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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561321

RESUMO

Biodiversity faces many threats and these can interact to produce outcomes that may not be predicted by considering their effects in isolation. Habitat loss and fragmentation (hereafter 'fragmentation') and altered fire regimes are important threats to biodiversity, but their interactions have not been systematically evaluated across the globe. In this comprehensive synthesis, including 162 papers which provided 274 cases, we offer a framework for understanding how fire interacts with fragmentation. Fire and fragmentation interact in three main ways: (i) fire influences fragmentation (59% of 274 cases), where fire either destroys and fragments habitat or creates and connects habitat; (ii) fragmentation influences fire (25% of cases) where, after habitat is reduced in area and fragmented, fire in the landscape is subsequently altered because people suppress or ignite fires, or there is increased edge flammability or increased obstruction to fire spread; and (iii) where the two do not influence each other, but fire interacts with fragmentation to affect responses like species richness, abundance and extinction risk (16% of cases). Where fire and fragmentation do influence each other, feedback loops are possible that can lead to ecosystem conversion (e.g. forest to grassland). This is a well-documented threat in the tropics but with potential also to be important elsewhere. Fire interacts with fragmentation through scale-specific mechanisms: fire creates edges and drives edge effects; fire alters patch quality; and fire alters landscape-scale connectivity. We found only 12 cases in which studies reported the four essential strata for testing a full interaction, which were fragmented and unfragmented landscapes that both span contrasting fire histories, such as recently burnt and long unburnt vegetation. Simulation and empirical studies show that fire and fragmentation can interact synergistically, multiplicatively, antagonistically or additively. These cases highlight a key reason why understanding interactions is so important: when fire and fragmentation act together they can cause local extinctions, even when their separate effects are neutral. Whether fire-fragmentation interactions benefit or disadvantage species is often determined by the species' preferred successional stage. Adding fire to landscapes generally benefits early-successional plant and animal species, whereas it is detrimental to late-successional species. However, when fire interacts with fragmentation, the direction of effect of fire on a species could be reversed from the effect expected by successional preferences. Adding fire to fragmented landscapes can be detrimental for species that would normally co-exist with fire, because species may no longer be able to disperse to their preferred successional stage. Further, animals may be attracted to particular successional stages leading to unexpected responses to fragmentation, such as higher abundance in more isolated unburnt patches. Growing human populations and increasing resource consumption suggest that fragmentation trends will worsen over coming years. Combined with increasing alteration of fire regimes due to climate change and human-caused ignitions, interactions of fire with fragmentation are likely to become more common. Our new framework paves the way for developing a better understanding of how fire interacts with fragmentation, and for conserving biodiversity in the face of these emerging challenges.

2.
Ansiedad estrés ; 26(2/3): 136-147, jul.-dic. 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET6-1795

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although in the 1940s there was an important decrease in global maternal/infant mortality rates, by the 1990s these rates had become stagnant. Many strategies to decrease maternal/infant mortality had been used, which included the prevention of pregnancy complications. Several studies showed an association between these complications and the stress perceived during pregnancy. However, there are some discrepancies which challenge this association. We believe that these discrepancies are due to the lack of understanding about the pregnant stress response and consequently the ways it is measured. The aim of this study was to understand how pregnant women perceive motherhood, pregnancy stressors and the psychological factors that attenuate the stress response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted that explores the perception of gestational stress in 32 pregnant women who were recruited in different Health Centers. Semi-structured interviews were carried out which were conducted by the PhD student in charge of the project and each interview lasted 15-20 min. Since the interviews were audio-recorded they were transcribed and the information was then categorized according to the three issues raised in the objective (motherhood, pregnancy stressors, and psychological factors that attenuate the stress response). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We found that the gestational stress response and also its magnitude are influenced not only by how women perceive the aspects, but also and most importantly by its articulation. Likewise, results show that gestational stress is only attenuated when women perceive and cope with both the positive and negative aspects of pregnancy and motherhood


