Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 326
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0227984, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023279

RESUMO

Human presence on the Yucatán Peninsula reaches back to the Late Pleistocene. Osteological evidence comes from submerged caves and sinkholes (cenotes) near Tulum in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. Here we report on a new skeleton discovered by us in the Chan Hol underwater cave, dating to a minimum age of 9.9±0.1 ky BP based on 230Th/U-dating of flowstone overlying and encrusting human phalanges. This is the third Paleoindian human skeleton with mesocephalic cranial characteristics documented by us in the cave, of which a male individual named Chan Hol 2 described recently is one of the oldest human skeletons found on the American continent. The new discovery emphasizes the importance of the Chan Hol cave and other systems in the Tulum area for understanding the early peopling of the Americas. The new individual, here named Chan Hol 3, is a woman of about 30 years of age with three cranial traumas. There is also evidence for a possible trepanomal bacterial disease that caused severe alteration of the posterior parietal and occipital bones of the cranium. This is the first time that the presence of such disease is reported in a Paleoindian skeleton in the Americas. All ten early skeletons found so far in the submerged caves from the Yucatán Peninsula have mesocephalic cranial morphology, different to the dolicocephalic morphology for Paleoindians from Central Mexico with equivalent dates. This supports the presence of two morphologically different Paleoindian populations for Mexico, coexisting in different geographical areas during the Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene.

2.
J Chem Neuroanat ; 104: 101745, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945411

RESUMO

Immunostaining for calbindin (CB) is commonly used to label particular populations of neurons. Recently, it has been shown that the CA1 pyramidal cells in the mouse can be subdivided along the radial axis into superficial and deep pyramidal cells and that this segregation in the radial axis may represent a general principle of structural and functional organization of the hippocampus. One of the most widely used markers of the superficial pyramidal cells is CB. However, this laminar segregation of pyramidal cells has not been reported in the human CA1 using CB immunostaining. The problem is that the different pattern of CB immunostaining observed in the mouse compared to the human could be explained by technical features, of which one of the most important is the postmortem time (PT) delay typical of the brain tissue obtained from humans. In the present study, we have studied the influences of PT delays and fixation procedures and we found that the clear differences found between the CA1 of the human and mouse do not depend on the fixation, but represent actual species-specific differences. These remarkable differences between species should be taken into consideration when making interpretations in translational studies from mouse to human brains.

3.
J Comp Neurol ; 528(4): 523-541, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512254

RESUMO

Secretagogin (SCGN) is a recently discovered calcium-binding protein belonging to the group of EF-hand calcium-binding proteins. SCGN immunostaining has been described in various regions of the human, rat and mouse brain. In these studies, it has been reported that, in general, the patterns of SCGN staining differ between rodents and human brains. These differences have been interpreted as uncovering phylogenetic differences in SCGN expression. Nevertheless, an important aspect that is not usually taken into account is that different methods are used for obtaining and processing brain tissue coming from humans and experimental animals. This is a critical issue since it has been shown that post-mortem time delay and the method of fixation (i.e., perfused vs. nonperfused brains) may influence the results of the immunostaining. Thus, it is not clear whether differences found in comparative studies with the human brain are simply due to technical factors or species-specific differences. In the present study, we analyzed the pattern of SCGN immunostaining in the adult human hippocampal formation (DG, CA1, CA2, CA3, subiculum, presubiculum, and parasubiculum) as well as in the entorhinal and perirhinal cortices. This pattern of immunostaining was compared with rat and mouse that were fixed either by perfusion or immersion and with different post-mortem time delays (up to 5 hr) to mimic the way the human brain tissue is usually processed. We found a number of clear similarities and differences in the pattern of labeling among the human, rat, and mouse in these brain regions as well as between the different brain regions examined within each species. These differences were not due to the fixation.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5448, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784514

