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1.
Rev Port Cardiol ; 2020 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402561

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We wondered if a modification of the conventional transseptal puncture technique performed with an angioplasty wire could be useful in patients with contrast hypersensitivity or allergy-like reactions. METHODS: This study comprised our initial experience in 22 patients with atrial fibrillation who were scheduled for an electrophysiology study (EPS) and pulmonary vein ablation and who had a contraindication for iodinated contrast administration. RESULTS: Of the 22 patients, 16 were men and ages ranged from 27 to 74 years (mean 56 years). Overall successful transseptal access was achieved in all 22. A control echocardiogram was performed in all patients. There were no complications in any case and no significant differences were found from the conventional transseptal puncture technique regarding procedure or fluoroscopy time. CONCLUSIONS: A modification of the conventional transseptal puncture technique performed with fluoroscopy and EPS catheters for anatomical reference and an angioplasty wire is an option in cases with severe contrast hypersensitivity.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434452

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In this review, the role of the rivaroxaban-plus-aspirin approach (dual pathway inhibition - DPI) in patients with chronic coronary syndrome (CCS) and to perform practical recommendations about its use was updated. AREAS COVERED: The contents of this review were proposed in an expert meeting. To identify relevant articles, a systematic search of Medline/Embase was performed (to July 2019), using the key words "rivaroxaban", "vascular dose", "COMPASS" and "coronary artery disease" in the search strategy. EXPERT OPINION: Despite current antithrombotic strategies (single/dual antiplatelet therapy) have decreased rates of recurrent cardiovascular events among patients with CCS, residual risk remains unacceptably high. The COMPASS trial showed in CCS patients that compared with aspirin 100 mg rivaroxaban 2.5 mg bid plus aspirin 100 mg reduced the risk of major cardiac events, cardiovascular hospitalization and mortality, without an increase of intracranial or fatal bleedings. Importantly, residual risk with the rivaroxaban plus aspirin approach was lower than with different dual antiplatelet therapy regimens. The rivaroxaban plus aspirin strategy is of particular benefit in patients with CCS and high-risk cardiovascular feature (i.e. ≥2 vascular beds, heart failure, renal insufficiency, peripheral artery disease, previous stroke or diabetes) and should be considered in these populations.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(7)2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32290181

RESUMO

The main energy substrate of adult cardiomyocytes for their contractility are the fatty acids. Its metabolism generates high ATP levels at the expense of high oxygen consumption in the mitochondria. Under low oxygen supply, they can get energy from other substrates, mainly glucose, lactate, ketone bodies, etc., but the mitochondrial dysfunction, in pathological conditions, reduces the oxidative metabolism. In consequence, fatty acids are stored into epicardial fat and its accumulation provokes inflammation, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress, which enhance the myocardium dysfunction. Some therapies focused on improvement the fatty acids entry into mitochondria have failed to demonstrate benefits on cardiovascular disorders. Oppositely, those therapies with effects on epicardial fat volume and inflammation might improve the oxidative metabolism of myocardium and might reduce the cardiovascular disease progression. This review aims at explain (a) the energy substrate adaptation of myocardium in physiological conditions, (b) the reduction of oxidative metabolism in pathological conditions and consequences on epicardial fat accumulation and insulin resistance, and (c) the reduction of cardiovascular outcomes after regulation by some therapies.

4.
Intern Med J ; 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia is common in patients with acute heart failure (HF). Our aim was to determine the impact of sodium disturbances on mortality and readmissions in HF with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF), preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF). METHODS: Prospective multicentre consecutive registry in 20 hospitals including patients admitted due to acute HF in cardiology departments. Sodium <135 mmol/L was considered hyponatremia, >145 mmol/L hypernatremia, and 135-145 mmol/L normal. RESULTS: A total of 1309 patients were included. Mean age was 72.0 ± 11.9 years, 810 (61.9%) were male. Mean serum sodium level was 138.6 ± 4.7 mmol/L at hospital admission, and 138.1 ± 4.1 mmol/L at discharge. The evolution of sodium levels was: normal-at-admission/normal-at-discharge 941 (71.9%), abnormal-at-admission/normal-at-discharge 127 (9.7%), normal-at-admission/abnormal-at-discharge 155 (11.8%), and abnormal-at-admission/abnormal-at-discharge 86 (6.6%). Hyponatremia at discharge was more common in HFrEF (109 (20.7%)) than in HFpEF (79 (13.9%)) and HFmrEF (27 (12%)), P = 0.003. The prevalence of hypernatremia at discharge was similar in the three groups: HFrEF (10 (1.9%)), HFpEF (12 (2.1%)), and HFmrEF (4 (1.9%)), P = 0.96. In multivariate analysis, abnormal sodium concentrations at hospital admission (Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.76, P = 0.001), and discharge (HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.08-1.64, P = 0.007) were both independently associated with increased mortality and readmissions at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Hyponatremia and hypernatremia at admission and discharge predict a poor outcome in patients with acute HF, regardless of LVEF. Hyponatremia at discharge is more frequent in HFrEF than in the other LVEF groups. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
Adv Ther ; 37(5): 1724-1736, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200537