OBJETIVO: Si bien en 1940 hubo una disminución importante en las tasas globales de mortalidad materno/infantil, hacia 1990 estas tasas se estancaron. Desde entonces se han utilizado muchas estrategias para disminuir la mortalidad materno/infantil, las cuales incluyen la prevención de las complicaciones del embarazo. Varios estudios mostraron una asociación entre estas complicaciones y el estrés percibido durante el embarazo. Sin embargo, hay algunas discrepancias que desafían esta asociación. Creemos que estas discrepancias se deben al poco entendimiento que tenemos sobre la respuesta al estrés durante el embarazo y, en consecuencia, en la forma en que esta se mide. Es por ello que el objetivo de este estudio es comprender cómo las mujeres embarazadas perciben la maternidad, los estresores propios del embarazo y los factores psicológicos que modulan la respuesta al estrés. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio cualitativo que explora la percepción sobre el estrés gestacional en 32 mujeres embarazadas que eran derechohabientes de los centros de salud. Para ello se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas, las cuales fueron realizadas por la estudiante de doctorado encargada del proyecto, y cada una tuvo una duración de 15 a 20 min. Puesto que las entrevistas fueron audiograbadas, se transcribieron y se categorizó la información de acuerdo con los 3 temas planteados en el objetivo (percepción de la maternidad, estresores propios del embarazo y factores psicológicos moduladores de estrés). RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: Encontramos que la respuesta del estrés gestacional y su magnitud son influidas no solo por la percepción que tiene la mujer de estos aspectos, sino sobre todo por su articulación. Además, los resultados muestran que el estrés gestacional solo se atenúa cuando las mujeres perciben y enfrentan tanto los aspectos positivos como los negativos del embarazo y la maternidad

3.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(10): e1008986, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064743

RESUMO

The Type I Interferons (IFN-Is) are innate antiviral cytokines that include 12 different IFNα subtypes and IFNß that signal through the IFN-I receptor (IFNAR), inducing hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) that comprise the 'interferome'. Quantitative differences in IFNAR binding correlate with antiviral activity, but whether IFN-Is exhibit qualitative differences remains controversial. Moreover, the IFN-I response is protective during acute HIV-1 infection, but likely pathogenic during the chronic stages. To gain a deeper understanding of the IFN-I response, we compared the interferomes of IFNα subtypes dominantly-expressed in HIV-1-exposed plasmacytoid dendritic cells (1, 2, 5, 8 and 14) and IFNß in the earliest cellular targets of HIV-1 infection. Primary gut CD4 T cells from 3 donors were treated for 18 hours ex vivo with individual IFN-Is normalized for IFNAR signaling strength. Of 1,969 IFN-regulated genes, 246 'core ISGs' were induced by all IFN-Is tested. However, many IFN-regulated genes were not shared between the IFNα subtypes despite similar induction of canonical antiviral ISGs such as ISG15, RSAD2 and MX1, formally demonstrating qualitative differences between the IFNα subtypes. Notably, IFNß induced a broader interferome than the individual IFNα subtypes. Since IFNß, and not IFNα, is upregulated during chronic HIV-1 infection in the gut, we compared core ISGs and IFNß-specific ISGs from colon pinch biopsies of HIV-1-uninfected (n = 13) versus age- and gender-matched, antiretroviral-therapy naïve persons with HIV-1 (PWH; n = 19). Core ISGs linked to inflammation, T cell activation and immune exhaustion were elevated in PWH, positively correlated with plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels and gut IFNß levels, and negatively correlated with gut CD4 T cell frequencies. In sharp contrast, IFNß-specific ISGs linked to protein translation and anti-inflammatory responses were significantly downregulated in PWH, negatively correlated with gut IFNß and LPS, and positively correlated with plasma IL6 and gut CD4 T cell frequencies. Our findings reveal qualitative differences in interferome induction by diverse IFN-Is and suggest potential mechanisms for how IFNß may drive HIV-1 pathogenesis in the gut.

4.
Rev Colomb Psiquiatr ; 49(3): 154-161, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888658

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the psychometric properties, internal structure, and relationship with anthropometric indicators of the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) among Mexican university students according to the measurement invariance approach. METHODS: An instrumental study was carried out to assess the psychometric properties, validity, and reliability of the BSQ. The analysis of the measurement invariance was performed using the Least Squares Estimation, and weighted by adjusted variance and polychoric correlations after assessing different measurement models for BSQ in each group. The scores of the final version were correlated with anthropometric indicators by the Pearson correlation coefficient. RESULTS: As regards the dimensional analysis, all of the previous models for BSQ have favourable adjustment rates, although those with a single factor show more robust evidence. The configural invariance was accepted; suggesting that the one-dimensional structure is common for both men and women. However, 16-item factorial loadings were statistically different between the groups. Hence, they were discarded and an 18-item version (BSQ-18) was obtained, which is considered invariant as regards gender. In addition, there is a direct relationship between the scores of the BSQ-18 version and the body mass index, waist circumference, and fat percentage. Satisfactory indicators were found as regards stability. CONCLUSIONS: The BSQ-18 can be used with men and women, and has high reliability indicators to be conducted in clinical settings to assess eating disorders and obesity among university students.