RESUMO

Amphisomes are organelles of the autophagy pathway that result from the fusion of autophagosomes with late endosomes. While biogenesis of autophagosomes and late endosomes occurs continuously at axon terminals, non-degradative roles of autophagy at boutons are barely described. Here, we show that in neurons BDNF/TrkB traffick in amphisomes that signal locally at presynaptic boutons during retrograde transport to the soma. This is orchestrated by the Rap GTPase-activating (RapGAP) protein SIPA1L2, which connects TrkB amphisomes to a dynein motor. The autophagosomal protein LC3 regulates RapGAP activity of SIPA1L2 and controls retrograde trafficking and local signaling of TrkB. Following induction of presynaptic plasticity, amphisomes dissociate from dynein at boutons enabling local signaling and promoting transmitter release. Accordingly, sipa1l2 knockout mice show impaired BDNF-dependent presynaptic plasticity. Taken together, the data suggest that in hippocampal neurons, TrkB-signaling endosomes are in fact amphisomes that during retrograde transport have local signaling capacity in the context of presynaptic plasticity.

5.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 52(3): 47-52, 20191201.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1026617

RESUMO

En el mundo hay unos 50 millones de personas con epilepsia. En países de ingresos bajos y medianos sugieren una proporción mucho mayor, entre 7 y 14 por 1000 personas. Las poblaciones pobres y las que viven en situaciones de vulnerabilidad, en particular en los países de ingresos bajos y medianos, soportan una carga desproporcionadamente alta; lo que supone una amenaza para la salud pública y el desarrollo económico y social. 1 Por el que el propósito de estudio fue conocer la característica epidemiológica de esta población. Se analizaron 281 fichas de pacientes con epilepsia, en un periodo de dos años, comprendidos entre 16 y 91 años. Resultados: 51.9% corresponde al sexo masculino y el 48.1% al femenino. El 63,34% presentó crisis focal. El 59,2 de los casos de epilepsia, se acompañan de trastornos psiquiátricos. Solo el 5% ha afirmado haber padecido algún efecto adverso a la medicación. Se desconoce la causa de epilepsia en un 58,58%. Dentro las causas de epilepsia secundaria; el Accidente Cerebro Vascular (ACV) se encuentra en un 22.4%. Llamativamente el 30.2% de los pacientes no cuenta con estudio de imagen de encéfalo. El 41.93% presentó crisis con el tratamiento, pero el 50% de los pacientes realiza tratamiento de forma irregular. El 53,73% presentaba tratamiento con un único fármaco anticonvulsivante, siendo la Carbamacepina la más utilizada. Conclusión: La Epilepsia tiene una alta prevalencia dentro de los desórdenes neurológicos. Afecta al sexo masculino de forma más importante, siendo la crisis focal la más frecuente. La baja asociación con trastornos psiquiátricos encontrados; nos obliga a hacer hincapié a ser más exhaustivos en la búsqueda de estos. En un alto porcentaje se desconoce la causa. Las causas más frecuentes de epilepsia secundaria fueron ACV y Traumatismo de Cráneo. Un porcentaje considerable continúan con crisis por incumpliendo del tratamiento. La Carbamacepina, el Ácido Valproico y la Fenitoína son los más utilizados, debidos a los costos y accesibilidad de los mismos, se deben establecer esfuerzos para proponer estrategias de intervención, para facilitar el seguimiento de los pacientes y que estos se puedan también beneficiar de nuevos fármacos anticonvulsivantes.


