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1.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786710

RESUMO

Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with insulin resistance (IR), metabolic syndrome and increased cardiovascular risk. Adipokines are biologically active, pleotropic molecules which have been involved in the development of IR and in the pathogenesis of several chronic inflammatory conditions. The aim of the present study was to analyze serum concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, resistin and visfatin in patients with HS, and investigate their possible associations with IR, HS risk and disease severity. This case-control study enrolled 137 non-diabetic individuals (76 HS-patients and 61 age and sex-matched controls). Serum concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, resistin and visfatin, and the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) were measured in all the participants. Serum adiponectin concentrations were found to be significantly lower, and leptin, resistin and visfatin levels were significantly higher in HS-patients than in controls. These differences remained significant even after adjusting for age, sex and body mass index, except for leptin. In a multivariate regression analysis, HOMA-IR was inversely correlated with adiponectin and positively associated with resistin levels. Furthermore, serum levels of resistin and visfatin were independently associated with HS risk. However, we found no association between serum levels of adipokines and HS severity. Our results suggest that reduced adiponectin and increased resistin serum levels may be surrogate biomarkers for IR in patients with HS. Moreover, resistin and visfatin might be independent risk factors for the development of HS.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779487

RESUMO

Introduction: Increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality is observed in inflammatory joint diseases (IJDs) such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis. However, the management of CV disease in these conditions is far from being well established.Areas covered: This review summarizes the main epidemiologic, pathophysiological and clinical risk factors of CV disease associated with IJDs. Less common aspects on early diagnosis and risk stratification of the CV disease in these conditions are also discussed. In Europe, the most commonly used risk algorithm in patients with IJDs is the modified SCORE index based on the revised recommendations proposed by the EULAR task force in 2017.Expert opinion: Early identification of IJD patients at high risk of CV disease is essential. It should include the use of complementary non-invasive imaging techniques. A multidisciplinary approach aimed to improve heart-healthy habits, including strict control of classic CV risk factors is crucial. Adequate management of the underlying IJD is also of main importance since reduction of disease activity decreases the risk of CV events. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may have a lesser harmful effect in IJD than in the general population, due to their anti-inflammatory effects along with other potential beneficial effects.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782789

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Smoking is a major risk factor for the development of both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and RA and may cause attenuated responses to anti-rheumatic treatments. Our aim was to compare disease activity, CVD risk factors and CVD event rates across smoking status in RA patients. METHODS: Disease characteristics, CVD risk factors and relevant medications were recorded in RA patients without prior CVD from 10 countries (Norway, UK, Netherlands, USA, Sweden, Greece, South Africa, Spain, Canada and Mexico). Information on CVD events was collected. Adjusted analysis of variance, logistic regression and Cox models were applied to compare RA disease activity (DAS28), CVD risk factors and event rates across categories of smoking status. RESULTS: Of the 3311 RA patients (1012 former, 887 current and 1412 never smokers), 235 experienced CVD events during a median follow-up of 3.5 years (interquartile range 2.5-6.1). At enrolment, current smokers were more likely to have moderate or high disease activity compared with former and never smokers (P < 0.001 for both). There was a gradient of worsening CVD risk factor profiles (lipoproteins and blood pressure) from never to former to current smokers. Furthermore, former and never smokers had significantly lower CVD event rates compared with current smokers [hazard ratio 0.70 (95% CI 0.51, 0.95), P = 0.02 and 0.48 (0.34, 0.69), P < 0.001, respectively]. The CVD event rates for former and never smokers were comparable. CONCLUSION: Smoking cessation in patients with RA was associated with lower disease activity and improved lipid profiles and was a predictor of reduced rates of CVD events.

