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1.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 82, 2019 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures present at the terminal region of the chromosomes. Mutations in genes coding for proteins involved in telomere maintenance are causative of a number of disorders known as telomeropathies. The genetic origin of these diseases is heterogeneous and has not been determined for a significant proportion of patients. METHODS: This article describes the genetic characterization of a cohort of patients. Telomere length was determined by Southern blot and quantitative PCR. Nucleotide variants were analyzed either by high-resolution melting analysis and Sanger sequencing of selected exons or by massive sequencing of a panel of genes. RESULTS: Forty-seven patients with telomere length below the 10% of normal population, affected with three telomeropathies: dyskeratosis congenita (4), aplastic anemia (22) or pulmonary fibrosis (21) were analyzed. Eighteen of these patients presented known pathogenic or novel possibly pathogenic variants in the telomere-related genes TERT, TERC, RTEL1, CTC1 and ACD. In addition, the analyses of a panel of 188 genes related to haematological disorders indicated that a relevant proportion of the patients (up to 35%) presented rare variants in genes related to DNA repair or in genes coding for proteins involved in the resolution of complex DNA structures, that participate in telomere replication. Mutations in some of these genes are causative of several syndromes previously associated to telomere shortening. CONCLUSION: Novel variants in telomere, DNA repair and replication genes are described that might indicate the contribution of variants in these genes to the development of telomeropathies. Patients carrying variants in telomere-related genes presented worse evolution after diagnosis than the rest of patients analyzed.


Assuntos
Anemia Aplástica/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Disceratose Congênita/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Encurtamento do Telômero/genética , Telômero/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Linhagem , RNA/genética , Telomerase/genética , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(1): 45-54, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30547383

RESUMO

Studies of chest computed tomography (CT) in patients with primary antibody deficiency syndromes (ADS) suggest a broad range of bronchial pathology. However, there are as yet no multicentre studies to assess the variety of bronchial pathology in this patient group. One of the underlying reasons is the lack of a consensus methodology, a prerequisite to jointly document chest CT findings. We aimed to establish an international platform for the evaluation of bronchial pathology as assessed by chest CT and to describe the range of bronchial pathologies in patients with antibody deficiency. Ffteen immunodeficiency centres from 9 countries evaluated chest CT scans of patients with ADS using a predefined list of potential findings including an extent score for bronchiectasis. Data of 282 patients with ADS were collected. Patients with common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID) comprised the largest subgroup (232 patients, 82.3%). Eighty percent of CVID patients had radiological evidence of bronchial pathology including bronchiectasis in 61%, bronchial wall thickening in 44% and mucus plugging in 29%. Bronchiectasis was detected in 44% of CVID patients aged less than 20 years. Cough was a better predictor for bronchiectasis than spirometry values. Delay of diagnosis as well as duration of disease correlated positively with presence of bronchiectasis. The use of consensus diagnostic criteria and a pre-defined list of bronchial pathologies allows for comparison of chest CT data in multicentre studies. Our data suggest a high prevalence of bronchial pathology in CVID due to late diagnosis or duration of disease.


Assuntos
Brônquios/patologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/patologia , Parede Torácica/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bronquiectasia/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Espirometria/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postzygotic de novo mutations lead to the phenomenon of gene mosaicism. The 3 main types are called somatic, gonadal, and gonosomal mosaicism, which differ in terms of the body distribution of postzygotic mutations. Mosaicism has been reported occasionally in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) since the early 1990s, but its real involvement has not been systematically addressed. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the incidence of gene mosaicism in patients with PIDs. METHODS: The amplicon-based deep sequencing method was used in the 3 parts of the study that establish (1) the allele frequency of germline variants (n = 100), (2) the incidence of parental gonosomal mosaicism in families with PIDs with de novo mutations (n = 92), and (3) the incidence of mosaicism in families with PIDs with moderate-to-high suspicion of gene mosaicism (n = 36). Additional investigations evaluated body distribution of postzygotic mutations, their stability over time, and their characteristics. RESULTS: The range of allele frequency (44.1% to 55.6%) was established for germline variants. Those with minor allele frequencies of less than 44.1% were assumed to be postzygotic. Mosaicism was detected in 30 (23.4%) of 128 families with PIDs, with a variable minor allele frequency (0.8% to 40.5%). Parental gonosomal mosaicism was detected in 6 (6.5%) of 92 families with de novo mutations, and a high incidence of mosaicism (63.9%) was detected among families with moderate-to-high suspicion of gene mosaicism. In most analyzed cases mosaicism was found to be both uniformly distributed and stable over time. CONCLUSION: This study represents the largest performed to date to investigate mosaicism in patients with PIDs, revealing that it affects approximately 25% of enrolled families. Our results might have serious consequences regarding treatment and genetic counseling and reinforce the use of next-generation sequencing-based methods in the routine analyses of PIDs.