In the world there are about 50 million people with epilepsy. In low and middle income countries they suggest a much higher proportion, between 7 and 14 per 1000 people. Poor populations and those living in vulnerable situations, particularly in low and middle income countries, carry a disproportionately high burden; which poses a threat to public health and economic and social development. 1 Whereby the purpose of the study was to know the epidemiological characteristic of this population. Were analyzed 281 records of patients with epilepsy, over a period of two years, between 16 and 91 years. Results: 51.9% correspond to the male sex and 48.1% to the female. 63.34% presented focal crisis. 59.2 of epilepsy cases are accompanied by psychiatric disorders. Only 5% have claimed to have suffered any adverse effect to the medication. The cause of epilepsy in 58.58% is unknown. Within the causes of secondary epilepsy; Stroke is 22.4%. Notably, the 30.2% of patients do not have a brain imaging study; 41.93% presented a crisis with treatment, but 50% of patients performed irregular treatment. 53.73% had treatment with a single anticonvulsant drug, with Carbamazepine being the most used. Conclusion: Epilepsy has a high prevalence within neurological disorders. It affects the male sex more importantly, with the focal crisis being the most frequent. The low association with psychiatric disorders found; it forces us to emphasize being more exhaustive in the search for these. The cause is unknown in a high percentage. The most frequent causes of secondary epilepsy were CVA and Skull Trauma. A considerable percentage continue with crisis due to non-compliance with treatment. Carbamazepine, Valproic Acid and Phenytoin are the most used, due to their costs and accessibility, efforts should be established to propose intervention strategies, to facilitate the monitoring of patients and so that they can also benefit from new anticonvulsant drugs.

6.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 52(3): 97-100, 20191201.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1026777

RESUMO

El Dengue es una infección por arbovirus, con baja incidencia de asociación con síntomas neurológicos. Las presentaciones incluyen encefalopatía, síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB), debilidad motora aguda, convulsiones, entre otras (1). En el 2018, en Paraguay, se registraron un total de 33.258 casos compatibles con dengue (9), pero no existen datos estadísticos de afectación neurológica. Por lo que consideramos reconocer esta afectación, como marcador de gravedad de la enfermedad. Se relaciona con alta tasa de mortalidad y/o secuelas. A continuación, tres casos masculinos con este padecimiento, de los cuales, recibieron Inmunoglulina con recuperación total en dos de los tres casos, por lo que es muy importante establecer el tratamiento de forma oportuna.


Dengue is an arbovirus infection, with a low incidence of association with neurological symptoms. Presentations include encephalopathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), acute motor weakness, seizures, among others (1). In 2018, in Paraguay, a total of 33,258 cases consistent with dengue (9) were registered, but there are no statistical data on involvement neurological. For what, we consider to recognize this affectation, as a marker of severity of the disease. It is related to high mortality rate and / or sequelae. Then, three male cases with this condition, of which, they received Immunoglulin with total recovery in two of the three cases. It is very important to establish the treatment in a timely manner.

7.
Metas enferm ; 22(10): 5-13, dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185326

RESUMO

Objetivo: identificar las competencias necesarias para desempeñar el rol de gestora enfermera en España en cada uno de los niveles funcionales. Metodología: partiendo de la realización de una revisión bibliográfica de la literatura especializada se diseñó un estudio Delphi estructurado en cuatro rondas para consensuar las competencias necesarias para la gestora enfermera. Resultados: se obtuvo el consenso de 51 competencias, distribuidas en seis dominios. El nivel de experto se alcanza mediante estudios de máster y doctorado. La gestora enfermera tiene que desarrollar sus competencias al nivel de competente, muy competente y experto. El 96% de los integrantes del panel manifestó que para alcanzar el nivel de experto es necesario desarrollar estudios de máster o doctorado. El 60,78% de las competencias de la gestora enfermera de alta dirección debe ser desarrollada al nivel de experto mediante el desarrollo de estudios de máster, experto universitario y especialización universitaria, frente al 9,8% de la dirección logística y al 21,57% de las competencias requeridas para la dirección operativa. Para el nivel de competente serán necesarios estudios de experto, especialista universitario y formación continuada. Conclusiones: el modelo de competencias para la gestora enfermera en España se compone de 51 competencias, de las cuales ocho son básicas. De los resultados se evidencia el grado de desarrollo para cada competencia, y la formación requerida para alcanzar este grado