4.
J Rheumatol ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732555

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Since the addition of carotid ultrasound into composite cardiovascular risk (CVR) scores has been found effective for identifying patients with inflammatory arthritis and high CVR, we aimed to determine if its use would facilitate the reclassification of patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) into the very-high-risk SCORE (Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation) category and whether this might be related to disease features. METHODS: Cross-sectional study involving 206 patients who fulfilled CASPAR criteria for PsA and 197 controls. We assessed lipid profile, SCORE, disease activity measurements, and the presence of carotid plaques and carotid intima-media thickness by ultrasonography. A multivariable regression analysis, adjusted for classic CVR factors, was performed to evaluate if the risk of reclassification could be explained by disease-related features and to assess the most parsimonious combination of risk reclassification predictors. RESULTS: Forty-seven percent of patients were reclassified into a very-high SCORE risk category after carotid ultrasound compared to 26% of controls (p=0.000). Patients included in the low-risk SCORE category were those who were more commonly reclassified (30% vs. 14%, p=0.002). The DAPSA score was associated with reclassification (beta coefficient 1.10 [95%CI 1.02-1.19], p=0.019) after adjusting for age and traditional CVR factors. A model containing SCORE plus age, statin use, and DAPSA score yielded the highest discriminatory accuracy compared to the SCORE alone model (AUC 0.863 [95%CI 0.789-0.936] vs. 0.716 [95%CI 0.668-0.764], p=0.000). CONCLUSION: PsA patients are more frequently reclassified into the very-high SCORE risk category following carotid ultrasound assessment than controls. This was independently explained by the disease activity.

5.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a leading cause of mortality in patients with connective tissue diseases (CTD). Lung transplantation has become a viable option for patients with end-stage CTD-ILD. However, patients with CTD are often considered suboptimal candidates for lung transplantation because of concerns of worse outcomes. We assessed post-transplant survival of patients with CTD-ILD compared to patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). METHODS: Medical records of patients who underwent lung transplantation for CTD-ILD at a single referral centre for lung transplantation in Northern Spain between 1998 and 2018 were reviewed. This cohort was compared with patients with IPF (group-matched for age ±3.3 years, transplant year and use of basiliximab induction previous to transplant). Cumulative survival rates after transplantation were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared between groups using the log-rank test. RESULTS: We studied 26 patients with CTD-ILD and 26 patients with IPF. The underlying diseases of CTD-ILD patients were rheumatoid arthritis (n=9), scleroderma (n=6), Sjögren's syndrome (n=4), ANCA-associated vasculitis (n=3), anti-synthetase syndrome (n=2), and dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus (1 each). Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. CTD-ILD patients experienced acute graft rejection less commonly than those with IPF (32.0% vs. 62.5%; p=0.032). However, a non-statistically significant increased frequency of chronic graft rejection was observed in CTD-ILD patients (20.0% vs. 8.3%; p=0.417). In this regard, the 5-year cumulative survival rates after transplantation was reduced in CTD-ILD (42.4% vs. 65.8%) but the difference did not achieve statistical significance (p=0.075). CONCLUSIONS: Long-term post-transplant survival in Northern Spanish patients with CTD-ILD is reduced compared with IPF.

6.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1796, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428096

RESUMO

Vasculitides are a heterogeneous group of low frequent disorders, mainly characterized by the inflammation of blood vessels that narrows or occlude the lumen and limits the blood flow, leading eventually to significant tissue and organ damage. These disorders are classified depending on the size of the affected blood vessels in large, medium, and small vessel vasculitis. Currently, it is known that these syndromes show a complex etiology in which both environmental and genetic factors play a major role in their development. So far, these conditions are not curable and the therapeutic approaches are mainly symptomatic. Moreover, a percentage of the patients do not adequately respond to standard treatments. Over the last years, numerous genetic studies have been carried out to identify susceptibility loci and biological pathways involved in vasculitis pathogenesis as well as potential genetic predictors of treatment response. The ultimate goal of these studies is to identify new therapeutic targets and to improve the use of existing drugs to achieve more effective treatments. This review will focus on the main advances made in the field of genetics and pharmacogenetics of vasculitis and their potential application for ameliorating long-term outcomes in patient management and in the development of precision medicine.

7.
BMC Geriatr ; 19(1): 200, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Giant cell arteritis is a vasculitis of large and middle-sized arteries that affects patients aged over 50 years. It can show a typical clinical picture consisting of cranial manifestations but sometimes nonspecific symptoms and large-vessel involvement prevail. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is essential to avoid irreversible damage. DISCUSSION: There has been an increasing knowledge on the occurrence of the disease without the typical cranial symptoms and its close relationship and overlap with polymyalgia rheumatica, and this may contribute to reduce the number of underdiagnosed patients. Although temporal artery biopsy is still the gold-standard and temporal artery ultrasonography is being widely used, newer imaging techniques (FDG-PET/TAC, MRI, CT) can be of valuable help to identify giant cell arteritis, in particular in those cases with a predominance of extracranial large-vessel manifestations. CONCLUSIONS: Giant cell arteritis is a more heterogeneous condition than previously thought. Awareness of all the potential clinical manifestations and judicious use of diagnostic tests may be an aid to avoid delayed detection and consequently ominous complications.