5.
Pediatrics ; 142(3)2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The capsular group B meningococcal vaccine (4CMenB) is recommended for children with complement deficiencies, asplenia, and splenic dysfunction; however, data on the immunogenicity of 4CMenB in these "at-risk" children are missing. METHODS: Participants aged 2 to 17 years in Italy, Spain, Poland, the United Kingdom, and Russia with complement deficiencies, asplenia, or splenic dysfunction received 2 doses of 4CMenB 2 months apart, as did healthy children in the control group. Exogenous and endogenous human complement serum bactericidal activity (SBA) was determined at baseline and 1 month after the second immunization against 4 test strains: H44/76 (assessing vaccine antigen factor H binding protein), 5/99 (Neisserial adhesion A), NZ98/254 (Porin A), and M10713 (Neisserial heparin binding antigen). RESULTS: Of 239 participants (mean age 10.3 years, 45% female), 40 children were complement deficient (9 eculizumab therapy, 4 terminal-chain deficiencies, 27 "other"), 112 children had asplenia or splenic dysfunction (8 congenital asplenia, 8 functional asplenia, 96 splenectomy), and 87 children were in the control group. After immunization, the proportions of complement-deficient participants with exogenous complement SBA titers ≥1:5 were 87% (H44/76), 95% (5/99), 68% (NZ98/254), and 73% (M10713), compared with 97%, 100%, 86%, and 94%, respectively, for asplenic children and 98%, 99%, 83%, and 99% for children in the control group. When testing with endogenous complement, strain-specific bactericidal activity was evident in only 1 eculizumab-treated participant and 1 terminal chain complement-deficient participant. CONCLUSIONS: 4CMenB administration is similarly immunogenic in healthy children and those with asplenia or splenic dysfunction. The significance of the trend to lower responses of SBA titers in complement-deficient children (especially those with terminal chain complement deficiency or those on eculizumab therapy) must be determined by ongoing surveillance for vaccine failures.

6.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 89(2): 124.e1-124.e8, ago. 2018. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-177023

RESUMO

El síndrome hemofagocítico (SHF) o linfohistiocitosis hemofagocítica es una entidad con elevada mortalidad, típicamente reconocida en la edad pediátrica. Sin un correcto tratamiento, el SHF puede ser fatal: el riesgo de una rápida progresión a fallo multiorgánico y de afectación del sistema nervioso central con secuelas a largo plazo, son las consecuencias más graves de un retraso diagnóstico. Por lo tanto, el SHF es una urgencia médica que los pediatras deben saber identificar en un paciente con fiebre y afectación progresiva del estado general. La aplicación de los criterios diagnósticos de SHF, que consideran datos clínicos y analíticos (incluyendo un aspirado de médula ósea), y la búsqueda del factor desencadenante (infeccioso, oncológico, reumatológico, metabólico), son claves para poder instaurar un tratamiento dirigido, que neutralice el desencadenante y frene la hiperinflamación. En la presente revisión se exponen los datos más relevantes sobre la fisiopatología, diagnóstico y tratamiento de esta grave enfermedad para pediatras generales


