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1.
J Mol Diagn ; 2019 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881334

RESUMO

A significant proportion of DNA-mismatch repair (MMR) variants are classified as of unknown significance, precluding diagnosis. The in vitro MMR assay is used to assess their MMR capability, likely the most important function of an MMR protein. However, the robustness of the assay, crucial for its use in the clinical setting, has been rarely evaluated. The aim of the present work was to validate an in vitro MMR assay approach to the functional characterization of MMR variants, as a first step to meeting quality standards of diagnostic laboratories. The MMR assay was optimized by testing a variety of reagents and experimental conditions. Reference materials and standard operating procedures were established. To determine the intra- and interexperimental variability of the assay and its reproducibility among centers, independent transfections of six previously characterized MLH1 variants were performed in two independent laboratories. Reagents and conditions optimal for performing the in vitro MMR assay were determined. The validated assay demonstrated no significant intra- or interexperimental variability and good reproducibility between centers. We set up a robust in vitro MMR assay that can provide relevant in vitro functional evidence for MMR variant pathogenicity assessment, eventually improving the molecular diagnosis of hereditary cancer syndromes associated with MMR deficiency.

2.
J Med Genet ; 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494577

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lynch syndrome (LS) and constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) are hereditary cancer syndromes associated with mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency. Tumours show microsatellite instability (MSI), also reported at low levels in non-neoplastic tissues. Our aim was to evaluate the performance of high-sensitivity MSI (hs-MSI) assessment for the identification of LS and CMMRD in non-neoplastic tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood DNA samples from 131 individuals were grouped into three cohorts: baseline (22 controls), training (11 CMMRD, 48 LS and 15 controls) and validation (18 CMMRD and 18 controls). Custom next generation sequencing panel and bioinformatics pipeline were used to detect insertions and deletions in microsatellite markers. An hs-MSI score was calculated representing the percentage of unstable markers. RESULTS: The hs-MSI score was significantly higher in CMMRD blood samples when compared with controls in the training cohort (p<0.001). This finding was confirmed in the validation set, reaching 100% specificity and sensitivity. Higher hs-MSI scores were detected in biallelic MSH2 carriers (n=5) compared with MSH6 carriers (n=15). The hs-MSI analysis did not detect a difference between LS and control blood samples (p=0.564). CONCLUSIONS: The hs-MSI approach is a valuable tool for CMMRD diagnosis, especially in suspected patients harbouring MMR variants of unknown significance or non-detected biallelic germline mutations.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 141(7): 1365-1380, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28577310

RESUMO

In a proportion of patients presenting mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient tumors, no germline MMR mutations are identified, the so-called Lynch-like syndrome (LLS). Recently, MMR-deficient tumors have been associated with germline mutations in POLE and MUTYH or double somatic MMR events. Our aim was to elucidate the molecular basis of MSH2-deficient LS-suspected cases using a comprehensive analysis of colorectal cancer (CRC)-associated genes at germline and somatic level. Fifty-eight probands harboring MSH2-deficient tumors were included. Germline mutational analysis of MSH2 (including EPCAM deletions) and MSH6 was performed. Pathogenicity of MSH2 variants was assessed by RNA analysis and multifactorial likelihood calculations. MSH2 cDNA and methylation of MSH2 and MSH6 promoters were studied. Matched blood and tumor DNA were analyzed using a customized next generation sequencing panel. Thirty-five individuals were carriers of pathogenic or probably pathogenic variants in MSH2 and EPCAM. Five patients harbored 4 different MSH2 variants of unknown significance (VUS) and one had 2 novel MSH6 promoter VUS. Pathogenicity assessment allowed the reclassification of the 4 MSH2 VUS and 6 probably pathogenic variants as pathogenic mutations, enabling a total of 40 LS diagnostics. Predicted pathogenic germline variants in BUB1, SETD2, FAN1 and MUTYH were identified in 5 cases. Three patients had double somatic hits in MSH2 or MSH6, and another 2 had somatic alterations in other MMR genes and/or proofreading polymerases. In conclusion, our comprehensive strategy combining germline and somatic mutational status of CRC-associated genes by means of a subexome panel allows the elucidation of up to 86% of MSH2-deficient suspected LS tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/deficiência , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Metilação de DNA , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/deficiência , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial/genética , Exodesoxirribonucleases/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Humanos , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética
4.
Fam Cancer ; 16(4): 501-507, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28365877

RESUMO

The clinical spectrum of germline mismatch repair (MMR) gene variants continues increasing, encompassing Lynch syndrome, Constitutional MMR Deficiency (CMMRD), and the recently reported MSH3-associated polyposis. Genetic diagnosis of these hereditary cancer syndromes is often hampered by the presence of variants of unknown significance (VUS) and overlapping phenotypes. Two PMS2 VUS, c.2149G>A (p.V717M) and c.2444C>T (p.S815L), were identified in trans in one individual diagnosed with early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) who belonged to a family fulfilling clinical criteria for hereditary cancer. Clinico-pathological data, multifactorial likelihood calculations and functional analyses were used to refine their clinical significance. Likelihood analysis based on cosegregation and tumor data classified the c.2444C>T variant as pathogenic, which was supported by impaired MMR activity associated with diminished protein expression in functional assays. Conversely, the c.2149G>A variant displayed MMR proficiency and protein stability. These results, in addition to the conserved PMS2 expression in normal tissues and the absence of germline microsatellite instability (gMSI) in the biallelic carrier ruled out a CMMRD diagnosis. The use of comprehensive strategies, including functional and clinico-pathological information, is mandatory to improve the clinical interpretation of naturally occurring MMR variants. This is critical for appropriate clinical management of cancer syndromes associated to MMR gene mutations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Idade de Início , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/metabolismo , Linhagem
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