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Assess achievement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets in European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) guidelines. DESIGN: Systematic literature review. DATA SOURCES: Medline, EMBASE, Cumulated Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Observational studies reporting LDL-C levels/target attainment, measured between 1 August 2006 to 31 August 2017, in European adults with established cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes with target organ damage, familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) or 10-year risk of fatal CVD ≥ 5% (assessed by Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation [SCORE]). DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Two reviewers independently extracted relevant studies and assessed study quality using the Risk of Bias for Non-Randomised Studies-Interventions (ROBINS-I) tool. Primary outcome was the proportion of patients achieving LDL-C targets in the 2011/2016 ESC/EAS guidelines. Where available, patient characteristics were presented as means weighted by sample size. The proportions of patients achieving LDL-C targets in the 5 years before and after publication of the 2011 guidelines were compared using a chi-square test. RESULTS: Across 81 eligible studies (303,534 patients), achievement of LDL-C < 1.8 mmol/L was poor among patients with established CVD (16%; range 9-56%) and at very high risk of CVD (SCORE ≥ 10% [18%; 14-25%]). In individuals with FH, SCORE 5-10%, or diabetes and target organ damage, LDL-C < 2.5 mmol/L was achieved by 15% (9-22%), 46% (21-55%) and 13% (6-34%), respectively. Comparing the 5 years before/after publication of the 2011 guidelines, target achievement increased significantly over time but remained suboptimal (LDL-C < 1.8, 22% versus 15%; LDL-C < 2.5, 68% versus 61%; both p < 0.001; established CVD group only). CONCLUSIONS: These data show suboptimal LDL-C control among European patients at high risk of CVD. Those at greatest overall risk (clinically established CVD or at least a 10% 10-year risk of fatal CVD) had the lowest achievement of 2011/2016 EAS/ESC LDL-C targets. With lower LDL-C targets advocated in 2019 ESC/EAS guidelines, this unmet need will increase. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration number; CRD77844.

8.
Eur Heart J ; 41(18): 1720-1729, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016393

RESUMO

AIM: Cardiotoxicity (CTox) is a major side effect of cancer therapies, but uniform diagnostic criteria to guide clinical and research practices are lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively studied 865 patients, aged 54.7 ± 13.9; 16.3% men, scheduled for anticancer therapy related with moderate/high CTox risk. Four groups of progressive myocardial damage/dysfunction were considered according to current guidelines: normal, normal biomarkers (high-sensitivity troponin T and N-terminal natriuretic pro-peptide), and left ventricular (LV) function; mild, abnormal biomarkers, and/or LV dysfunction (LVD) maintaining an LV ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥50%; moderate, LVD with LVEF 40-49%; and severe, LVD with LVEF ≤40% or symptomatic heart failure. Cardiotoxicity was defined as new or worsening of myocardial damage/ventricular function from baseline during follow-up. Patients were followed for a median of 24 months. Cardiotoxicity was identified in 37.5% patients during follow-up [95% confidence interval (CI) 34.22-40.8%], 31.6% with mild, 2.8% moderate, and 3.1% with severe myocardial damage/dysfunction. The mortality rate in the severe CTox group was 22.9 deaths per 100 patients-year vs. 2.3 deaths per 100 patients-year in the rest of groups, hazard ratio of 10.2 (95% CI 5.5-19.2) (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients present objective data of myocardial injury/dysfunction during or after cancer therapy. Nevertheless, severe CTox, with a strong prognostic relationship, was comparatively rare. This should be reflected in protocols for clinical and research practices.