Haemophagocytic syndrome, or haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), is a disorder with high mortality, typically recognised at paediatric age. Without proper treatment, HLH can be fatal. The risk of a rapid progression to multi-organ failure and central nervous system involvement leading to long-term sequelae, are the most feared consequences of a diagnostic delay. Therefore, HLH is a medical emergency that paediatricians should be able to identify in a patient with fever and progressive worsening of general condition. The application of the HLH diagnostic criteria, which include clinical and analytical data (as well as a bone marrow aspirate), and the search for a trigger (infectious, oncological, rheumatological, or metabolic). These are decisive for the establishment of a targeted treatment, which aims at neutralising the trigger and reducing the hyper-inflammation. The most relevant data for general paediatricians are presented in this review, including the physiopathology, diagnosis, and treatment of this serious disease


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/terapia , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Precoce , Sepse , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/fisiopatologia
7.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 89(2): 124.e1-124.e8, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29871839

RESUMO

Haemophagocytic syndrome, or haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), is a disorder with high mortality, typically recognised at paediatric age. Without proper treatment, HLH can be fatal. The risk of a rapid progression to multi-organ failure and central nervous system involvement leading to long-term sequelae, are the most feared consequences of a diagnostic delay. Therefore, HLH is a medical emergency that paediatricians should be able to identify in a patient with fever and progressive worsening of general condition. The application of the HLH diagnostic criteria, which include clinical and analytical data (as well as a bone marrow aspirate), and the search for a trigger (infectious, oncological, rheumatological, or metabolic). These are decisive for the establishment of a targeted treatment, which aims at neutralising the trigger and reducing the hyper-inflammation. The most relevant data for general paediatricians are presented in this review, including the physiopathology, diagnosis, and treatment of this serious disease.

8.
Blood ; 131(21): 2335-2344, 2018 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29653965

RESUMO

Integrity of the T-cell receptor/CD3 complex is crucial for positive and negative selection of T cells in the thymus and for effector and regulatory functions of peripheral T lymphocytes. In humans, CD3D, CD3E, and CD3Z gene defects are a cause of severe immune deficiency and present early in life with increased susceptibility to infections. By contrast, CD3G mutations lead to milder phenotypes, mainly characterized by autoimmunity. However, the role of CD3γ in establishing and maintaining immune tolerance has not been elucidated. In this manuscript, we aimed to investigate abnormalities of T-cell repertoire and function in patients with genetic defects in CD3G associated with autoimmunity. High throughput sequencing was used to study composition and diversity of the T-cell receptor ß (TRB) repertoire in regulatory T cells (Tregs), conventional CD4+ (Tconv), and CD8+ T cells from 6 patients with CD3G mutations and healthy controls. Treg function was assessed by studying its ability to suppress proliferation of Tconv cells. Treg cells of patients with CD3G defects had reduced diversity, increased clonality, and reduced suppressive function. The TRB repertoire of Tconv cells from patients with CD3G deficiency was enriched for hydrophobic amino acids at positions 6 and 7 of the CDR3, a biomarker of self-reactivity. These data demonstrate that the T-cell repertoire of patients with CD3G mutations is characterized by a molecular signature that may contribute to the increased rate of autoimmunity associated with this condition.

