome occurs one week in advance compared to traditional epidemiological surveillance systems. CONCLUSIONS: EMS call centre data on influenza could be potentially used as a complementary surveillance system to the traditional epidemiological surveillance systems for influenza.


Assuntos
Call Centers , Sistemas de Comunicação entre Serviços de Emergência , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Influenza Humana , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano
20.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 17: 60-65, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797084

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) in the outpatient setting has potential advantages. We performed a subanalysis of outcomes for patients treated as outpatients versus inpatients with dalbavancin, a long-acting lipoglycopeptide, in a phase 3 clinical trial of ABSSSI. METHODS: The study was a double-blind trial of patients with ABSSSI randomised to receive dalbavancin 1500 mg intravenously as a single dose or two doses (1000 mg followed by 500 mg a week later). The primary endpoint was ≥20% reduction in erythema at 48-72 h after the start of therapy. Patient satisfaction and preference for antibiotic treatment and care setting were measured using the 10-item Skin and Soft Tissue Infection (SSTI) questionnaire at Day 14. RESULTS: A total of 698 patients were randomised (386 treated as outpatients and 312 as inpatients). Outpatients were more likely to be younger and to have major abscess or traumatic wound infection; inpatients were more likely to have cellulitis as the type of ABSSSI, to meet SIRS criteria and to have elevated plasma lactate at baseline. Efficacy and safety outcomes at 48-72 h, Days 14 and 28 were similar between patients treated in the outpatient and inpatient setting with either the single-dose or two-dose regimen. Outpatients reported significantly greater convenience and satisfaction with antibiotic treatment and care setting compared with inpatients (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Single-dose dalbavancin is an effective treatment option for outpatients with ABSSSI and is associated with a high degree of patient treatment satisfaction and convenience.

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