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1.
J Med Genet ; 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494577

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lynch syndrome (LS) and constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) are hereditary cancer syndromes associated with mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency. Tumours show microsatellite instability (MSI), also reported at low levels in non-neoplastic tissues. Our aim was to evaluate the performance of high-sensitivity MSI (hs-MSI) assessment for the identification of LS and CMMRD in non-neoplastic tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood DNA samples from 131 individuals were grouped into three cohorts: baseline (22 controls), training (11 CMMRD, 48 LS and 15 controls) and validation (18 CMMRD and 18 controls). Custom next generation sequencing panel and bioinformatics pipeline were used to detect insertions and deletions in microsatellite markers. An hs-MSI score was calculated representing the percentage of unstable markers. RESULTS: The hs-MSI score was significantly higher in CMMRD blood samples when compared with controls in the training cohort (p<0.001). This finding was confirmed in the validation set, reaching 100% specificity and sensitivity. Higher hs-MSI scores were detected in biallelic MSH2 carriers (n=5) compared with MSH6 carriers (n=15). The hs-MSI analysis did not detect a difference between LS and control blood samples (p=0.564). CONCLUSIONS: The hs-MSI approach is a valuable tool for CMMRD diagnosis, especially in suspected patients harbouring MMR variants of unknown significance or non-detected biallelic germline mutations.

2.
Front Immunol ; 10: 586, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30984175

RESUMO

Background: Immunodeficiencies (ID), in particular primary immunodeficiencies (PID), are often associated with haematological manifestations, such as peripheral cytopenias or lymphoproliferative syndromes. Early diagnosis and management have significant prognostic implications. Secondary immunodeficiencies (SID) may also be induced by oncohaematological diseases and their treatments. Haematologists and oncologists must therefore be aware of the association between blood disorders and cancer and ID, and be prepared to offer their patients appropriate treatment without delay. Our aim was to define the warning signs of primary and secondary IDs in paediatric and adult patients with oncohaematological manifestations. Methods: A multidisciplinary group of six experts (2 haematologists, 2 immunologists, and 2 paediatricians specializing in ID) conducted a literature review and prepared a document based on agreements reached an in-person meeting. An external group of 44 IDs specialists from all over Spain assessed the document and were consulted regarding their level of agreement. Results: This document identifies the haematological and extra-haematological diseases that should prompt a suspicion of PIDs in adults and children, in both primary care and haematology and oncology departments. Cytopenia and certain lymphoproliferative disorders are key diagnostic pointers. The diagnosis must be based on a detailed clinical history, physical exploration, complete blood count and standard laboratory tests. The immunological and haematological tests included in the diagnostic process will depend on the care level. Patients who are candidates for immunoglobulin replacement therapy must be carefully selected, and treatment should be offered as soon as possible to avoid the development of complications. Finally, this document recommends procedures for monitoring these patients. Conclusions: This document combines scientific evidence with the opinion of a broad panel of experts, and emphasizes the importance of an early diagnosis and treatment to avoid complications. The resulting document is a useful tool for primary care physicians and specialists who see both adult and paediatric patients with oncohaematological diseases.

3.
Clin Immunol ; 201: 30-34, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776520

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID) comprise a group of genetic diseases characterized by abrogated development of T lymphocytes. In some case reports of atypical SCID patients elevated proportions of γδ T lymphocytes have been reported. However, it is unknown whether these γδ T cells modulate or reflect the patient's clinical phenotype. We investigated the frequency of elevated γδ T cell proportions and associations with clinical disease manifestations in a cohort of 76 atypical SCID patients. Increased proportions of γδ T lymphocytes were present in approximately 60% of these patients. Furthermore, we identified positive correlations between elevated proportions of γδ T cells and the occurrence of CMV infections and autoimmune cytopenias. We discuss that CMV infections might trigger an expansion of γδ T lymphocytes, which could drive the development of autoimmune cytopenias. We advocate that atypical SCID patients should be screened for elevated proportions of γδ T lymphocytes, CMV infection and autoimmune cytopenias.

4.
Respir Res ; 19(1): 219, 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary complications are common in primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) and contribute to morbidity and mortality in these patients. However, their varied presentation and a general lack of awareness of PID in this setting make early diagnosis and treatment difficult. The aim of this study was to define the warning signs of PID in patients with respiratory manifestations, the necessary diagnostic tests, and the therapeutic management of both children and adults. METHODS: A review of the literature was performed, and 43 PID interdisciplinary specialists were consulted. RESULTS: This document identifies the pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations that should prompt a suspicion of PID, the immunological and respiratory tests that should be included in the diagnostic process according to the level of care, recommendations regarding the use of immunoglobulin replacement therapy according to the specific immunodeficiency, and the minimum recommended immunological and pulmonary monitoring in these patients. CONCLUSIONS: This document is the first to combine scientific evidence with the opinion of a broad panel of experts specializing in the treatment of patients with immunodeficiencies. It aims to provide a useful tool for all practitioners who are regularly involved in the management of these patients.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29613974

RESUMO

Newborn screening (NBS) for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) using T-cell receptor-excision circles (TRECs) allows prompt diagnosis and initiation of supportive and curative therapy thereby reducing morbidity and mortality. However, profound combined immunodeficiencies with normal numbers of non-functional T cells will go undetected. We present a patient with ORAI1 deficiency and normal TREC numbers observed after diagnosis at the age of 14 months who suffered from disseminated fatal cytomegalovirus and Pneumocystis jirovecii infection, demonstrating a potential pitfall of the current NBS program.