9.
Eur J Med Genet ; 61(7): 393-398, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29477862

RESUMO

Genetic defects of NKX2-1 are classically associated with hypothyroidism, benign chorea and neonatal respiratory distress. The purpose of this study was to identify the genetic pathogenesis of the "NKX2-1 triad" in a 10 year-old female presenting additional features barely described in the disorder. In the neonatal period, she presented with generalized hypotonia and respiratory distress, with later episodes of frequent wheezing. At 3 month-age developmental dysplasia of the hip was diagnosed and at 10 months, primary hypothyroidism was detected and treated. Subsequently, delayed achievement of developmental milestones and then subtle choreic movements of extremities were identified at 2 years of age. Furthermore, delayed teeth eruption and agenesis of some dental pieces, short stature and joint hyperlaxity were also noticed. At 10 years, a poor immune response to polysaccharide antigens and hypogammaglobulinemia, including all IgG subclasses were detected. Surprisingly, no mutations were identified in the complete coding region of NKX2-1 by PCR and Sanger sequencing. MLPA showed a de novo loss of gene dosage in all 3 probes located in NKX2-1 exons. A CGH-array identified a deletion of 3.32 Mb in chromosome 14q13.2-q21.1 containing 20 genes, including NKX2-1, PAX9 and two candidate genes (NFKB1A and PPP2R3C) involved in immune response. The Brain-Lung-Thyroid syndrome (OMIM#610978; ORPHA:209905) associated with other clinical phenotypes should suggest monoallelic deletions of chromosome 14 causing haploinsufficiency of NKX2-1, and other contiguous genes like PAX9 (hypodontia) or other dosage-sensitive genes in the chromosomal vicinity that emerge as candidates for hypogammaglobulinemia, mainly NFKBIA.


Assuntos
Atetose/genética , Coreia/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 14/genética , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/genética , Criança , Deleção Cromossômica , Feminino , Humanos , Fenótipo
10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(1): 322-328.e10, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28392333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare DNA breakage repair disorders predispose to infection and lymphoreticular malignancies. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is curative, but coadministered chemotherapy or radiotherapy is damaging because of systemic radiosensitivity. We collected HCT outcome data for Nijmegen breakage syndrome, DNA ligase IV deficiency, Cernunnos-XRCC4-like factor (Cernunnos-XLF) deficiency, and ataxia-telangiectasia (AT). METHODS: Data from 38 centers worldwide, including indication, donor, conditioning regimen, graft-versus-host disease, and outcome, were analyzed. Conditioning was classified as myeloablative conditioning (MAC) if it contained radiotherapy or alkylators and reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) if no alkylators and/or 150 mg/m2 fludarabine or less and 40 mg/kg cyclophosphamide or less were used. RESULTS: Fifty-five new, 14 updated, and 18 previously published patients were analyzed. Median age at HCT was 48 months (range, 1.5-552 months). Twenty-nine patients underwent transplantation for infection, 21 had malignancy, 13 had bone marrow failure, 13 received pre-emptive transplantation, 5 had multiple indications, and 6 had no information. Twenty-two received MAC, 59 received RIC, and 4 were infused; information was unavailable for 2 patients. Seventy-three of 77 patients with DNA ligase IV deficiency, Cernunnos-XLF deficiency, or Nijmegen breakage syndrome received conditioning. Survival was 53 (69%) of 77 and was worse for those receiving MAC than for those receiving RIC (P = .006). Most deaths occurred early after transplantation, suggesting poor tolerance of conditioning. Survival in patients with AT was 25%. Forty-one (49%) of 83 patients experienced acute GvHD, which was less frequent in those receiving RIC compared with those receiving MAC (26/56 [46%] vs 12/21 [57%], P = .45). Median follow-up was 35 months (range, 2-168 months). No secondary malignancies were reported during 15 years of follow-up. Growth and developmental delay remained after HCT; immune-mediated complications resolved. CONCLUSION: RIC HCT resolves DNA repair disorder-associated immunodeficiency. Long-term follow-up is required for secondary malignancy surveillance. Routine HCT for AT is not recommended.

11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 139(4): 1302-1310.e4, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27658761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Absent T-cell immunity resulting in life-threatening infections provides a clear rationale for hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Combined immunodeficiencies (CIDs) and "atypical" SCID show reduced, not absent T-cell immunity. If associated with infections or autoimmunity, they represent profound combined immunodeficiency (P-CID), for which outcome data are insufficient for unambiguous early transplant decisions. OBJECTIVES: We sought to compare natural histories of severity-matched patients with/without subsequent transplantation and to determine whether immunologic and/or clinical parameters may be predictive for outcome. METHODS: In this prospective and retrospective observational study, we recruited nontransplanted patients with P-CID aged 1 to 16 years to compare natural histories of severity-matched patients with/without subsequent transplantation and to determine whether immunologic and/or clinical parameters may be predictive for outcome. RESULTS: A total of 51 patients were recruited (median age, 9.6 years). Thirteen of 51 had a genetic diagnosis of "atypical" SCID and 14 of 51 of CID. About half of the patients had less than 10% naive T cells, reduced/absent T-cell proliferation, and at least 1 significant clinical event/year, demonstrating their profound immunodeficiency. Nineteen patients (37%) underwent transplantation within 1 year of enrolment, and 5 of 51 patients died. Analysis of the HSCT decisions revealed the anticipated heterogeneity, favoring an ongoing prospective matched-pair analysis of patients with similar disease severity with or without transplantation. Importantly, so far neither the genetic diagnosis nor basic measurements of T-cell immunity were good predictors of disease evolution. CONCLUSIONS: The P-CID study for the first time characterizes a group of patients with nontypical SCID T-cell deficiencies from a therapeutic perspective. Because genetic and basic T-cell parameters provide limited guidance, prospective data from this study will be a helpful resource for guiding the difficult HSCT decisions in patients with P-CID.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/patologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa
12.
Front Immunol ; 7: 443, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27833609

RESUMO

Reported synonymous substitutions are generally non-pathogenic, and rare pathogenic synonymous variants may be disregarded unless there is a high index of suspicion. In a case of IL7 receptor deficiency severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), the relevance of a non-reported synonymous variant was only suspected through the use of additional in silico computational tools, which focused on the impact of mutations on gene splicing. The pathogenic nature of the variant was confirmed using experimental validation of the effect on mRNA splicing and IL7 pathway function. This case reinforces the need to use additional experimental methods to establish the functional impact of specific mutations, in particular for cases such as SCID where prompt diagnosis can greatly impact on diagnosis, treatment, and survival.

13.
Immunobiology ; 221(1): 40-7, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26323380

RESUMO

Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by impaired Fas/FasL-mediated apoptosis of lymphocytes and is characterized by chronic nonmalignant or benign lymphoproliferation, autoimmune manifestations and expansion of double negative (DN) T-cells (TCRαß+CD4-CD8-). Most cases of ALPS are associated with germline (ALPS-FAS) or somatic (ALPS-sFAS) heterozygous FAS mutations or a combination of both. Here we report three unrelated patients with ALPS-sFAS. Only one of them showed impaired Fas function in PHA-activated T-cells. In this patient, the genetic analysis of the caspase-10 gene (CASP10) identified a heterozygous germline change in exon 9 (c.1337A>G) causing Y446C substitution in the caspase-10 protein. In addition, this patient had a dysregulated T- and B-cell phenotype; circulating lymphocytes showed expansion of T effector memory CD45RA+ (TEMRA) CD4 T-cells, effector memory CD8 T-cells, CD21(low) B-cells and reduced memory switched B-cells. Additionally, this patient showed altered expression in T-cells of several molecules that change during differentiation from naïve to effector cells (CD27, CD95, CD57 and perforin). Molecular alterations in genes of the Fas pathway are necessary for the development of ALPS and this syndrome could be influenced by the concurrent effect of other mutations hitting different genes involved in Fas or related pathways.


Assuntos
Síndrome Linfoproliferativa Autoimune/genética , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Caspase 10/genética , Receptor fas/genética , Adolescente , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Síndrome Linfoproliferativa Autoimune/imunologia , Síndrome Linfoproliferativa Autoimune/patologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Caspase 10/imunologia , Éxons , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Doenças Linfáticas/genética , Doenças Linfáticas/imunologia , Doenças Linfáticas/patologia , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Perforina/genética , Perforina/imunologia , Fito-Hemaglutininas/farmacologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Esplenomegalia/genética , Esplenomegalia/imunologia , Esplenomegalia/patologia , Receptor fas/imunologia
14.
Pediatr Res ; 78(6): 603-8, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26334989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by chronic lymphoproliferation, autoimmune manifestations, expansion of double-negative T-cells, and susceptibility to malignancies. Most cases of ALPS are caused by germline or somatic FAS mutations. We report the case of an ALPS patient due to a novel homozygous Fasligand gene mutation (ALPS-FASLG). METHODS: ALPS biomarkers were measured and FASLG mutation was identified. Functional characterization was carried out based on activation-induced cell death (AICD) and cytotoxicity assays. RESULTS: This report describes the cases of a patient who presented a severe form of ALPS-FASLG, and his brother who had died due to complications related to ALPS. Moreover, in another family, we present the first case of lymphoma in a patient with ALPS-FASLG. Functional studies showed defective Fasligand-mediated apoptosis, cytotoxicity, and AICD in T-cell blasts. Otherwise, expression of the FASLG gene and corresponding protein was normal, but the shedding of the Fasligand was impaired in T-cells. Additionally, analyzing Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B-cells, our results indicate impaired AICD in ALPS-FASLG patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with autosomal recessive inheritance of ALPS-FASLG have a severe phenotype and a partial defect in AICD in T- and B-cell lines. The Fasligand could play a key role in immune surveillance preventing malignancy.


Assuntos
Síndrome Linfoproliferativa Autoimune/genética , Linfócitos B/virologia , Transformação Celular Viral , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Proteína Ligante Fas/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 4/patogenicidade , Linfoma/genética , Mutação , Adulto , Apoptose , Síndrome Linfoproliferativa Autoimune/diagnóstico , Síndrome Linfoproliferativa Autoimune/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Linfoproliferativa Autoimune/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Consanguinidade , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Proteína Ligante Fas/imunologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Células HEK293 , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Células Jurkat , Linfoma/imunologia , Linfoma/patologia , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/patologia , Transfecção
15.
Haematologica ; 100(7): 978-88, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26022711

RESUMO

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a hyperinflammatory syndrome defined by clinical and laboratory criteria. Current criteria were created to identify patients with familial hemophagocytic lmyphohistiocytosis in immediate need of immunosuppressive therapy. However, these criteria also identify patients with infection-associated hemophagocytic inflammatory states lacking genetic defects typically predisposing to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. These patients include those with primary immunodeficiencies, in whom the pathogenesis of the inflammatory syndrome may be distinctive and aggressive immunosuppression is contraindicated. To better characterize hemophagocytic inflammation associated with immunodeficiencies, we combined an international survey with a literature search and identified 63 patients with primary immunodeficiencies other than cytotoxicity defects or X-linked lymphoproliferative disorders, presenting with conditions fulfilling current criteria for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Twelve patients had severe combined immunodeficiency with <100/µL T cells, 18 had partial T-cell deficiencies; episodes of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis were mostly associated with viral infections. Twenty-two patients had chronic granulomatous disease with hemophagocytic episodes mainly associated with bacterial infections. Compared to patients with cytotoxicity defects, patients with T-cell deficiencies had lower levels of soluble CD25 and higher ferritin concentrations. Other criteria for hemophagocytoc lymphohistiocytosis were not discriminative. Thus: (i) a hemophagocytic inflammatory syndrome fulfilling criteria for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis can be the initial manifestation of primary immunodeficiencies; (ii) this syndrome can develop despite severe deficiency of T and NK cells, implying that the pathophysiology is distinct and not appropriately described as "lympho"-histiocytosis in these patients; and (iii) current criteria for hemophagocytoc lymphohistiocytosis are insufficient to differentiate hemophagocytic inflammatory syndromes with different pathogeneses. This is important because of implications for therapy, in particular for protocols targeting T cells.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/diagnóstico , Sistema de Registros , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Leishmaniose/complicações , Leishmaniose/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose/imunologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/tratamento farmacológico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/imunologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/patologia , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/complicações , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/imunologia , Masculino , Micoses/complicações , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/imunologia , Infecções Oportunistas/complicações , Infecções Oportunistas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oportunistas/imunologia , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/patologia , Terminologia como Assunto , Viroses/complicações , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Viroses/imunologia
19.
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