Objective: to identify the skills needed to play the role of Nurse Manager in Spain at each function level. Methodology: based on a bibliographic review conducted in specialized literature, a Delphi study was designed, structured into four rounds, in order to reach a consensus about the skills needed by the Nurse Manager. Results: a consensus was reached about 51 skills, classified into six domains. The level expert is achieved through master and doctorate courses. Nurse Managers must develop their skills at the following levels: Competent, Very Competent and Expert. Out of the panel members, 96% declared that in order to reach the expert level it is necessary to acquire master or doctorate degrees; 60.78% of the skills of the High Management Nurse Manager must be developed at Expert level, through Master, University Expert and University Specialty degrees, vs. 9.8% of logistical management and 21.57% of skills required for operational management. The Competent level requires Expert, University Specialist and Continuous Education degrees. Conclusions: the competency model for the Nurse Manager in Spain consists of 51 skills, including eight basic skills. The level of development for each skill is shown in results, as well as the training required to achieve said degree


Assuntos
Humanos , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Enfermeiras Administradoras , Educação Continuada em Enfermagem/tendências , Supervisão de Enfermagem , Técnica Delfos , Consenso , Administração Sanitária
8.
Proc Biol Sci ; 286(1912): 20191527, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594511

RESUMO

Variation in disease incidence in wildlife is often assumed to reflect environmental or demographic changes acting on an endemic pathogen. However, apparent endemicity might instead arise from spatial processes that are challenging to identify from traditional data sources including time series and field studies. Here, we analysed longitudinal sequence data collected from rabies virus outbreaks over 14 years in Costa Rica, a Central American country that has recorded continuous vampire bat-transmitted rabies outbreaks in humans and livestock since 1985. We identified five phylogenetically distinct lineages which shared most recent common ancestors with viruses from North and South America. Bayesian phylogeographic reconstructions supported bidirectional viral dispersals involving countries to the north and south of Costa Rica at different time points. Within Costa Rica, viruses showed little contemporaneous spatial overlap and no lineage was detected across all years of surveillance. Statistical models suggested that lineage disappearances were more likely to be explained by viral extinctions than undetected viral circulation. Our results highlight the importance of international viral dispersal for shaping the burden of rabies in Costa Rica, suggest a Central American corridor of rabies virus invasions between continents, and show that apparent disease endemicity may arise through recurrent pathogen extinctions and reinvasions which can be readily detected in relatively small datasets by joining phylodynamic and modelling approaches.

9.
J Neurosci ; 39(45): 8900-8915, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548234

RESUMO

Spontaneous correlated activity in cortical columns is critical for postnatal circuit refinement. We used spatial discrimination techniques to explore the late maturation of synaptic pathways through the laminar distribution of the field potential (FP) generators underlying spontaneous and evoked activities of the S1HL cortex in juvenile (P14-P16) and adult anesthetized rats. Juveniles exhibit an intermittent FP pattern resembling Up/Down states in adults, but with much reduced power and different laminar distribution. Whereas FPs in active periods are dominated by a layer VI generator in juveniles, in adults a developing multipart generator takes over, displaying current sinks in middle layers (III-V). The blockade of excitatory transmission in upper and middle layers of adults recovered the juvenile-like FP profiles. In addition to the layer VI generator, a gamma-specific generator in supragranular layers was the same in both age groups. While searching for dynamical coupling among generators in juveniles we found significant cross-correlation in ∼one-half of the tested pairs, whereas excessive coherence hindered their efficient separation in adults. Also, potentials evoked by tactile and electrical stimuli showed different short-latency dipoles between the two age groups, and the juveniles lacked the characteristic long latency UP state currents in middle layers. In addition, the mean firing rate of neurons was lower in juveniles. Thus, cortical FPs originate from different intra-columnar segments as they become active postnatally. We suggest that although some cortical segments are active early postnatally, a functional sensory-motor control relies on a delayed maturation and network integration of synaptic connections in middle layers.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Early postnatal activity in the rodent cortex is mostly endogenous, whereas it becomes driven by peripheral input at later stages. The precise schedule for the maturation of synaptic pathways is largely unknown. We explored this in the somatosensory hindlimb cortex at an age when animals begin to use their limbs by uncovering the laminar distribution of the field potential generators underlying the dominant delta waves in juveniles and adults. Our results suggest that field potentials are mostly generated by a pathway in deep layers, whereas other pathways mature later in middle layers and take over in adults. We suggest that a functional sensory-motor control relies on a delayed maturation and network integration of synaptic connections in middle layers.