10.
Clin Cardiol ; 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is complex and multifactorial. Chronotropic incompetence (ChI) has emerged as a crucial pathophysiological mechanism. Beta-blockers, drugs with negative chronotropic effects, are commonly used in HFpEF, although current evidence does not support its routine use in these patients. HYPOTHESIS: We postulate beta-blockers may have deleterious effects in HFpEF and ChI. This work aims to evaluate the short-term effect of beta-blockers withdrawal on functional capacity assessed by the maximal oxygen uptake (peakVO2) in patients with HFpEF and ChI. METHODS: This is a prospective, crossover, randomized (1:1) and multicenter study. After randomization, the clinical and cardiac rhythm will be continuously registered for 30 days. PeakVO2 is assessed by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) at 15 and 30 days in both groups. Secondary endpoints include quality of life, cognitive, and safety assessment. Patients with stable HFpEF, functional class New York Heart Association (NYHA) II-III, chronic treatment with beta-blockers, and ChI will be enrolled. A sample size estimation [alfa: 0.05, power: 90%, a 20% loss rate, and delta change of mean peakVO2: +1.2 mL/kg/min (SD ± 2.0)] of 52 patients is necessary to test our hypothesis. RESULTS: Patients started enrolling in October 2018. As January 14th, 2020, 28 patients have been enrolled. It is projected to enroll the last patient at the end of July 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Optimizing therapy that improves functional capacity remains an unmeet priority in HFpEF. Deprescribing beta-blockers in patients with HFpEF and ChI seems a plausible intervention to improve functional capacity. This trial is an attempt towards precision medicine in this complex syndrome. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03871803.

11.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 73(2): 114-122, feb. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET5-818

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: No está clara la asociación entre los inhibidores de la enzima de conversión de la angiotensina (IECA) o los antagonistas del receptor de la angiotensina II (ARA-II) y la mortalidad de los pacientes con síndrome coronario agudo (SCA) sometidos a intervención coronaria percutánea (ICP) con fracción de eyección del ventrículo izquierdo (FEVI) conservada. Nuestro objetivo es determinar dicha asociación en pacientes con FEVI conservada o reducida. MÉTODOS: Se analizaron datos procedentes del registro BleeMACS. El objetivo principal fue la mortalidad a 1 año. Se aplicaron ponderación por la probabilidad inversa del tiempo de supervivencia y ajustes por regresión de Cox, puntuación de propensión y variables instrumentales. RESULTADOS: De los 15.401 pacientes con SCA sometidos a ICP, se prescribieron IECA/ARA-II al 75,2%. Se produjeron 569 muertes (3,7%) durante el primer año tras el alta hospitalaria. Después del ajuste multivariado, los IECA/ARA-II se asociaron con menor mortalidad, pero solo en los pacientes con FEVI ≤ 40% (HR=0,62; IC95%, 0,43-0,90; p = 0,012). Con los IECA/ARA-II, la reducción del riesgo relativo de la mortalidad estimada fue del 46,1% en los pacientes con FEVI ≤ 40% y del 15,7% en aquellos con FEVI> 40% (pinteracción=0,008). En los pacientes con FEVI> 40%, los IECA/ARA-II se asociaron con menor mortalidad solo por infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST (HR=0,44; IC95%, 0,21-0.93; p = 0,031). CONCLUSIONES: El beneficio de los IECA/ARA-II en mortalidad tras ICP por SCA se concentra en pacientes con FEVI ≤ 40% y aquellos con FEVI> 40% e infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST. Se precisan estudios contemporáneos que analicen el impacto de los IECA/ARA-II en pacientes con SCA sin elevación del segmento ST y FEVI> 40%


INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: For patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), it is unclear whether angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are associated with reduced mortality, particularly with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The goal of this study was to determine the association between ACEI/ARB and mortality in ACS patients undergoing PCI, with and without reduced LVEF. METHODS: Data from the BleeMACS registry were used. The endpoint was 1-year all-cause mortality. The prognostic value of ACEI/ARB was tested after weighting by survival-time inverse probability and after adjustment by Cox regression, propensity score, and instrumental variable analysis. RESULTS: Among 15 401 ACS patients who underwent PCI, ACEI/ARB were prescribed in 75.2%. There were 569 deaths (3.7%) during the first year after hospital discharge. After multivariable adjustment, ACEI/ARB were associated with lower 1-year mortality, ≤ 40% (HR, 0.62; 95%CI, 0.43-0.90; P=.012). The relative risk reduction of ACEI/ARB in mortality was 46.1% in patients with LVEF ≤ 40%, and 15.7% in patients with LVEF> 40% (P value for treatment-by-LVEF interaction=.008). For patients with LVEF> 40%, ACEI/ARB was associated with lower mortality only in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (HR, 0.44; 95%CI, 0.21-0.93; P=.031). CONCLUSION: The benefit of ACEI/ARB in decreasing mortality after an ACS in patients undergoing PCI is concentrated in patients with LVEF ≤ 40%, and in those with LVEF> 40% and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. In non-ST-segment elevation-ACS patients with LVEF> 40%, further studies are needed to assess the prognostic impact of ACEI/ARB

