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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14368, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591461

RESUMO

Last advances in the treatment of pediatric tumors has led to an increase of survival rates of children affected by primitive neuroectodermal tumors, however, still a significant amount of the patients do not overcome the disease. In addition, the survivors might suffer from severe side effects caused by the current standard treatments. Oncolytic virotherapy has emerged in the last years as a promising alternative for the treatment of solid tumors. In this work, we study the anti-tumor effect mediated by the oncolytic adenovirus VCN-01 in CNS-PNET models. VCN-01 is able to infect and replicate in PNET cell cultures, leading to a cytotoxicity and immunogenic cell death. In vivo, VCN-01 increased significantly the median survival of mice and led to long-term survivors in two orthotopic models of PNETs. In summary, these results underscore the therapeutic effect of VCN-01 for rare pediatric cancers such as PNETs, and warrants further exploration on the use of this virus to treat them.

2.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 7(1): 64, 2019 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036068

RESUMO

Pediatric high grade gliomas (pHGG), including diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs), are aggressive tumors with a dismal outcome. Radiotherapy (RT) is part of the standard of care of these tumors; however, radiotherapy only leads to a transient clinical improvement. Delta-24-RGD is a genetically engineered tumor-selective adenovirus that has shown safety and clinical efficacy in adults with recurrent gliomas. In this work, we evaluated the feasibility, safety and therapeutic efficacy of Delta-24-RGD in combination with radiotherapy in pHGGs and DIPGs models. Our results showed that the combination of Delta-24-RGD with radiotherapy was feasible and resulted in a synergistic anti-glioma effect in vitro and in vivo in pHGG and DIPG models. Interestingly, Delta-24-RGD treatment led to the downregulation of relevant DNA damage repair proteins, further sensitizing tumors cells to the effect of radiotherapy. Additionally, Delta-24-RGD/radiotherapy treatment significantly increased the trafficking of immune cells (CD3, CD4+ and CD8+) to the tumor niche compared with single treatments. In summary, administration of the Delta-24-RGD/radiotherapy combination to pHGG and DIPG models is safe and significantly increases the overall survival of mice bearing these tumors. Our data offer a rationale for the combination Delta-24-RGD/radiotherapy as a therapeutic option for children with these tumors. SIGNIFICANCE: Delta-24-RGD/radiotherapy administration is safe and significantly increases the survival of treated mice. These positive data underscore the urge to translate this approach to the clinical treatment of children with pHGG and DIPGs.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2235, 2019 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138805

RESUMO

Pediatric high-grade glioma (pHGG) and diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are aggressive pediatric brain tumors in desperate need of a curative treatment. Oncolytic virotherapy is emerging as a solid therapeutic approach. Delta-24-RGD is a replication competent adenovirus engineered to replicate in tumor cells with an aberrant RB pathway. This virus has proven to be safe and effective in adult gliomas. Here we report that the administration of Delta-24-RGD is safe in mice and results in a significant increase in survival in immunodeficient and immunocompetent models of pHGG and DIPGs. Our results show that the Delta-24-RGD antiglioma effect is mediated by the oncolytic effect and the immune response elicited against the tumor. Altogether, our data highlight the potential of this virus as treatment for patients with these tumors. Of clinical significance, these data have led to the start of a phase I/II clinical trial at our institution for newly diagnosed DIPG (NCT03178032).


Assuntos
Adenoviridae , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/terapia , Glioma/terapia , Terapia Viral Oncolítica/métodos , Vírus Oncolíticos , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Simulação por Computador , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Camundongos , Gradação de Tumores , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
4.
Front Oncol ; 8: 61, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29594041

RESUMO

Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are aggressive glial brain tumors that primarily affect children, for which there is no curative treatment. Median overall survival is only one year. Currently, the scientific focus is on expanding the knowledge base of the molecular biology of DIPG, and identifying effective therapies. Oncolytic adenovirus DNX-2401 is a replication-competent, genetically modified virus capable of infecting and killing glioma cells, and stimulating an anti-tumor immune response. Clinical trials evaluating intratumoral DNX-2401 in adults with recurrent glioblastoma have demonstrated that the virus has a favorable safety profile and can prolong survival. Subsequently, these results have encouraged the transition of this biologically active therapy from adults into the pediatric population. To this aim, we have designed a clinical Phase I trial for newly diagnosed pediatric DIPG to investigate the feasibility, safety, and preliminary efficacy of delivering DNX-2401 into tumors within the pons following biopsy. This case report presents a pediatric patient enrolled in this ongoing Phase I trial for children and adolescents with newly diagnosed DIPG. The case involves an 8-year-old female patient with radiologically diagnosed DIPG who underwent stereotactic tumor biopsy immediately followed by intratumoral DNX-2401 in the same biopsy track. Because there were no safety concerns or new neurological deficits, the patient was discharged 3 days after the procedures. To our knowledge, this is the first report of intratumoral DNX-2401 for a patient with DIPG in a clinical trial. We plan to demonstrate that intratumoral delivery of an oncolytic virus following tumor biopsy for pediatric patients with DIPG is a novel and feasible approach and that DNX-2401 represents an innovative treatment for the disease.

5.
Neuro Oncol ; 20(7): 930-941, 2018 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29373718

RESUMO

Background: Glioblastoma, the most aggressive primary brain tumor, is genetically heterogeneous. Alternative splicing (AS) plays a key role in numerous pathologies, including cancer. The objectives of our study were to determine whether aberrant AS could play a role in the malignant phenotype of glioma and to understand the mechanism underlying its aberrant regulation. Methods: We obtained surgical samples from patients with glioblastoma who underwent 5-aminolevulinic fluorescence-guided surgery. Biopsies were taken from the tumor center as well as from adjacent normal-appearing tissue. We used a global splicing array to identify candidate genes aberrantly spliced in these glioblastoma samples. Mechanistic and functional studies were performed to elucidate the role of our top candidate splice variant, BAF45d, in glioblastoma. Results: BAF45d is part of the switch/sucrose nonfermentable complex and plays a key role in the development of the CNS. The BAF45d/6A isoform is present in 85% of over 200 glioma samples that have been analyzed and contributes to the malignant glioma phenotype through the maintenance of an undifferentiated cellular state. We demonstrate that BAF45d splicing is mediated by polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTBP1) and that BAF45d regulates PTBP1, uncovering a reciprocal interplay between RNA splicing regulation and transcription. Conclusions: Our data indicate that AS is a mechanism that contributes to the malignant phenotype of glioblastoma. Understanding the consequences of this biological process will uncover new therapeutic targets for this devastating disease.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteína de Ligação a Regiões Ricas em Polipirimidinas/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Regiões Ricas em Polipirimidinas/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
6.
PLoS One ; 12(1): e0170501, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28107439

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this work we set to develop and to validate a new in vivo frameless orthotopic Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG) model based in the implantation of a guide-screw system. METHODS: It consisted of a guide-screw also called bolt, a Hamilton syringe with a 26-gauge needle and an insulin-like 15-gauge needle. The guide screw is 2.6 mm in length and harbors a 0.5 mm central hole which accepts the needle of the Hamilton syringe avoiding a theoretical displacement during insertion. The guide-screw is fixed on the mouse skull according to the coordinates: 1mm right to and 0.8 mm posterior to lambda. To reach the pons the Hamilton syringe is adjusted to a 6.5 mm depth using a cuff that serves as a stopper. This system allows delivering not only cells but also any kind of intratumoral chemotherapy, antibodies or gene/viral therapies. RESULTS: The guide-screw was successfully implanted in 10 immunodeficient mice and the animals were inoculated with DIPG human cell lines during the same anesthetic period. All the mice developed severe neurologic symptoms and had a median overall survival of 95 days ranging the time of death from 81 to 116 days. Histopathological analysis confirmed tumor into the pons in all animals confirming the validity of this model. CONCLUSION: Here we presented a reproducible and frameless DIPG model that allows for rapid evaluation of tumorigenicity and efficacy of chemotherapeutic or gene therapy products delivered intratumorally to the pons.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/etiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glioma/etiologia , Transplante de Neoplasias/métodos , Animais , Tronco Encefálico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Agulhas , Neoplasias Experimentais
7.
PLoS One ; 11(9): e0163155, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27669421

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Glioblastoma is the most malignant brain tumor in adults and is associated with poor survival despite multimodal treatments. Glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) are cells functionally defined by their self-renewal potential and the ability to reconstitute the original tumor upon orthotopic implantation. They have been postulated to be the culprit of glioma chemo- and radio-resistance ultimately leading to relapse. Understanding the molecular circuits governing the GSC compartment is essential. SOX2, a critical transcription regulator of embryonic and neural stem cell function, is deregulated in GSCs however; the precise molecular pathways regulated by this gene in GSCs remain poorly understood. RESULTS: We performed a genome-wide analysis of SOX2-regulated transcripts in GSCs, using a microarray. We identified a total of 2048 differentially expressed coding transcripts and 261 non-coding transcripts. Cell adhesion and cell-cell signaling are among the most enriched terms using Gene Ontology (GO) classification. The pathways altered after SOX2 down-modulation includes multiple cellular processes such as amino-acid metabolism and intercellular signaling cascades. We also defined and classified the set of non-coding transcripts differentially expressed regulated by SOX2 in GSCs, and validated two of them. CONCLUSIONS: We present a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptome controlled by SOX2 in GSCs, gaining insights in the understanding of the potential roles of SOX2 in glioblastoma.

9.
Oncotarget ; 7(21): 30626-41, 2016 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27121320

RESUMO

Glioblastoma is the most frequent malignant brain tumor. Even with aggressive treatment, prognosis for patients is poor. One characteristic of glioblastoma cells is its intrinsic resistance to apoptosis. Therefore, drugs that induce alternative cell deaths could be interesting to evaluate as alternative therapeutic candidates for glioblastoma. Salinomycin (SLM) was identified through a chemical screening as a promising anticancer drug, but its mechanism of cell death remains unclear. In the present work we set out to elucidate how SLM causes cell death in glioblastoma cell lines (both established cell lines and brain tumor stem cell lines), aiming to find a potential antitumor candidate. In addition, we sought to determine the mechanism of action of SLM so that this mechanism can be can be exploited in the fight against cancer. Our data showed that SLM induces a potent endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress followed by the trigger of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and an aberrant autophagic flux that culminated in necrosis due to mitochondria and lysosomal alterations. Of importance, the aberrant autophagic flux was orchestrated by the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Alleviation of ROS production restored the autophagic flux. Altogether our data suggest that in our system the oxidative stress blocks the autophagic flux through lipid oxidation. Importantly, oxidative stress could be instructing the type of cell death in SLM-treated cells, suggesting that cell death modality is a dynamic concept which depends on the cellular stresses and the cellular mechanism activated.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Autorrenovação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Piranos/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Necrose , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/ultraestrutura , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Neuro Oncol ; 18(8): 1109-19, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26951384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress results from protein misfolding imbalance and has been postulated as a therapeutic strategy. ER stress activates the unfolded protein response which leads to a complex cellular response, including the upregulation of aberrant protein degradation in the ER, with the goal of resolving that stress. O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase (MPG), and Rad51 are DNA damage repair proteins that mediate resistance to temozolomide in glioblastoma. In this work we sought to evaluate whether ER stress-inducing drugs were able to downmodulate DNA damage repair proteins and become candidates to combine with temozolomide. METHODS: MTT assays were performed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the treatments. The expression of proteins was evaluated using western blot and immunofluorescence. In vivo studies were performed using 2 orthotopic glioblastoma models in nude mice to evaluate the efficacy of the treatments. All statistical tests were 2-sided. RESULTS: Treatment of glioblastoma cells with ER stress-inducing drugs leads to downregulation of MGMT, MPG, and Rad51. Inhibition of ER stress through pharmacological treatment resulted in rescue of MGMT, MPG, and Rad51 protein levels. Moreover, treatment of glioblastoma cells with salinomycin, an ER stress-inducing drug, and temozolomide resulted in enhanced DNA damage and a synergistic antitumor effect in vitro. Of importance, treatment with salinomycin/temozolomide resulted in a significant antiglioma effect in 2 aggressive orthotopic intracranial brain tumor models. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide a strong rationale for combining temozolomide with ER stress-inducing drugs as an alternative therapeutic strategy for glioblastoma.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Dacarbazina/análogos & derivados , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Piranos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Glicosilases/metabolismo , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/metabolismo , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/metabolismo , Dacarbazina/administração & dosagem , Dacarbazina/farmacologia , Regulação para Baixo , Humanos , Camundongos , Piranos/farmacologia , Rad51 Recombinase/metabolismo , Análise de Sobrevida , Temozolomida , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo
11.
PLoS One ; 11(1): e0147211, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26808201

RESUMO

Despite the recent advances in the development of antitumor therapies, the prognosis for patients with malignant gliomas remains dismal. Therapy with tumor-selective viruses is emerging as a treatment option for this devastating disease. In this study we characterize the anti-glioma effect of VCN-01, an improved hyaluronidase-armed pRB-pathway-selective oncolytic adenovirus that has proven safe and effective in the treatment of several solid tumors. VCN-01 displayed a significant cytotoxic effect on glioma cells in vitro. In vivo, in two different orthotopic glioma models, a single intra-tumoral administration of VCN-01 increased overall survival significantly and led to long-term survivors free of disease.


Assuntos
Adenovírus Humanos/fisiologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Glioma/terapia , Terapia Viral Oncolítica , Vírus Oncolíticos/fisiologia , Proteínas E1A de Adenovirus/genética , Adenovírus Humanos/genética , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral , Fator de Transcrição E2F1/genética , Genes Sintéticos , Genes Virais , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/genética , Injeções Intralesionais , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas , Oligopeptídeos/genética , Vírus Oncolíticos/genética , Organismos Geneticamente Modificados , Replicação Viral , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
12.
Clin Cancer Res ; 22(9): 2217-25, 2016 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26603261

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Despite aggressive chemotherapy, more than 30% of patients do not respond and develop bone or lung metastasis. Oncolytic adenoviruses engineered to specifically destroy cancer cells are a feasible option for osteosarcoma treatment. VCN-01 is a replication-competent adenovirus specifically engineered to replicate in tumors with a defective RB pathway, presents an enhanced infectivity through a modified fiber and an improved distribution through the expression of a soluble hyaluronidase. The aim of this study is to elucidate whether the use of VCN-01 would be an effective therapeutic strategy for pediatric osteosarcoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We used osteosarcoma cell lines established from patients with metastatic disease (531MII, 678R, 588M, and 595M) and a commercial cell line (143B). MTT assays were carried out to evaluate the cytotoxicity of VCN-01. Hexon assays were used to evaluate the replication of the virus. Western blot analysis was performed to assess the expression levels of viral proteins and autophagic markers. The antitumor effect of VCN-01 was evaluated in orthotopic and metastatic osteosarcoma murine animal models. RESULTS: This study found that VCN-01, a new generation genetically modified oncolytic adenovirus, administered locally or systemically, had a potent antisarcoma effect in vitro and in vivo in mouse models of intratibial and lung metastatic osteosarcoma. Moreover, VCN-01 administration showed a safe toxicity profile. CONCLUSIONS: These results uncover VCN-01 as a promising strategy for osteosarcoma, setting the bases to propel a phase I/II trial for kids with this disease. Clin Cancer Res; 22(9); 2217-25. ©2015 AACR.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae/genética , Neoplasias Ósseas/virologia , Vírus Oncolíticos/genética , Osteossarcoma/virologia , Animais , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Terapia Genética/métodos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Terapia Viral Oncolítica/métodos , Pediatria , Replicação Viral/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos
13.
Neuro Oncol ; 16(4): 520-7, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24435880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent malignant brain tumor in adults, and its prognosis remains dismal despite intensive research and therapeutic advances. Diagnostic biomarkers would be clinically meaningful to allow for early detection of the tumor and for those cases in which surgery is contraindicated or biopsy results are inconclusive. Recent findings show that GBM cells release microvesicles that contain a select subset of cellular proteins and RNA. The aim of this hypothesis-generating study was to assess the diagnostic potential of miRNAs found in microvesicles isolated from the serum of GBM patients. METHODS: To control disease heterogeneity, we used patients with newly diagnosed GBM. In the discovery stage, PCR-based TaqMan Low Density Arrays followed by individual quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were used to test the differences in the miRNA expression levels of serum microvesicles among 25 GBM patients and healthy controls paired by age and sex. The detected noncoding RNAs were then validated in another 50 GBM patients. RESULTS: We found that the expression levels of 1 small noncoding RNA (RNU6-1) and 2 microRNAs (miR-320 and miR-574-3p) were significantly associated with a GBM diagnosis. In addition, RNU6-1 was consistently an independent predictor of a GBM diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether our results uncovered a small noncoding RNA signature in microvesicles isolated from GBM patient serum that could be used as a fast and reliable differential diagnostic biomarker.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Exossomos/genética , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico , MicroRNAs/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/sangue , Glioblastoma/genética , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Adulto Jovem
14.
World J Gastroenterol ; 18(7): 637-45, 2012 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22363134

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the angiogenesis-related protein expression profile characterizing metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) with the aim of identifying prognostic markers. METHODS: The expression of 44 angiogenesis-secreted factors was measured by a novel cytokine antibody array methodology. The study evaluated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (sVEGFR)-1 protein levels by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in a panel of 16 CRC cell lines. mRNA VEGF and VEGF-A isoforms were quantified by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2 expression was analyzed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Metastasis-derived CRC cell lines expressed a distinctive molecular profile as compared with those isolated from a primary tumor site. Metastatic CRC cell lines were characterized by higher expression of angiogenin-2 (Ang-2), macrophage chemoattractant proteins-3/4 (MCP-3/4), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), and the chemokines interferon γ inducible T cell α chemoattractant protein (I-TAC), monocyte chemoattractant protein I-309, and interleukins interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-1α, as compared to primary tumor cell lines. In contrast, primary CRC cell lines expressed higher levels of interferon γ (IFN-γ), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IL-6, leptin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), placental growth factor (PlGF), thrombopoietin, transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1) and VEGF-D, as compared with the metastatic cell lines. VEGF expression does not significantly differ according to the CRC cellular origin in normoxia. Severe hypoxia induced VEGF expression up-regulation but contrary to expectations, metastatic CRC cell lines did not respond as much as primary cell lines to the hypoxic stimulus. In CRC primary-derived cell lines, we observed a two-fold increase in VEGF expression between normoxia and hypoxia as compared to metastatic cell lines. CRC cell lines express a similar pattern of VEGF isoforms (VEGF121, VEGF165 and VEGF189) despite variability in VEGF expression, where the major transcript was VEGF121. No relevant expression of VEGFR-2 was found in CRC cell lines, as compared to that of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and sVEGFR-1 expression did not depend on the CRC cellular origin. CONCLUSION: A distinct angiogenesis-related expression pattern characterizes metastatic CRC cell lines. Factors other than VEGF appear as prognostic markers and intervention targets in the metastatic CRC setting.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Metástase Neoplásica/fisiopatologia , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citocinas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Análise em Microsséries/métodos , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
15.
Stem Cells ; 29(11): 1661-71, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21948564

RESUMO

Many antitumor therapies affect rapidly dividing cells. However, tumor proliferation may be driven by cancer stem cells (CSCs), which divide slowly and are relatively resistant to cytotoxic drugs. Thus, many tumors may progress because CSCs are not sensitive to the treatment. In this work, we searched for target genes whose expression is involved in proliferation and chemoresistance of CSCs. Both of these processes could be controlled simultaneously by cell regulators such as microRNAs (miRNAs). Therefore, colonospheres with properties of CSCs were obtained from different colon carcinoma cells, and miRNA profiling was performed. The results showed that miR-451 was downregulated in colonspheres versus parental cells. Surprisingly, expression of miR-451 caused a decrease in self-renewal, tumorigenicity, and chemoresistance to irinotecan of colonspheres. We identified cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) as an indirect miR-451 target gene involved in sphere growth. Our results indicate that miR-451 downregulation allows the expression of the direct target gene macrophage migration inhibitory factor, involved in the expression of COX-2. In turn, COX-2 allows Wnt activation, which is essential for CSC growth. Furthermore, miR-451 restoration decreases expression of the ATP-binding cassette drug transporter ABCB1 and results in irinotecan sensitization. These findings correlate well with the lower expression of miR-451 observed in patients who did not respond to irinotecan-based first-line therapy compared with patients who did. Our data suggest that miR-451 is a novel candidate to circumvent recurrence and drug resistance in colorectal cancer and could be used as a marker to predict response to irinotecan in patients with colon carcinoma.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Western Blotting , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Camptotecina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Irinotecano , MicroRNAs/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
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