10.
Viruses ; 11(9)2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487820

RESUMO

The capsid domain (CA) of the lentiviral Gag polyproteins has two distinct roles during virion morphogenesis. As a domain of Gag, it mediates the Gag-Gag interactions that drive immature particle assembly, whereas as a mature protein, it self-assembles into the conical core of the mature virion. Lentiviral CA proteins are composed of an N-terminal region with seven α-helices and a C-terminal domain (CA-CTD) formed by four α-helices. Structural studies performed in HIV-1 indicate that the CA-CTD helix 9 establishes homodimeric interactions that contribute to the formation of the hexameric Gag lattice in immature virions. Interestingly, the mature CA core also shows inter-hexameric associations involving helix 9 residues W184 and M185. The CA proteins of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) exhibit, at equivalent positions in helix 9, the motifs Y176/L177 and L169/F170, respectively. In this paper, we investigated the relevance of the Y176/L177 motif for FIV assembly by introducing a series of amino acid substitutions into this sequence and studying their effect on in vivo and in vitro Gag assembly, CA oligomerization, mature virion production, and viral infectivity. Our results demonstrate that the Y176/L177 motif in FIV CA helix 9 is essential for Gag assembly and CA oligomerization. Notably, mutations converting the FIV CA Y176/L177 motif into the HIV-1 WM and EIAV FL sequences allow substantial particle production and viral replication in feline cells.

11.
ACS Omega ; 4(7): 12300-12307, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460347

RESUMO

The activity of diethyl phosphite and diphenyl phosphate in propargylation reactions with N-nucleophiles of varying basicity is presented. A careful choice of the reaction conditions minimized undesired rearrangements and arylation processes, typical side reactions with Brønsted acid catalysis. These systems are compatible with technical solvents and presence of air, and they are also applicable to C-, O-, and S-nucleophiles.

12.
J Phys Act Health ; : 1-19, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In response to growing concerns over high levels of physical inactivity among young people, the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance developed a series of national Report Cards on physical activity for children and youth to advocate for the promotion of physical activity. This article provides updated evidence of the impact of the Report Cards on powering the movement to get children and youth moving globally. METHODS: This assessment was performed using quantitative and qualitative sources of information, including surveys, peer-reviewed publications, e-mails, gray literature, and other sources. RESULTS: Although it is still too early to observe a positive change in physical activity levels among children and youth, an impact on raising awareness and capacity building in the national and international scientific community, disseminating information to the general population and stakeholders, and on powering the movement to get kids moving has been observed. CONCLUSIONS: It is hoped that the Report Card activities will initiate a measurable shift in the physical activity levels of children and contribute to achieving the 4 strategic objectives of the World Health Organization Global Action Plan as follows: creating an active society, creating active environments, creating active lives, and creating active systems.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; 694: 133646, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390577