13.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 17(4): 242-257, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953535

RESUMO

Advances in antiplatelet therapies for patients with cardiovascular disease have improved patient outcomes over time, but the challenge of balancing the risks of ischaemia and bleeding remains substantial. Moreover, many patients with cardiovascular disease have a residual risk of ischaemic events despite receiving antiplatelet therapy. Therefore, novel strategies are needed to prevent clinical events through mechanisms beyond platelet inhibition and with an acceptable associated risk of bleeding. The advent of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants, which attenuate fibrin formation by selective inhibition of factor Xa or thrombin, has renewed the interest in dual-pathway inhibition strategies that combine an antiplatelet agent with an anticoagulant drug. In this Review, we highlight the emerging pharmacological rationale and clinical development of dual-pathway inhibition strategies for the prevention of atherothrombotic events in patients with different manifestations of cardiovascular disease, such as coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease and peripheral artery disease.


Assuntos
Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Quimioterapia Combinada , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Trombose/etiologia
14.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 73(1): 35-42, ene. 2020. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET5-797

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: El objetivo de este estudio es analizar la asociación de la coronariografía precoz con la mortalidad por cualquier causa y la mortalidad cardiovascular en los pacientes con síndrome coronario agudo sin elevación del segmento ST (SCASEST) utilizando una gran cohorte contemporánea de pacientes con SCASEST de 2 hospitales terciarios españoles. MÉTODOS: Este estudio observacional retrospectivo incluyó a 5.673 pacientes con SCASEST consecutivos de 2 hospitales españoles entre los años 2005 y 2016. Se emparejó por puntuación de propensión para obtener un subconjunto bien equilibrado de pacientes con la misma probabilidad de una coronariografía temprana, lo que dio como resultado 3.780 pacientes. RESULTADOS: Entre los participantes del estudio, se realizó una coronariografía precoz a solo 2.087 pacientes (40,9%). La mediana de seguimiento fue de 59,0 [intervalo intercuartílico, 25,0-80,0] meses. La mortalidad por cualquier causa fue del 19,0%; la mortalidad cardiovascular, del 12,8%, y el 51,1% de los pacientes sufrieron al menos 1 evento cardiovascular mayor (mortalidad, infarto agudo de miocardio, hospitalización por insuficiencia cardiaca o revascularización no planeada) en el seguimiento. Después de emparejar por puntuación de propensión, la revascularización temprana se asoció con una mortalidad significativamente menor (HR=0,79; IC95%, 0,62-0,98), en los pacientes con SCASEST de alto riesgo. La coronariografía precoz mostró una tendencia inversa no significativa en los pacientes con puntuación GRACE <140. CONCLUSIONES: En los pacientes con SCASEST de alto riesgo (puntuación GRACE ≥ 140) de un registro contemporáneo de la práctica clínica, la coronariografía temprana (las primeras 24 h tras el ingreso hospitalario) puede estar asociada con una reducción de la mortalidad por cualquier causa y la mortalidad cardiovascular en el seguimiento a largo plazo


INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: This study sought to analyze the association of early coronary angiography with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS) using a large contemporary cohort of patients with NSTEACS from 2 Spanish tertiary hospitals. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included 5673 consecutive NSTEACS patients from 2 Spanish hospitals between 2005 and 2016. We performed propensity score matching to obtain a well-balanced subset of patients with the same probability of undergoing an early strategy, resulting in 3780 patients. Survival analyses were performed by Cox regression models once proportional risk test were verified. RESULTS: Among the study participants, only 2087 patients (40.9%) underwent early invasive coronary angiography. The median follow-up was 59.0 months [interquartile range, 25.0-80.0 months]. All-cause mortality was 19.0%, cardiovascular mortality was 12.8%, and 51.1% patients experienced at least 1 major cardiovascular adverse event in the follow-up. After propensity score matching, the early strategy was associated with significantly lower mortality (hazard ratio: 0.79; 95% confidence interval 0.62-0.98) in high-risk NSTEACS patients. The early strategy showed a nonsignificant inverse tendency in patients with GRACE score <140. CONCLUSIONS: In high-risk (GRACE score ≥ 140) NSTEACS patients in a contemporary real-world registry, early coronary angiography (first 24 hours after hospital admission) may be associated with reduced all- cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality at long-term follow-up

15.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 73(1): 53-68, ene. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET5-799

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: La asistencia de los testigos es decisiva para mejorar los resultados de la parada cardiaca extrahospitalaria. Pese al número creciente de métodos de formación en soporte vital básico (SVB), la fórmula más efectiva no está definida. Esta revisión sistemática pretende describir los posibles métodos de entrenamiento en SVB para población general adulta y analizar su eficacia aspirando a identificar un patrón de referencia. MÉTODOS: Se revisó la base de datos MEDLINE (de enero de 2006 a julio de 2018) empleando criterios de inclusión y exclusión predefinidos y considerando todos los estudios que evaluaron métodos prácticos de formación en SVB. Dos revisores extrajeron los datos de manera independiente y evaluaron la calidad de los estudios mediante la escala MERSQI (Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument). RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 27 de los 1.263 estudios identificados. Los ensayos aleatorizados y controlados eran minoría, con una calidad media de 13 sobre 18 y un considerable acuerdo interobservadores. La heterogeneidad de los contenidos y los instrumentos de formación y evaluación limitan la comparabilidad. Los métodos guiados por instructor, incluyendo práctica y apoyados por dispositivos de retroalimentación, parecen haber obtenido los mejores resultados y el reentrenamiento facilitó la retención. La formación mejoró además aspectos actitudinales. CONCLUSIONES: Aunque los datos no son lo bastante coincidentes para establecer el método óptimo, hubo una aparente ventaja de los guiados por instructor, con práctica y apoyados por retroalimentación, así como del reentrenamiento. Futuros estudios deberían perseguir criterios de calidad estandarizados e instrumentos de evaluación validados para garantizar la coherencia y la comparabilidad


INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Bystander assistance is decisive to enhance the outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Despite an increasing number of basic life support (BLS) training methods, the most effective formula remains undefined. To identify a gold standard, we performed a systematic review describing reported BLS training methods for laypeople and analyzed their effectiveness. METHODS: We reviewed the MEDLINE database from January 2006 to July 2018 using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, considering all studies training adult laypeople in BLS and performing practical skill assessment. Two reviewers independently extracted data and evaluated the quality of the studies using the MERSQI (Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument) scale. RESULTS: Of the 1263 studies identified, 27 were included. Most of them were nonrandomized controlled trials and the mean quality score was 13 out of 18, with substantial agreement between reviewers. The wide heterogeneity of contents, methods and assessment tools precluded pooling of data. Nevertheless, there was an apparent advantage of instructor-led methods, with feedback-supported hands-on practice, and retraining seemed to enhance retention. Training also improved attitudinal aspects. CONCLUSIONS: While there were insufficiently consistent data to establish a gold standard, instructor-led formulas, hands-on training with feedback devices and frequent retraining seemed to yield better results. Further research on adult BLS training may need to seek standardized quality criteria and validated evaluation instruments to ensure consistency

16.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 73(2): 114-122, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105064

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: For patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), it is unclear whether angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are associated with reduced mortality, particularly with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The goal of this study was to determine the association between ACEI/ARB and mortality in ACS patients undergoing PCI, with and without reduced LVEF. METHODS: Data from the BleeMACS registry were used. The endpoint was 1-year all-cause mortality. The prognostic value of ACEI/ARB was tested after weighting by survival-time inverse probability and after adjustment by Cox regression, propensity score, and instrumental variable analysis. RESULTS: Among 15 401 ACS patients who underwent PCI, ACEI/ARB were prescribed in 75.2%. There were 569 deaths (3.7%) during the first year after hospital discharge. After multivariable adjustment, ACEI/ARB were associated with lower 1-year mortality, ≤ 40% (HR, 0.62; 95%CI, 0.43-0.90; P=.012). The relative risk reduction of ACEI/ARB in mortality was 46.1% in patients with LVEF ≤ 40%, and 15.7% in patients with LVEF> 40% (P value for treatment-by-LVEF interaction=.008). For patients with LVEF> 40%, ACEI/ARB was associated with lower mortality only in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (HR, 0.44; 95%CI, 0.21-0.93; P=.031). CONCLUSION: The benefit of ACEI/ARB in decreasing mortality after an ACS in patients undergoing PCI is concentrated in patients with LVEF ≤ 40%, and in those with LVEF> 40% and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. In non-ST-segment elevation-ACS patients with LVEF> 40%, further studies are needed to assess the prognostic impact of ACEI/ARB.

18.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 73(1): 53-68, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808611

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Bystander assistance is decisive to enhance the outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Despite an increasing number of basic life support (BLS) training methods, the most effective formula remains undefined. To identify a gold standard, we performed a systematic review describing reported BLS training methods for laypeople and analyzed their effectiveness. METHODS: We reviewed the MEDLINE database from January 2006 to July 2018 using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, considering all studies training adult laypeople in BLS and performing practical skill assessment. Two reviewers independently extracted data and evaluated the quality of the studies using the MERSQI (Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument) scale. RESULTS: Of the 1263 studies identified, 27 were included. Most of them were nonrandomized controlled trials and the mean quality score was 13 out of 18, with substantial agreement between reviewers. The wide heterogeneity of contents, methods and assessment tools precluded pooling of data. Nevertheless, there was an apparent advantage of instructor-led methods, with feedback-supported hands-on practice, and retraining seemed to enhance retention. Training also improved attitudinal aspects. CONCLUSIONS: While there were insufficiently consistent data to establish a gold standard, instructor-led formulas, hands-on training with feedback devices and frequent retraining seemed to yield better results. Further research on adult BLS training may need to seek standardized quality criteria and validated evaluation instruments to ensure consistency.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/educação , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Adulto , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos
19.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 73(1): 35-42, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122784

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: This study sought to analyze the association of early coronary angiography with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS) using a large contemporary cohort of patients with NSTEACS from 2 Spanish tertiary hospitals. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included 5673 consecutive NSTEACS patients from 2 Spanish hospitals between 2005 and 2016. We performed propensity score matching to obtain a well-balanced subset of patients with the same probability of undergoing an early strategy, resulting in 3780 patients. Survival analyses were performed by Cox regression models once proportional risk test were verified. RESULTS: Among the study participants, only 2087 patients (40.9%) underwent early invasive coronary angiography. The median follow-up was 59.0 months [interquartile range, 25.0-80.0 months]. All-cause mortality was 19.0%, cardiovascular mortality was 12.8%, and 51.1% patients experienced at least 1 major cardiovascular adverse event in the follow-up. After propensity score matching, the early strategy was associated with significantly lower mortality (hazard ratio: 0.79; 95% confidence interval 0.62-0.98) in high-risk NSTEACS patients. The darly strategy showed a nonsignificant inverse tendency in patients with GRACE score <140. CONCLUSIONS: In high-risk (GRACE score≥ 140) NSTEACS patients in a contemporary real-world registry, early coronary angiography (first 24hours after hospital admission) may be associated with reduced all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality at long-term follow-up.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Pontuação de Propensão , Sistema de Registros , Causas de Morte/tendências , Angiografia Coronária , Eletrocardiografia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Am Heart J ; 220: 108-115, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of recurrent ischemia and bleeding after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) may vary during the first year of follow-up according to clinical presentation, and medical and interventional strategies. METHODS: BleeMACS and RENAMI are 2 multicenter registries enrolling patients with ACS treated with PCI and clopidogrel, prasugrel, or ticagrelor. The average daily ischemic and bleeding risks (ADIR and ADBR) in the first year after PCI were the primary end points. The difference between ADBR and ADIR was calculated to estimate the potential excess of bleeding/ischemic events in a given period or specific subgroup. RESULTS: A total of 19,826 patients were included. Overall, in the first year after PCI, the ADBR was 0.008085%, whereas ADIR was 0.008017% (P = .886). In the first 2 weeks ADIR was higher than ADBR (P = .013), especially in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction or incomplete revascularization. ADIR continued to be, albeit non-significantly, greater than ADBR up to the third month, whereas ADBR became higher, although not significantly, afterward. Patients with incomplete revascularization had an excess in ischemic risk (P = .003), whereas non-ST-segment elevation ACS patients and those on ticagrelor had an excess of bleeding (P = .012 and P = .022, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In unselected ACS patients, ADIR and ADBR occurred at similar rates within 1 year after PCI. ADIR was greater than ADBR in the first 2 weeks, especially in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients and those with incomplete revascularization. In the first year, ADIR was higher than ADBR in patients with incomplete revascularization, whereas ADBR was higher in non-ST-segment elevation ACS patients and in those discharged on ticagrelor.

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