9.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 165: 230-239, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034796

RESUMO

Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is the most common form of vasculitis in adults. Cranial manifestations are typical clinical features of this vasculitis. Sometimes the presenting symptoms are nonspecific and, in some cases, large-vessel involvement may prevail. Polymyalgia rheumatica is a frequent manifestation that in some cases may be the presenting symptom of GCA. Visual complications, in particular the risk of blindness, constitute the most feared manifestations of GCA. Prompt recognition of this vasculitis is required to avoid irreversible complications. Prednisone/prednisolone at a dose of 40-60 mg/day is the cornerstone therapy in GCA. Glucocorticoids lead to rapid improvement of symptoms and may reduce the risk of irreversible visual loss. However, relapses are common when the prednisone dose is tapered. Therefore, additional therapies are required in relapsing GCA or when a rapid reduction of glucocorticoids is needed. The most widely used conventional immunosuppressive drug is methotrexate Adjunctive treatment with methotrexate may decrease the risk of relapses and reduce glucocorticoid exposure. However, comprehensive reviews indicate that the efficacy of methotrexate in GCA is modest. The experience with other conventional immunosuppressive drugs in GCA patients is scarce. In some cases, the new biologic agents are required. Among them, the most frequently used is the recombinant humanized anti-IL-6 receptor antibody tocilizumab. It improves clinical symptoms, reduce the cumulative prednisone dose and the frequency of relapses in GCA patients. However, anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy is not useful in GCA. Promising results on other biologic agents, such as abatacept, ustekinumab or anakinra, require further confirmatory studies.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033231

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of comorbidities on the physical function in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of the baseline visit from the CARMA study. Multivariate models with physical function as the dependent variable (BASFI and HAQ for AS and PsA, respectively) were performed. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES: A proxy for the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCIp) (range: 0-27); sociodemographic data; disease activity (ESR and BASDAI in AS; DAS28-ESR in PsA); disease duration; radiographic damage and treatments. Results were reported as ß-coefficients, 95% confidence intervals [95%CI] and p-values. RESULTS: We included 738 patients with AS and 721 with PsA; 21% of them had more than one comorbidity. Comorbidity burden (CCIp) was independently associated with worse adjusted physical function in patients with PsA (ß: 0.11). Also, female sex (ß: 0.14), disease duration (ß: 0.01), disease activity (DAS28-ESR, ß: 0.19), NSAIDs (ß: 0.09), glucocorticoids (ß: 0.11) and biologics (ß: 0.15) were associated with worse function in patients with PsA. A higher educational level was associated with less disability (ß: -0.14). In patients with AS, age (ß: 0.03), disease activity (BASDAI; ß: 0.81), radiographic damage (ß: 0.61) and the use of biologics (ß: 0.51) were independently associated with worse function on multivariate analyses, but CCIp was not. CONCLUSION: The presence of comorbidities in patients with PsA is independently associated with worse physical function. The detection and control of the comorbidities may yield an integral management of the disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

11.
Neurol Clin ; 37(2): 219-234, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952406

RESUMO

"Vasculitides are a heterogeneous group of inflammatory diseases of blood vessels in which genetic variation plays an important role in their susceptibility and clinical spectrum. Because of the use of novel technologies and the increase of the sample size of the study cohorts, the knowledge of the genetic background of vasculitides has considerably expanded during the last years. However, few insights have been obtained regarding the genetics underlying severe clinical phenotypes, such as those related to the nervous system. In this review the authors provide an updated overview of the genetic landscape behind vasculitis predisposition and development of neurologic manifestations."