RESUMO

Tap water mistrust has adverse impacts on health and welfare. This study identifies, defines and motivates attention to cases of mistrust of tap water which originate between the treatment plant and the tap where people ultimately consume it. Between treatment and the tap, water quality contamination can be introduced within two segments of the built environment with two distinct responsible parties- community water system's distributional networks and property owner's premise plumbing. This contamination is considered secondary from a health perspective but elevates consumer concern. We use examples from Los Angeles County, an area with high resident tap water mistrust especially among disadvantaged communities, despite there being relatively few health-related water quality violations. We triangulate evidence from primary and secondary sources to illustrate how such water quality concerns occur. We identify potential solutions to address concerns using a series of case studies of communities with high levels of tap water mistrust, a stakeholder workshop and associated working group on premise plumbing concerns, and customer concern data from the city of Los Angeles' water system. Findings suggest that there are numerous instances where the distributional network, and secondarily premise plumbing, introduce water quality contamination which contributes to tap mistrust in urban communities by making water unclean, but not necessarily unsafe per existing regulation. In cases where water systems' distributional networks have introduced water quality contamination, responses to assuage concerns have largely rested upon pressure from the press and advocates. Premise plumbing issues have been harder to address. Our study suggests that an evidence-based path forward to comprehensively addressing these issues involves new requirements for systems to report quality contamination in distributional networks and incentives for property owners to upgrade premise plumbing. Moreover, this study reasserts that infrastructure neglect contributes to rational, but costly decision-making by disadvantaged urban communities to consume tap alternatives.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Engenharia Sanitária , Purificação da Água , Los Angeles , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água
14.
Int J Occup Saf Ergon ; : 1-12, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343392

RESUMO

Purpose. The aim of this work was to analyze the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal symptoms in laboratory technicians and their relation to personal and organizational factors, as well as the lack of specific training on work-related risks. Methods. A standardized Nordic questionnaire made for the Spanish population and a survey of sociodemographic variables and organizational aspects were applied to a sample of 460 Spanish laboratory technicians. The statistical analysis was done through R version 3.4.3. Results. Of the sample studied, 84.5% presented some musculoskeletal discomfort, with a higher percentage in women. The probability of having discomfort was eight times higher for those older than 46 years and the most affected part of the body was the neck. The variables that were associated more significantly with the probability to suffer discomfort in the most affected parts of the body (neck, right shoulder and right wrist) were gender, education level, prevention knowledge and seniority. Conclusions. It is necessary to implement plans to train in specific risks according to the activities done by these professionals.

15.
Cereb Cortex ; 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268532

RESUMO

Pyramidal neurons are the most common cell type and are considered the main output neuron in most mammalian forebrain structures. In terms of function, differences in the structure of the dendrites of these neurons appear to be crucial in determining how neurons integrate information. To further shed light on the structure of the human pyramidal neurons we investigated the geometry of pyramidal cells in the human and mouse CA1 region-one of the most evolutionary conserved archicortical regions, which is critically involved in the formation, consolidation, and retrieval of memory. We aimed to assess to what extent neurons corresponding to a homologous region in different species have parallel morphologies. Over 100 intracellularly injected and 3D-reconstructed cells across both species revealed that dendritic and axonal morphologies of human cells are not only larger but also have structural differences, when compared to mouse. The results show that human CA1 pyramidal cells are not a stretched version of mouse CA1 cells. These results indicate that there are some morphological parameters of the pyramidal cells that are conserved, whereas others are species-specific.

16.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(7): e1900125, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241852

RESUMO

The essential oil composition of the aerial parts of Artemisia magellanica Sch. Bip. (Asteraceae), native to Patagonia, was analyzed by GC-FID-MS. This is the first report on the essential oil composition of A. magellanica. A total of 113 components were identified accounting for 95.6-95.7 % of the oil. The essential oil was characterized by a high percentage of γ-costol (21.0-43.5 %), selina-4,11-diene, (Z)-ß-ocimene, (E)-ß-farnesene, (Z)-en-yn-dicycloether and 23 different esters (28.7 %). In turn, Artemisia biennis, a species native to North America, which is considered by some authors to be conspecific with A. magellanica, yielded an essential oil that was rich in (Z)-ß-ocimene (34.7 %), (E)-ß-farnesene (40.0 %) and the acetylenes (Z)- and (E)-en-yn-dicycloethers (11.0 %). Thus, as A. biennis lacks the three main components present in A. magellanica, namely γ-costol, 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutyrate and selina-4,11-diene, these compounds could be considered as potential chemical markers for A. magellanica since they are absent or only found as minor constituents in other members of the genus. The data presented herein is also useful for genus taxonomy.