5.
Enferm Clin ; 2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933847

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aim to determine the anthropometric indicator that is most strongly associated with the percentage of body fat and self-regulation of eating behaviour and physical activity among young university students. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 3,869 Mexican university students, of which 53.9% were women. Standard procedures for anthropometry were followed, including weight, height and waist circumference. This data was used for calculating Body Mass Index (BMI), A Body Shape Index, waist-to-height ratio, Body Roundness Index and Conicity index. The self-regulation of eating habits scale and the self-regulation of physical activity scale were used. Mean with standard deviation, percentages and Pearson correlation coefficient were estimated. RESULTS: The group of men shown a higher prevalence of excess weight compared to the women. Inverse correlations between most anthropometric indices and self-regulation of eating behaviour and physical activity were found. However, in all cases the correlations were weak. The percentage of fat had a medium frequency of association with Conicity index and high with BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and Body Roundness Index, where the BMI showed the highest correlation coefficient CONCLUSIONS: The BMI shows the highest magnitude of association with percentage of body fat in university students among the indicators analysed. Therefore it is suggested that nurses use BMI to determine obesity because it is easy to calculate.

6.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(12)2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772088

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Crosstalk through receptor ligand interactions at the maternal-fetal interface is impacted by fetal sex. This affects placentation in the first trimester and differences in outcomes. Sexually dimorphic signaling at early stages of placentation are not defined. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the impact of fetal sex on maternal-fetal crosstalk. DESIGN: Receptors/ligands at the maternal-fetal surface were identified from sexually dimorphic genes between fetal sexes in the first trimester placenta and defined in each cell type using single-cell RNA-Sequencing (scRNA-Seq). SETTING: Academic institution. SAMPLES: Late first trimester (~10-13 weeks) placenta (fetal) and decidua (maternal) from uncomplicated ongoing pregnancies. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Transcriptomic profiling at tissue and single-cell level; immunohistochemistry of select proteins. RESULTS: We identified 91 sexually dimorphic receptor-ligand pairs across the maternal-fetal interface. We examined fetal sex differences in 5 major cell types (trophoblasts, stromal cells, Hofbauer cells, antigen-presenting cells, and endothelial cells). Ligands from the CC family chemokine ligand (CCL) family were most highly representative in females, with their receptors present on the maternal surface. Sexually dimorphic trophoblast transcripts, Mucin-15 (MUC15) and notum, palmitoleoyl-protein carboxylesterase (NOTUM) were also most highly expressed in syncytiotrophoblasts and extra-villous trophoblasts respectively. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis using sexually dimorphic genes in individual cell types identified cytokine mediated signaling pathways to be most representative in female trophoblasts. Upstream analysis demonstrated TGFB1 and estradiol to affect all cell types, but dihydrotestosterone, produced by the male fetus, was an upstream regulator most significant for the trophoblast population. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal-fetal crosstalk exhibits sexual dimorphism during placentation early in gestation.

7.
Span J Psychol ; 23: e26, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662375

RESUMO

Gestational stress is associated with many maternal and child complications, however, this association must be taken with care, since there are studies that find inconsistent results between stress measures and maternal complications. It is believed that the lack of convergence is due to the way in which gestational stress is evaluated.The aim of the present study was to design and validate an instrument based on a bio-psycho-social model of gestational stress. The design and validation process of the inventory was divided into four phases: (a) Construction of the items bank and content validity, (b) construct validity, (c) inventory reliability and (d) convergent and discriminant validity with psychometric instruments that have been used in other investigations to evaluate gestational stress.A valid and reliable Stressors and Modulators of Gestational Stress Inventory (SMGSI) conformed by two scales was developed: (a) Gestational stressors, which is formed by two factors, the psychological stressors and social stressors with a variance of 48.5% and 51.8% and a reliability of .79 and .67, respectively; and (b) gestational stress modulators integrated by 8 items that explain 55.2% of the variance and with a reliability of .92. In conclusion, a valid and reliable tool was obtained that measures gestational stress from a bio-psycho-social perspective. This inventory allows for the identification of allostatic and pantostatic stress, making it useful as a diagnostic tool to prevent maternal and childhood complications that are associated with chronic gestational stress.

8.
Suma psicol ; 27(1): 1-8, ene.-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1139660

RESUMO

Resumen El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar la relación entre el estrés percibido y la felicidad en adultos mexicanos, así como comparar ambas variables según el estado de salud-enfermedad. La muestra estuvo conformada por 762 adultos mexicanos con una media de edad de 44.96 años, de los cuales el 70.3 % reportó no padecer ninguna enfermedad. Se utilizó la Escala de Estrés Percibido y el Inventario de Felicidad Auténtica. Adicionalmente, los participantes reportaron si padecían alguna enfermedad y seleccionaron, posteriormente, en una lista de opciones. Mediante el SPSS v.24 se realizaron análisis de frecuencias, descriptivos, análisis de correlación y análisis de varianza de un factor. En los resultados se observó una correlación negativa y estadísticamente significativa entre el estrés percibido y la felicidad. Por su parte, solo se observaron diferencias significativas en la subescala de estrés percibido "sobrepasado por la situación"; fue mayor en el grupo de personas con una enfermedad aguda en comparación con el grupo de personas sanas. Se discuten los principales hallazgos, así como las implicaciones para la práctica psicológica.


Abstract The present study aimed to analyze the relationship between perceived stress and happiness in Mexican adults, and test for differences in both variables according to the health disease condition. The sample consisted of 762 Mexican adults with an average age of 44.96 years, of which 70.3% reported not suffering from any disease. The Perceived Stress Scale and the Authentic Happiness Inventory were used. In addition, participants reported if they suffer from any disease, later selecting from a list of options. Using the SPSS v.24, frequency, descriptive, correlation and analysis of variance of one factor were performed. Negative and statistically significant correlation between perceived stress and happiness was found. On the other hand, only significant differences were observed in the subscale of perceived stress "overwhelmed by the situation" being greater in the group of people with an acute illness, compared to the group of healthy people. The main findings as well as implications for psychological practice are discussed.

9.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 63(1): 79-91, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135073

RESUMO

Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) during pregnancy is associated with increased respiratory morbidities and risk for chronic lung disease after preterm birth. However, the direct effects of maternal VDD on perinatal lung structure and function and whether maternal VDD increases the susceptibility of lung injury due to hyperoxia are uncertain. In the present study, we sought to determine whether maternal VDD is sufficient to impair lung structure and function and whether VDD increases the impact of hyperoxia on the developing rat lung. Four-week-old rats were fed VDD chow and housed in a room shielded from ultraviolet A/B light to achieve 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations <10 ng/ml at mating and throughout lactation. Lung structure was assessed at 2 weeks for radial alveolar count, mean linear intercept, pulmonary vessel density, and lung function (lung compliance and resistance). The effects of hyperoxia for 2 weeks after birth were assessed after exposure to fraction of inspired oxygen of 0.95. At 2 weeks, VDD offspring had decreased alveolar and vascular growth and abnormal airway reactivity and lung function. Impaired lung structure and function in VDD offspring were similar to those observed in control rats exposed to postnatal hyperoxia alone. Maternal VDD causes sustained abnormalities of distal lung growth, increases in airway hyperreactivity, and abnormal lung mechanics during infancy. These changes in VDD pups were as severe as those measured after exposure to postnatal hyperoxia alone. We speculate that antenatal disruption of vitamin D signaling increases the risk for late-childhood respiratory disease.


Assuntos
Hiperóxia/complicações , Complacência Pulmonar/fisiologia , Lesão Pulmonar/etiologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Feminino , Hiperóxia/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Gravidez , Ratos , Vitamina D/metabolismo
10.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 39(1): e336, ene.-mar. 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126572

RESUMO

RESUMEN: Introducción: El género Brucella está incluido en la familia Brucellaceae que pertenece al orden Rhizobiales y es reconocido por su alto grado de patogenicidad. Las bacterias de este género son responsables de la brucelosis, enfermedad que ha sido reportada como una de las zoonosis más importantes a nivel mundial por su incidencia en el ganado y el hombre. Los estudios previos para la clasificación taxonómica del género, se han basado fundamentalmente en el análisis del gen 16S ARNr. Sin embargo, pocas investigaciones se han dirigido a la identificación de marcadores moleculares que distingan a sus miembros de otros grupos de bacterias. Objetivo: Identificar inserciones en secuencias de proteínas conservadas, que pudieran ser utilizados como marcadores moleculares para la taxonomía y diagnóstico de especies del género Brucella. Métodos: Las secuencias homólogas de las proteínas analizadas fueron obtenidas de bases de datos internacionales y, posteriormente, alineadas con el programa ClustalX2, para ello fueron considerados los parámetros sugeridos en la literatura. Resultados: Se identificaron inserciones en las proteínas oxoglutarato deshidrogenasa (componente E1) y ADN ligasa A específicas del género Brucella. Conclusiones: Las inserciones halladas pueden ser empleadas como complemento a los métodos tradicionales de clasificación taxonómica y para el diagnóstico molecular de bacterias incluidas en el género Brucella.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Brucella is a genus from the Brucellaceae family, Rhizobiales order. This genus is recognized for its high pathogenicity. Brucella bacteria cause brucellosis, a disease reported as one of the most important zoonoses worldwide due to its incidence in cattle and people. Previous studies on taxonomic classification of the genus have been mainly based on the analysis of gene 16S rDNA. However, few studies have been aimed at identification of molecular markers distinguishing its members from other groups of bacteria. Objective: Identify insertions in preserved protein sequences which could be used as molecular markers for the taxonomy and diagnosis of species from the Brucella genus. Methods: The homologous sequences for the proteins analyzed were obtained from international databases and aligned with the software ClustalX2, considering the parameters suggested in the literature. Results: Insertions were identified in the proteins oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (component E1) and DNA ligase A, specific of the genus Brucella. Conclusions: The insertions found may be used as complements to the traditional methods for taxonomic classification and for the molecular diagnosis of bacteria from the genus Brucella.

11.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 199: 105613, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007564

RESUMO

Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) during pregnancy is common and related to several maternal and fetal morbidities. Vitamin D (VD) plays a role in normal lung development and VDD causes abnormal airway, alveolar, and vascular growth in newborn rats. Here we use an unbiased transcriptomic approach to identify pathways altered in the lungs of offspring from VDD dams. The lungs of newborn offspring from VD replete and VDD dams were removed and RNA from these samples were analyzed using Affymetrix microarrays. Data were RMA normalized, differential gene expression was determined using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (5 % FDR) and pathway enrichment analysis was assessed. There were 2233 differentially expressed transcripts between the VDD and control lungs (1889 up, 344 down). Consistent with the suppression of lung growth in the VDD group, there were significant suppression of signal transduction pathways related to vascular biology and anabolic signaling pathways, e.g. the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), cell cycle control. A major, enriched functional category was upregulation of pathways related to the innate immune system, including pathways for granulocyte and macrophage development, chemotaxis, and activation of cytokine signaling through Jak/Stat (e.g. resulting in higher IL1 α and ß). We conclude that VDD during fetal development alters multiple pathways beyond the predicted angiogeneic alterations. These changes either contribute to, or reflect, the abnormal airway, alveolar, and vascular growth seen in the neonatal lung resulting from maternal VDD. The pattern also suggests abnormal lung development caused by maternal VDD creates a proinflammatory milieu that could contribute to the suppression of lung growth and development.


Assuntos
Transcriptoma/genética , Deficiência de Vitamina D/genética , Vitamina D/genética , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Feminino , Gravidez , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Deficiência de Vitamina D/metabolismo , Deficiência de Vitamina D/patologia
12.
Span. j. psychol ; 23: e26.1-e26.15, 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-196601

RESUMO

Gestational stress is associated with many maternal and child complications, however, this association must be taken with care, since there are studies that find inconsistent results between stress measures and maternal complications. It is believed that the lack of convergence is due to the way in which gestational stress is evaluated. The aim of the present study was to design and validate an instrument based on a bio-psycho-social model of gestational stress. The design and validation process of the inventory was divided into four phases: (a) Construction of the items bank and content validity, (b) construct validity, (c) inventory reliability and (d) convergent and discriminant validity with psychometric instruments that have been used in other investigations to evaluate gestational stress. A valid and reliable Stressors and Modulators of Gestational Stress Inventory (SMGSI) conformed by two scales was developed: (a) Gestational stressors, which is formed by two factors, the psychological stressors and social stressors with a variance of 48.5% and 51.8% and a reliability of .79 and .67, respectively; and (b) gestational stress modulators integrated by 8 items that explain 55.2% of the variance and with a reliability of .92. In conclusion, a valid and reliable tool was obtained that measures gestational stress from a bio-psycho-social perspective. This inventory allows for the identification of allostatic and pantostatic stress, making it useful as a diagnostic tool to prevent maternal and childhood complications that are associated with chronic gestational stress


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Psicometria/instrumentação , Projetos de Pesquisa , Gestantes/psicologia , Apoio Social , Depressão/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Liberabit ; 25(2): 267-285, jul.-dic. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143228

RESUMO

Objetivos: realizar el análisis de la estructura interna de la versión en español de la Escala de Bienestar Psicológico de Ryff (PWBS-E) en estudiantes universitarios (n = 1700; 54.75% mujeres; Medad = 19.23) de una institución pública en Veracruz, México. Método: La estructura interna de la PWBS-E fue evaluada mediante el análisis factorial confirmatorio (CFA), el modelamiento de ecuaciones estructurales exploratorio (ESEM) y el análisis factorial exploratorio (EFA). La confiabilidad del constructo fue estimada con el coeficiente α y de las puntuaciones con el coeficiente α. Resultados: indicaron que una estructura unidimensional y breve (19 ítems) posee mayor respaldo empírico. Además, se evidenció la existencia de un factor de método asociado a ítems invertidos en los modelos multidimensionales. En cuanto a la confiabilidad, se hallaron indicadores aceptables en ambos niveles (constructo y puntuaciones). Conclusiones: se discuten los hallazgos y las implicancias prácticas de la versión breve de la PWBS-E en universitarios


Objectives: This paper aimed to analyze the internal structure of the Spanish version of the Ryff ’s psychological well-being scale (PWBS-E) among college students (n = 1700, 54.75% females, Mage = 19.23) who attend a public institution located in Veracruz, Mexico. Method: The internal structure of the PWBS-E was assessed using the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA), while the reliability of the construct was estimated with the ù coefficient and the reliability of the scores, with the α coefficient. Results: Suggested that a short and unidimensional structure (19 items) provides greater empirical support. In addition, a method factor associated with inverted items in multidimensional models was evidenced. Regarding the reliability, acceptable indicators were found in both levels (construct and scores). Conclusions: This paper addresses both the findings and practical implications of the short version of the PWBS-E among college students.

14.
J Food Drug Anal ; 27(4): 833-840, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590754

RESUMO

Aging has been established as a major risk factor for prevalent diseases and hence, the development of anti-aging medicines is of great importance. Recently, herbal fermented beverages have emerged as a promising source of potential anti-aging drug. Pru, a traditional Cuban refreshment produced by decoction and fermentation of multispecies plants with sugar, has been consumed for many years and is claimed to have multiple medicinal properties. Besides the traditional method, Pru is also manufactured industrially. The present study analyzed the major components of both traditional Pru (TP) and industrial Pru (IP) to reveal their potential application in promoting the health span. We performed desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) and acquired mass spectra by scanning over the 50-1200 m/z range in both positive and negative ion modes. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was performed for validating the compound assignments. Three important compounds were identified by comparing the MS and MS/MS spectra with reported literature and the online database. One of the identified compounds, gluconic acid, was found to be the most abundant shared metabolite between TP and IP whereas the other two compounds, magnoflorine and levan were exclusively detected in TP. The present study is the first report of component profiling in Cuban traditional and industrial Pru using DESI-MS and FTICR MS/MS, and reveals the potential application of Pru as a health-promoting agent.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Bebidas/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13989, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562366

RESUMO

Visual impairment affects 253 million people worldwide and new approaches for prevention and treatment are urgently needed. While small molecules with potential beneficial effects can be examined in various model systems, the in vivo evaluation of visual function remains a challenge. The current study introduces a novel imaging system for measuring visually-guided behaviors in larval zebrafish. The imaging system is the first to image four 96-well plates with a single camera for automated measurements of activity in a 384-well format. In addition, it is the first system to project moving visual stimuli and analyze the optomotor response in the wells of a 96-well plate. We found that activity is affected by tricaine, diazepam and flumazenil. Surprisingly, diazepam treatments induce a loss of visual responses, at concentrations that do not affect activity or induce hyperactivity. Overall, our studies show that the developed imaging system is suitable for automated measurements of vertebrate vision in a high-throughput format.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Aminobenzoatos/farmacologia , Anestésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Diazepam/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/fisiologia , Software , Natação/fisiologia , Visão Ocular/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 23(2): 116-124, abr.-jun. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002574

RESUMO

RESUMEN Introducción: el climaterio es un período en la vida de la mujer que afecta su bienestar físico y mental; al aumentar la expectativa de vida también lo hace el número de mujeres que atravesarán esta etapa acompañada de síntomas dependientes de las alteraciones hormonales. Estas a su vez, pueden desencadenar diversas afecciones crónicas que se convierten en riesgos para las enfermedades cardiovasculares, cerebrovasculares, u otras, que afectan la calidad y expectativa de vida de la mujer. Objetivo: identificar sus principales síntomas y determinar la relación existente entre este déficit hormonal y algunas enfermedades crónicas en la mujer. Métodos: se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de las publicaciones acerca del climaterio y menopausia incluidas en diferentes bases de datos (PubMed e Infomed) durante los años 2014 y 2018, en idioma inglés y español. Se organizó el trabajo a partir de la información obtenida de revisiones sistemáticas, metaanálisis, ensayos clínicos y estudios observacionales. Conclusiones: existe una estrecha relación entre el déficit estrogénico y la aparición de algunas enfermedades crónicas. Aumentar el conocimiento de la mujer sobre las afectaciones propias de este período y la forma de disminuir su intensidad, además de fomentar la prevención de las enfermedades asociadas, permitirá que estas puedan disfrutar de longevidad, bienestar físico-mental y de mayor rendimiento intelectual. Este trabajo constituye una herramienta, para una correcta orientación y motivación de las mujeres, sobre estilos de vida más saludables en esta etapa de la vida.


ABSTRACT Introduction: the climacteric is a period in a woman's life that affects her physical and mental well-being; when the life expectancy increases, so does the number of women who will go through this stage accompanied by symptoms dependent on hormonal alterations. These, in turn, can trigger various chronic conditions that become risks for cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, or other diseases that affect their quality and life expectancy. Objective: to identify their main symptoms, as well as, to determine the relationship between this hormonal deficit and some chronic diseases in women. Methods: a literature review of the publications on climacteric and menopause included in different databases, in English and Spanish language, such as PubMed and Infomed was conducted during 2014 and 2018. The work was organized based on the information obtained from systematic reviews, meta-analyses, clinical trials and observational studies. Conclusions: there is a close relationship between estrogen deficiency and the appearance of some chronic diseases. Increasing women's knowledge about the effects of this period and how to reduce its intensity, as well as, promoting the prevention of associated diseases, will allow them to enjoy longevity, physical and mental well-being and greater intellectual performance. This work is a tool, for a correct orientation and motivation of women, on healthier lifestyles in this stage of life.


Assuntos
Climatério , Menopausa , Estilo de Vida Saudável
17.
AIDS ; 33(6): 965-972, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atripla dose reduction decreases subclinical toxicity and maintains viral suppression in HIV+ individuals but the virological efficacy and immunological safety of this strategy needs to be further confirmed. METHODS: Virologically suppressed HIV-infected adults on Atripla once-daily were randomized 1 : 1 to reduce therapy to 3 days a week (3W, n = 30) or to maintain it unchanged (once-daily, n = 31). HIV-1 reservoir (total and integrated HIV-1 DNA in CD4 cells) and immunological cell activation (CD38 and HLA-DR), senescence (CD57 and CD28), apoptosis (annexinV) as well as T-naive, effector memory (TEM) (CCR7, CD45RA) and stem cell memory (TSCM) (CD954 and CD27) populations were measured at baseline, 24 and 48 weeks. RESULTS: No differences on activation, senescence or apoptosis of both CD4 and CD8 T cells were observed on follow-up. Nave CD4 T-cell proportion showed a significant decrease in the 3W group (mean ±â€ŠSD): 24.6 ±â€Š13.7 vs. 20.5 ±â€Š12.9 (P = 0.002). No differences in both plasma viral load and HIV reservoir were detected on follow-up. CD4 TSCM levels at 48 weeks correlated with basal integrated HIV-1 DNA in the 3W group but not in the once-daily group. A post hoc analysis of data prior to the study entry revealed a higher viral load zenith and a trend to lower CD4 nadir in 3W vs. once-daily group. CONCLUSION: No significant immunological or viral changes were induced in the 3W group confirming the virological efficacy and immunogical safety of this strategy. In-depth virological and immunological analyses are useful in providing additional information in antiretroviral switching studies (Clinical Trials.gov: NCT01778413).


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Combinação Efavirenz, Emtricitabina, Fumarato de Tenofovir Desoproxila/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/virologia , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Combinação Efavirenz, Emtricitabina, Fumarato de Tenofovir Desoproxila/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carga Viral
18.
Rev. senol. patol. mamar. (Ed. impr.) ; 32(1): 3-11, ene.-mar. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-187027

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos: El cáncer de mama (CaMa) es la neoplasia más común en las mujeres. La Organización Mundial de la Salud estima que el 30% de las muertes por CaMa son debidas a factores asociados a estilos de vida. En México hay una epidemia de obesidad, que favorece la aparición de hipertensión arterial y diabetes mellitus 2. No obstante, la prevalencia y contribución clínica de esta tríada en el desarrollo del CaMa y su interacción con los factores de riesgo conocidos han sido poco estudiados. Materiales y métodos: Se analizó asociación de obesidad, la hipertensión arterial y la diabetes mellitus 2 y de los factores de riesgo para CaMa (reportados en los expedientes clínicos de mujeres con y sin diagnóstico de CaMa del Hospital N.° 71 del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social) y su peso proporcional, con la ausencia o presencia de diagnóstico de CaMa. Resultados: Solo los antecedentes heredofamiliares y el tabaquismo, de los factores de riesgo reconocidos para CaMa, mostraron asociación con el diagnóstico de CaMa. Tampoco las enfermedades metabólicas mostraron diferencias. No obstante, el peso proporcional de todas las variables sí mostró significación estadística en el grupo con CaMa. Conclusiones: La visión clásica de que los factores de índole clínico per se son determinantes para el desarrollo de CaMa necesita ser modificada. Es necesario realizar estudios que consideren la interrelación que guardan los factores de riesgo entre sí y otros trastornos que se han normalizado en la población


Introduction and objectives: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common neoplasm in women worldwide. The World Health Organisation estimates that 30% of deaths due to BC are associated with lifestyle factors. In Mexico there is an obesity epidemic, which favours the appearance of hypertension and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). However, there have been few studies of the prevalence and clinical contribution of this triad in the development of BC and its interaction with known risk factors. Materials and methods: We analysed the association of obesity, hypertension and DM2, and risk factors for BC (reported in the clinical files of women with and without a diagnosis of BC in Hospital N.° 71 of the Mexican Institute of Social Security) and their proportional weight, with the presence or absence of a BC diagnosis. Results: Among the recognised risk factors for BC, only a hereditary family history and smoking were associated with a diagnosis of BC. Metabolic diseases showed no differences. However, the proportional weight of all the variables was statistically significant in the group with BC. Conclusions: There is a need to modify the classical view that clinical factors per se determine the development of BC. Studies are needed that analyse the interrelation between risk factors and other disorders that have become highly prevalent in the population


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , México/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pesos e Medidas Corporais
19.
Fertil Steril ; 111(3): 535-546, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30611556

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify differences in the transcriptomic profiles during placentation from pregnancies conceived spontaneously vs. those with infertility using non-in vitro fertilization (IVF) fertility treatment (NIFT) or IVF. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Academic medical center. PATIENT(S): Women undergoing chorionic villus sampling at gestational age 11-13 weeks (n = 141), with pregnancies that were conceived spontaneously (n = 74), with NIFT (n = 33), or with IVF (n = 34), resulting in the delivery of viable offspring. INTERVENTION(S): Collection of chorionic villus samples from women who conceived spontaneously, with NIFT, or with IVF for gene expression analysis using RNA sequencing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Baseline maternal, paternal, and fetal demographics, maternal medical conditions, pregnancy complications, and outcomes. Differential gene expression of first-trimester placenta. RESULT(S): There were few differences in the transcriptome of first-trimester placenta from NIFT, IVF, and spontaneous pregnancies. There was one protein-coding differentially expressed gene (DEG) between the spontaneous and infertility groups, CACNA1I, one protein-coding DEG between the spontaneous and IVF groups, CACNA1I, and five protein-coding DEGs between the NIFT and IVF groups, SLC18A2, CCL21, FXYD2, PAEP, and DNER. CONCLUSION(S): This is the first and largest study looking at transcriptomic profiles of first-trimester placenta demonstrating similar transcriptomic profiles in pregnancies conceived using NIFT or IVF and spontaneous conceptions. Gene expression differences found to be highest in the NIFT group suggest that the underlying infertility, in addition to treatment-related factors, may contribute to the observed gene expression profiles.


Assuntos
Infertilidade/genética , Infertilidade/terapia , Placentação/genética , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Transcriptoma , Adulto , Feminino , Fertilidade/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Infertilidade/diagnóstico , Infertilidade/fisiopatologia , Nascimento Vivo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(6): 1871-1886, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561694

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Infertility affects 10% of the reproductive-age population. Even the most successful treatments such as assisted reproductive technologies still result in failed implantation. In addition, adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with infertility have been attributed to these fertility treatments owing to the presumed epigenetic modifications of in vitro fertilization and in vitro embryo development. However, the diagnosis of infertility has been associated with adverse outcomes, and the etiologies leading to infertility have been associated with adverse pregnancy and long-term outcomes. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We have comprehensively summarized the data available through observational, experimental, cohort, and randomized studies to better define the effect of the underlying infertility diagnosis vs the epigenetics of infertility treatments on treatment success and overall outcomes. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Most female infertility results from polycystic ovary syndrome, endometriosis, and unexplained infertility, with some cases resulting from a polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype or underlying endometriosis. In addition to failed implantation, defective implantation can lead to problems with placentation that leads to adverse pregnancy outcomes, affecting both mother and fetus. CONCLUSION: Current research, although limited, has suggested that genetics and epigenetics of infertility diagnosis affects disease and overall outcomes. In addition, other fertility treatments, which also lead to adverse outcomes, are aiding in the identification of factors, including the supraphysiologic hormonal environment, that might affect the overall success and healthy outcomes for mother and child. Further studies, including genome-wide association studies, epigenomics studies, and experimental studies, are needed to better identify the factors leading to these outcomes.


Assuntos
Endometriose/genética , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Metilação de DNA , Implantação do Embrião/genética , Endometriose/complicações , Endometriose/diagnóstico , Endometriose/terapia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Impressão Genômica , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/diagnóstico , Infertilidade Feminina/epidemiologia , Infertilidade Feminina/terapia , Saúde Materna , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Placentação/genética , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/terapia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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