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Vasculite/complicações , Vasculite/genética , Humanos
12.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 165: 221-229, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904473

RESUMO

Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is an inflammatory disease characterized by bilateral pain involving predominantly the shoulders and proximal aspects of the arms and less commonly the neck and the pelvic girdle. This review discusses briefly the main epidemiological data and clinical features of this condition. Especial attention is paid in the management of the disease. For this reason, both the classic management and the impact of new therapies are discussed in depth. In general, patients with PMR experience a rapid response to 12.5-25 mg/prednisone/day in less than a week. Patients with poor response to glucocorticoids or with relapsing disease require other therapies aimed mainly to spare glucocorticoids. Among them, methotrexate is the most commonly used. Nevertheless, different studies indicate that this agent yields only a modest effect. Biologic therapies against the main cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of the disease have been used in refractory patients. However, randomized controlled trials do not support the use of anti-tumor necrosis factor agents in PMR. In contrast, several case series and retrospective studies highlight the efficacy of the anti-interleukin-6 receptor tocilizumab in PMR. Nonetheless, controlled trials are needed to fully establish the beneficial effect of this agent. The potential favorable effect of the Janus-kinase inhibitors and new anti-interleukin-6 antagonists remains to be determined.

13.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 165: 196-206, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910694

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a cluster of metabolic and cardiovascular complications, including obesity and visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and hypertension, which directly increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). Patients with arthritic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, have a higher incidence of CVD. Although recent advances in the treatment of arthritic diseases, the incidence of CVD remains elevated, and MetS has been identified as a possible link between CVD and arthritic diseases. Chronic low-grade inflammation associated with obesity has been established as a significant contributing factor to the increased prevalence of MetS. Adipokines, which play important physiological roles in metabolic activities contributing to the pathogenesis of MetS, are also involved in the regulation of autoimmune and/or inflammatory processes associated with arthritic diseases. Therefore, MetS and dysregulated secretion of pro-inflammatory adipokines have been recognized as a molecular link between CVD and arthritis diseases. In the present paper, we review recent evidence supporting the role played by adipokines, in particular leptin, adiponectin, and lipocalin-2, in the modulation of the immune system, MetS and arthritic diseases. The underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are discussed, as well as potential new therapeutic strategies.

14.
Expert Opin Biol Ther ; 19(4): 273-286, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827128

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adult-onset Still´s disease (AOSD) is a systemic inflammatory condition that affects mainly young people. The clinical course consists of two distinctive patterns: one with a predominance of systemic symptoms and another manifested by progressive chronic polyarthritis. Glucocorticoids remain the mainstay in the treatment of AOSD. However, biologic therapies are often required to achieve clinical remission and allow glucocorticoid discontinuation. Areas covered: The review summarizes the main retrospective and prospective studies, and case series on the use of the anti-interleukin (IL)-6 receptor tocilizumab in AOSD. Expert opinion: Since IL-6 serum levels are highly increased in both active systemic and polyarticular phenotypes, IL-6 blockade was considered to be a plausible therapeutic option for the management of AOSD. Tocilizumab, the only anti-IL-6-receptor antagonist currently available for AOSD, has proved to be effective for the management of refractory AOSD patients, including those with life-threatening complications. Nevertheless, there are some reports describing patients who are refractory to any therapy. Future research should focus on the identification of prognostic biomarkers that help us to tailor an individualized treatment for each type of patient and in the search of new disease activity indices that help us to monitor the response to the therapy more closely.

15.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37(5): 774-782, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789151

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular (CV) disease is one of the main causes of morbi-mortality in spondyloarthritis (SpA), partially explained by traditional CV risk factors. Information on lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], a non-conventional risk factor, in SpA is scarce. In this study we assessed the prevalence of hyperlipoproteinaemia(a) in SpA patients and analysed the possible related factors. METHODS: A baseline analysis was made of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients and controls included in the CARMA project (CARdiovascular in RheuMAtology), a 10-year prospective study evaluating the risk of CV events in chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases. A multivariate logistic regression model was performed using hyperlipoproteinaemia(a) (Lp(a) >50 mg/dl) as a dependent variable and adjusting for confounding factors. RESULTS: 19.2% (95% CI: 16.80-22.05) of the SpA patients [20.7% (95% CI: 16.91-24.82) of those with AS and 17.7% (95% CI: 14.15-21.75) of those with PsA] and 16.7% (95% CI: 13.23-20.86) of the controls had hyperlipoproteinaemia(a) (p=0.326). Adjusting for age and sex, SpA patients were more likely to have hyperlipoproteinaemia(a) than controls (OR: 1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; p=0.05), especially those with AS (OR: 1.81, 95%CI: 1.18-2.77; p=0.007). In the adjusted model, apolipoprotein B in all patients, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in AS, and female sex in PsA, were associated with hyperlipoproteinaemia(a). No disease-specific factors associated with hyperlipoproteinaemia(a) were identified. CONCLUSIONS: SpA patients show a moderately increased risk of hyperlipoproteinaemia(a) compared to controls, especially those with AS. Lp(a) determination may be of interest to improve the CV risk assessment in SpA patients.