Assuntos
Artemisia/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Óleos Voláteis/química , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(21): 10463-10472, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036632

RESUMO

Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is a chronic skeletal disorder that can affect one or several bones in individuals older than 55 y of age. PDB-like changes have been reported in archaeological remains as old as Roman, although accurate diagnosis and natural history of the disease is lacking. Six skeletons from a collection of 130 excavated at Norton Priory in the North West of England, which dates to medieval times, show atypical and extensive pathological changes resembling contemporary PDB affecting as many as 75% of individual skeletons. Disease prevalence in the remaining collection is high, at least 16% of adults, with age at death estimations as low as 35 y. Despite these atypical features, paleoproteomic analysis identified sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) or p62, a protein central to the pathological milieu of PDB, as one of the few noncollagenous human sequences preserved in skeletal samples. Targeted proteomic analysis detected >60% of the ancient p62 primary sequence, with Western blotting indicating p62 abnormalities, including in dentition. Direct sequencing of ancient DNA excluded contemporary PDB-associated SQSTM1 mutations. Our observations indicate that the ancient p62 protein is likely modified within its C-terminal ubiquitin-associated domain. Ancient miRNAs were remarkably preserved in an osteosarcoma from a skeleton with extensive disease, with miR-16 expression consistent with that reported in contemporary PDB-associated bone tumors. Our work displays the use of proteomics to inform diagnosis of ancient diseases such as atypical PDB, which has unusual features presumably potentiated by yet-unidentified environmental or genetic factors.

18.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0207791, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091227

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Ciclovía is a worldwide program in which streets are temporarily closed to motorized transport to create a space for recreation and outdoor play among children and adults. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between physical activity (PA), sedentary time (SED), body mass index and Ciclovía participation among children aged 9 to 13 years. METHODS: All students in the 4th and 5th grades from the selected schools were invited to participate in the study. The study included 923 children. PA and SED were measured using waist-worn accelerometers, and height and weight were measured using standardized procedures. Ciclovía participation was self-reported. The analyses included multilevel linear, generalized mixed and generalized additive models. RESULTS: The mean age of the sample was 10.1±0.7 years, and 49.5% were boys. In the last year, 46% of the children participated in the Ciclovía, and 34% reported participating frequently (at least once per month). No differences were found in the mean minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA on weekdays between frequent Ciclovía users and sporadic and non-Ciclovía users (72 vs 69; p = 0.09). In contrast, frequent Ciclovía users had higher moderate-to-vigorous PA on Sundays than sporadic and non-Ciclovía users (65.6 vs 59.2; p = 0.01), specifically between the hours of 12:00 and 16:00. In addition, frequent Ciclovía users did not differ from the sporadic and non-Ciclovía users in SED (515.3 vs 521.3; p = 0.19). Frequent Ciclovía users had lower SED on Sundays than the sporadic and non-Ciclovía users (437.7 vs 456.5; p = 0.005). Additionally, frequent Ciclovía users were more likely to be overweight (28.3% vs 20.4% p = 0.01). We did not find differences in participation by sex, and low-to-middle income children were more likely to participate. CONCLUSIONS: The Ciclovías offer an innovative, inclusive recreational space and consequently provide opportunities to increase moderate-to-vigorous PA and reduce SED among children.