7.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2959, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30666249
8.
Front Immunol ; 9: 3148, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30761159

RESUMO

Background: NF-κB1 is a master regulator of both acquired and innate responses. NFKB1 loss-of-function mutations elicit a wide clinical phenotype with asymptomatic individuals at one end of the spectrum and patients with common variable immunodeficiency, combined immunodeficiency or autoinflammation at the other. Impairment of acquired and innate immunity and disseminated Mycobacterium genavense infection expands the clinical and immunological phenotype of NF-κB1 deficiency. Objective: Functional and molecular characterization of a patient with a novel phenotype of NF-κB1 deficiency. Methods: Circulating T, B, dendritic cell subsets and innate or unconventional T-cells were quantified. The cytokine production in stimulated whole blood samples was assessed and molecular characterization by next generation sequencing and gene expression assays were also performed. Results: We report a patient presenting with features of combined immunodeficiency (CID) and disseminated Mycobacterium genavense infection. Sequencing of genomic DNA identified a novel synonymous mutation (c.705G > A) in NFKB1 gene which resulted in exon 8 skipping and haploinsufficiency of the NF-κB1 subunit p50. The susceptibility to atypical mycobacterial infection has not been previously reported and may be the result of a dendritic cell deficiency. A selective deficiency of circulating follicular helper T (cTFH) cells responsible for mediating the differentiation of naive B cells into memory and plasma cells was also present in the patient. It could affect the maturation of innate or unconventional T cells where NF-κB1 could also be involved. Conclusion: These findings showed that the role of NF-κB1 in humans could be critical for the development of acquired and innate immunity and further highlights the role of human T cells in anti-mycobacterial immunity.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Imunidade Inata , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Infecções por Mycobacterium/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycobacterium/etiologia , Mycobacterium/imunologia , Subunidade p50 de NF-kappa B/deficiência , Biópsia , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Criança , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Masculino , Mutação , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Pele/patologia
9.
Front Immunol ; 8: 802, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28747912

RESUMO

GATA binding protein 2 (GATA2) deficiency is a rare disorder of hematopoiesis, lymphatics, and immunity caused by spontaneous or autosomal dominant mutations in the GATA2 gene. Clinical manifestations range from neutropenia, lymphedema, deafness, to severe viral and mycobacterial infections, bone marrow failure, and acute myeloid leukemia. Patients also present with monocytopenia, dendritic cell, B- and natural killer (NK)-cell deficiency. We studied the T-cell and NK-cell compartments of four GATA2-deficient patients to assess if changes in these lymphocyte populations could be correlated with clinical phenotype. Patients with more severe clinical complications demonstrated a senescent T-cell phenotype whereas patients with lower clinical score had undetectable changes relative to controls. In contrast, patients' NK-cells demonstrated an immature/activated phenotype that did not correlate with clinical score, suggesting an intrinsic NK-cell defect. These studies will help us to determine the contribution of T- and NK-cell dysregulation to the clinical phenotype of GATA2 patients, and may help to establish the most accurate therapeutic options for these patients. Asymptomatic patients may be taken into consideration for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation when dysregulation of T-cell and NK-cell compartment is present.

12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 139(4): 1282-1292, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27697500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (XHIGM) is a primary immunodeficiency with high morbidity and mortality compared with those seen in healthy subjects. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been considered a curative therapy, but the procedure has inherent complications and might not be available for all patients. OBJECTIVES: We sought to collect data on the clinical presentation, treatment, and follow-up of a large sample of patients with XHIGM to (1) compare long-term overall survival and general well-being of patients treated with or without HCT along with clinical factors associated with mortality and (2) summarize clinical practice and risk factors in the subgroup of patients treated with HCT. METHODS: Physicians caring for patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases were identified through the Jeffrey Modell Foundation, United States Immunodeficiency Network, Latin American Society for Immunodeficiency, and Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium. Data were collected with a Research Electronic Data Capture Web application. Survival from time of diagnosis or transplantation was estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier method compared with log-rank tests and modeled by using proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Twenty-eight clinical sites provided data on 189 patients given a diagnosis of XHIGM between 1964 and 2013; 176 had valid follow-up and vital status information. Sixty-seven (38%) patients received HCT. The average follow-up time was 8.5 ± 7.2 years (range, 0.1-36.2 years). No difference in overall survival was observed between patients treated with or without HCT (P = .671). However, risk associated with HCT decreased for diagnosis years 1987-1995; the hazard ratio was significantly less than 1 for diagnosis years 1995-1999. Liver disease was a significant predictor of overall survival (hazard ratio, 4.9; 95% confidence limits, 2.2-10.8; P < .001). Among survivors, those treated with HCT had higher median Karnofsky/Lansky scores than those treated without HCT (P < .001). Among patients receiving HCT, 27 (40%) had graft-versus-host disease, and most deaths occurred within 1 year of transplantation. CONCLUSION: No difference in survival was observed between patients treated with or without HCT across all diagnosis years (1964-2013). However, survivors treated with HCT experienced somewhat greater well-being, and hazards associated with HCT decreased, reaching levels of significantly less risk in the late 1990s. Among patients treated with HCT, treatment at an early age is associated with improved survival. Optimism remains guarded as additional evidence accumulates.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência com Hiper-IgM/mortalidade , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência com Hiper-IgM/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tempo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Pediatrics ; 137(4)2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26966131

RESUMO

Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is the most common form of juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathy. We report a child with steroid-dependent JDM refractory to hydroxychloroquine and subcutaneous methotrexate who experienced systemic reactions to intravenous immunoglobulin and was successfully treated with subcutaneous immunoglobulin. This form of therapy has been shown to be safe, has a very low rate of adverse effects, does not require hospital admission, reduces the number of missed school days, and decreases the costs associated with treatment.


Assuntos
Dermatomiosite/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoglobulinas/administração & dosagem , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Injeções Subcutâneas , Prednisona/uso terapêutico
16.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 27(1): 70-7, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26498110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of primary immunodeficiency such as severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) improves outcome of affected children. T-cell-receptor-excision circles (TRECs) and kappa-deleting-recombination-excision circles (KRECs) determination from dried blood spots (DBS) identify neonates with severe T- and/or B-lymphopenia. No prospective data exist of the impact of gestational age (GA) and birth weight (BW) on TRECs and KRECs values. METHODS: TRECs and KRECs determination using triplex RT-PCR (TRECS-KRECS-ß-actin-Assay) from prospectively collected DBS between 02/2014 and 02/2015 in three hospitals in Seville, Spain. Cut-off levels were TRECs < 6/punch, KRECs < 4/punch and -ß-actin>700/punch. Internal (SCID, XLA, ataxia telangiectasia) and external controls (NBS quality assurance program, CDC) were included. RESULTS: A total of 5160 DBS were tested. Re-punch was needed in 77 samples (1.5%) due to insufficient ß-actin (<700 copies/punch). Pre-term neonates (GA<37 weeks) and neonates with a BW<2500 g showed significantly lower TRECs and KRECs levels (p < 0.001). Due to repeat positive results five neonates were re-called (<0.1%): Fatal chromosomopathy (n = 1; TRECs 1/KRECs 4); extreme pre-maturity (n = 2; TRECs 0/KRECs 0 and TRECs 1/KRECs 20 copies/punch); neonates born to mothers receiving azathioprine during pregnancy (n = 2; TRECs 92/KRECs 1 and TRECs 154/KRECs 3 copies/punch). All internal and external controls were correctly identified. CONCLUSIONS: TRECS-KRECS-ß-actin-Assay correctly identifies T- and B-cell lymphopenias. Pre-maturity and low BW is associated with lower TREC and KREC levels. Extreme pre-maturity and maternal immune suppressive therapy may be a cause for false positive results of TRECs and KRECs values, respectively. To reduce the rate of insufficient samples, DBS extraction and storage need to be improved.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Artefatos , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/normas , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/sangue , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/sangue , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/imunologia , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/sangue , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/imunologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/normas , Triagem Neonatal/normas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Espanha
19.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 31(8): 535-542, oct. 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-117371

RESUMO

La enfermedad de Chagas en zonas no endémicas, como nuestro país, se adquiere fundamentalmente por transmisión vertical. La prevalencia de la enfermedad en embarazadas latinoamericanas oscila entre el 0,7 y el 54% en función del país de origen, la procedencia rural o la edad de la madre, situándose la tasa de transmisión vertical entre el 5 y el 6%. Se sabe que el tratamiento en fases precoces y en concreto en el niño < 15 años tiene altas tasas de curación y parece que el tratamiento de la embarazada tras el parto podría prevenir la transmisión en otros embarazos. Todo ello justificaría el diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz de esta entidad en ambos grupos. En este documento se exponen las recomendaciones actuales de diagnóstico y tratamiento de la enfermedad en el niño y la embarazada. Estas recomendaciones han sido elaboradas por un grupo de trabajo formado por especialistas en Enfermedades Infecciosas, Microbiología Clínica, Ginecología y Pediatría (AU)


Congenital transmission of Chagas disease now occurs in areas where the disease is non-endemic, and also from one generation to another. According to epidemiological data from Latin America, the prevalence of the disease in pregnant women is 0.7%-54%, and the prevalence of vertical transmission is around 5%-6%.Congenital T. cruzi infection is an acute infection in newborns that should be treated with anti-parasitic therapy. The treatment of pregnant women could also have an impact on the control of the disease. This article has been prepared following the recommendations suggested by a group of experts in Infectious Diseases, Microbiology, Gynaecology and Paediatrics (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Doença de Chagas/terapia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Padrões de Prática Médica , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez
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