Assuntos
Hiperlipoproteinemias , Espondilartrite , Artrite Psoriásica , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espondilartrite/sangue , Espondilartrite/epidemiologia
16.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37(4): 694-704, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767864

RESUMO

Numerous cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, and their dysregulation is a main feature of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Cytokines stimulate signal transduction through several intracellular pathways, including Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathways, leading to changes in cell activation, proliferation and survival. Consequently, agents that selectively target elements of the JAK/STAT pathways have received significant attention in recent years as potential new treatments for the disease. Baricitinib, an oral selective inhibitor of JAK1 and JAK2, offers an effective treatment for RA in a wide range of patients. The in vitro selectivity of different JAK inhibitors is an important consideration given that key cytokines, growth factors and hormone receptors involved in the pathogenesis of RA signal through specific JAKs. However, it is complex and far from understood how the in vitro effects of JAK inhibitors extrapolate into in vivo and clinical effects in individual patients. This narrative review focuses on the clinical efficacy and safety of baricitinib, but also provides an overview of its mechanism of action in relation to JAK1/JAK2 signalling and discusses the possible clinical implications in patients with RA.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide , Janus Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/enzimologia , Azetidinas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Janus Quinase 1 , Janus Quinase 2 , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico
17.
J Rheumatol ; 46(5): 483-491, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30647175

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Composite scores of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors underestimate the CV risk in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Carotid artery ultrasound (US) was found useful in identifying high CV-risk patients with inflammatory arthritis. We assessed the effect of carotid US assessments on the CV risk stratification of patients with SLE. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 276 patients with SLE. These indices were measured: lipid profile, Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) risk calculation, and disease activity (SLE Disease Activity Index), severity (Katz), and damage [Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC)/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index]. Carotid plaques were assessed by US. A multivariable regression analysis, adjusted for classic CV-related factors, was performed to evaluate how risk reclassification was influenced by disease characteristics in patients with SLE. RESULTS: Thirty-six percent of patients had carotid plaques. However, only 6% of them fulfilled the definitions for high or very high risk according to the SCORE risk charts. Following carotid US assessment, 32% of the patients were reclassified as very high risk. Disease duration (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.07, p = 0.025) and a SLICC > 0 (OR 2.48 95% CI 1.15-5.34, p = 0.020) were independently associated with a higher risk of reclassification. A predictive model for reclassification included age (cutoff 52 yrs, sensitivity 60%, specificity 86%), disease duration (cutoff 24 yrs, sensitivity 40%, specificity 82%), presence of hypertension, SLICC > 0, waist circumference (cutoff 102 cm, sensitivity 48%, specificity 84%), and C3 (cutoff 127 mg/dl, sensitivity 52%, specificity 92%) and triglyceride (cutoff 140 mg/dl, sensitivity 68%, specificity 79%) serum levels. CONCLUSION: Reclassification into a very high-risk category is frequent after carotid US assessments in patients with SLE. This is independently influenced by disease damage.

18.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 200: 85-94, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660771

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cystoid macular edema (CME) is a leading cause of blindness. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab (TCZ) in refractory CME. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Patients with CME secondary to noninfectious uveitis who had inadequate response to corticosteroids and at least 1 conventional immunosuppressive drug, and in most cases to other biological agents, were studied. CME was defined as central retinal thickness greater than 300 µm. The primary outcome measure was macular thickness. Intraocular inflammation, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and corticosteroid-sparing effect were also analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 25 patients (mean ± standard deviation age 33.6 ± 18.9 years; 17 women) with CME were assessed. Underlying diseases associated with uveitis-related CME are juvenile idiopathic arthritis (n = 9), Behçet disease (n = 7), birdshot retinochoroidopathy (n = 4), idiopathic (n = 4), and sarcoidosis (n = 1). The ocular patterns were panuveitis (n = 9), anterior uveitis (n = 7), posterior uveitis (n = 5), and intermediate uveitis (n = 4). Most patients had CME in both eyes (n = 24). TCZ was used in monotherapy (n = 11) or combined with conventional immunosuppressive drugs. Regardless of the underlying disease, compared to baseline, a statistically significant improvement in macular thickness (415.7 ± 177.2 vs 259.1 ± 499.5 µm; P = .00009) and BCVA (0.39 ± 0.31 vs 0.54 ± 0.33; P = .0002) was obtained, allowing us to reduce the daily dose of prednisone (15.9 ± 13.6 mg/day vs 3.1 ± 2.3 mg/day; P = .002) after 12 months of therapy. Remission was achieved in 14 patients. Only minor side effects were observed after a mean follow-up of 12.7 ± 8.34 months. CONCLUSION: Macular thickness is reduced following administration of TCZ in refractory uveitis-related CME.

19.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(7): 1042-1055, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663869

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of cardiovascular and venous thromboembolic events in clinical studies of baricitinib, an oral, selective JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor approved in more than 50 countries for the treatment of moderately-to-severely active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Data were pooled from 9 RA studies. Placebo comparison up to 24 weeks included data from 6 studies. Randomized dose comparison between baricitinib doses of 2 mg and 4 mg used data from 4 studies and from the associated long-term extension study. The data analysis set designated "All-bari-RA" included all baricitinib exposures at any dose. RESULTS: Overall, 3,492 RA patients received baricitinib (7,860 patient-years of exposure). No imbalance compared to the placebo group was seen in the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (incidence rates [IRs] of 0.5 per 100 patient-years for placebo and 0.8 per 100 patient-years for 4 mg baricitinib), arterial thrombotic events (ATE) (IRs of 0.5 per 100 patient-years for placebo and 0.5 per 100 patient-years for 4 mg baricitinib), or congestive heart failure (CHF) broad term (IRs of 4.3 per 100 patient-years for placebo and 2.4 per 100 patient-years for 4 mg baricitinib). Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)/pulmonary embolism (PE) were reported in 0 of 1,070 patients treated with placebo and 6 of 997 patients treated with 4 mg baricitinib during the placebo-controlled period; these events were serious in 2 of 6 patients, while all 6 had risk factors and 1 patient developed DVT/PE after discontinuation of the study drug. In the 2 mg-4 mg-extended data analysis set, IRs of DVT/PE were comparable between the doses across event types (IRs of 0.5 per 100 patient-years in those receiving 2 mg baricitinib and 0.6 per 100 patient-years in those receiving 4 mg baricitinib). In the All-bari-RA data analysis set, the rates were stable over time, with an IR of DVT/PE of 0.5 per 100 patient-years. CONCLUSION: In RA clinical trials, no association was found between baricitinib treatment and the incidence of MACE, ATE, or CHF. With regard to incidence of DVT/PE, 6 events occurred in patients treated with 4 mg baricitinib, but no cases of DVT/PE were reported in the placebo group. During longer-term evaluation, the incidence of DVT/PE was similar between the baricitinib dose groups, with consistent IR values over time, and this was similar to the rates previously reported in patients with RA.

20.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37(5): 731-739, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30620291

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence and risk factors of first cardiovascular event (CVE) in patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases (CIRD). METHODS: Analysis of data after 2.5 years of follow-up from the prospective study CARMA project, that includes patients with CIRD [rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and psoriatic arthritis (PsA)] and matched individuals without CIRD from 67 hospitals in Spain. CVE cumulative incidence per 1000 patients was calculated after 2.5 years from the start of the project. Weibull proportional hazard model was used to calculate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of the risk factors. RESULTS: 2595 (89.1%) patients completed the 2.5 years of follow-up visit. Cumulative incidence of CVE in patients with CIRD was 15.30 cases per 1000 patients (95% CI: 12.93-17.67), being higher in the subgroup with AS; 22.03 (95% CI: 11.01-33.04). Patients with AS (HR: 4.11; 95% CI: 1.07-15.79), those with older age (HR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.05-1.13), systolic hypertension (HR: 1.02; 95% CI: 1.00-1.04) and long duration of the disease (HR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.03-1.12) were at higher risk of first CVE during the 2.5 years of follow-up. In contrast, female gender was a protective factor (HR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.18-1.00). CONCLUSIONS: Among CIRD patients prospectively followed-up at rheumatology outpatient clinics, those with AS show higher risk of first CVE. Besides cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, being a man and older as well as having a long disease duration increase the risk of CVE in patients with CIRD.


Assuntos
Artrite Psoriásica/epidemiologia , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Espondilite Anquilosante/epidemiologia , Idoso , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Doenças Reumáticas/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
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