Assuntos
Exercício , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Criança , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Autorrelato , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes
19.
Prog. obstet. ginecol. (Ed. impr.) ; 62(2): 141-148, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184909

RESUMO

El síndrome genitourinario de la menopausia (SGM) se definió para sustituir al término "atrofia vulvovaginal" como el conjunto de signos y síntomas genitourinarios asociados a la disminución de estrógenos. La primera línea de tratamiento para las manifestaciones vaginales del SGM son los hidratantes (evidencia IA) y lubricantes vaginales (evidencia IIB). Cuando estas medidas no son suficientes, o en casos moderados o intensos, el tratamiento de elección son los estrógenos locales (evidencia IA). Si coexisten síntomas vasomotores que afectan la calidad de vida, la indicación es el tratamiento hormonal sistémico (evidencia IA). Actualmente, se dispone de ospemifeno (evidencia IA), un modulador selectivo de los receptores vaginales de estrógenos (SERM), aprobado en Europa para el tratamiento de los síntomas moderados o graves en mujeres postmenopáusicas que no cumplen los requisitos para recibir estrógenos vaginales. Otros posibles tratamientos del SGM son el láser y la radiofrecuencia. No hay evidencia para indicar el uso de terapias alternativas y complementarias


Genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) was defined to substitute the term "vaginal atrophy" as the signs and symptoms related to reduced circulating oestrogen levels. Vaginal moisturizers (evidence IA) and vaginal lubricants (evidence IIB) are the first-line treatments. If these measures are unsatisfactory, the choice treatment is local oestrogen therapy (evidence IA). In patients with vasomotor symptoms that impair quality of life, systemic hormone replacement therapy (evidence IA) is administered. Currently, a new therapy is available: ospemifene, a selective oestrogen receptor modulator that acts at vaginal level. It is approved in Europe for the treatment of moderate to severe symptoms in postmenopausal women who are not candidate to local oestrogen therapy. Ospemifene improves vaginal histology and physiology, and it has been safe and well tolerated both in clinical trials and in post-marketing surveillance studies. Other therapies for GSM are laser therapy and radiofrequency. Alternative therapies are not recommended


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Vaginite Atrófica/prevenção & controle , Lubrificantes/uso terapêutico , Estrogênios/administração & dosagem , Agentes Molhantes/administração & dosagem , Menopausa , Doenças Urogenitais Femininas/prevenção & controle , Padrões de Prática Médica , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios
20.
Sex Med ; 7(2): 207-216, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885552

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of menopausal women with confirmed vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) oscillates between 67-98%. AIM: To assess the prevalence of postmenopausal women with VVA confirmed by gynecologic clinical assessment among all women attending menopause centers in Spain, as well as to describe the impact of VVA on quality of life and sexual functioning. METHODS: Women aged 45-75 years old with the last menstrual period >12 months before were included in a cross-sectional study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Women with ≥1 VVA symptoms filled out a number of questionnaires, including EuroQoL, Day-to-Day Impact of Vaginal Aging, Female Sexual Function Index, and Female Sexual Distress Scale-revised. A gynecologic examination was performed to confirm diagnosis. RESULTS: 1,177 evaluable patients were included. VVA was confirmed in 87.3% of the patients. Almost 80% of women who acknowledged being sexually active (n = 717) presented pain during intercourse. As compared with patients without confirmed VVA (n = 66), patients with confirmed VVA (n = 1,028) were significantly older (P < .0001), had lower rates of sexual activity (P < .05), and used more VVA treatments (P < .05). Severe vaginal atrophy and severe vulvar atrophy were more prevalent in VVA-confirmed women (P < .0001, in both cases). No differences regarding the confirmation of VVA were observed for EuroQoL and Day-to-Day Impact of Vaginal Aging quality-of-life questionnaires. Sexual function measured through the Female Sexual Function Index score was significantly reduced in sexually-active patients with confirmed VVA (P < .05). CONCLUSION: VVA signs and symptoms are highly prevalent in Spanish postmenopausal women. Confirmation of VVA diagnosis was associated with impaired sexual function. The early recognition of VVA symptoms should be actively promoted in medical practice, instead of waiting until signs appear to exclude other reasons for VVA and to manage treatment effectively. Palacios S, González SP, Fernández-Abellán M, et al. Impact of Vulvovaginal Atrophy of Menopause in Spanish Women: Prevalence and Symptoms According to the EVES Study. Sex Med 2019;7:207-216.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA