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Brain Behav Immun ; 81: 608-616, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344493


OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder with an etiopathophysiology that seems to include immune alterations. Previous studies have suggested that variations in the levels of circulating T cell subpopulations may be involved in psychiatric diseases. However, the role of these cells in OCD remains unexplored. Hence, the present study aimed to examine the levels of T helper 1 (Th1), Th2, Th17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells in patients with early-onset OCD and healthy controls. METHODS: The assessment was performed in 99 children and adolescents with OCD and 46 control subjects. The percentages of circulating Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg cells were evaluated using flow cytometry. RESULTS: OCD patients had significantly higher levels of Th17 cells and lower percentages of Treg cells than healthy controls (p = 0.001 and p = 0.005, respectively). Furthermore, levels of Th17 cells progressively increased with the duration (p = 0.005) and severity of OCD (p = 0.008), whereas the percentages of Treg cells significantly declined with the duration of the disorder (p = 1.8 × 10-5). CONCLUSIONS: These results provide more evidence of the involvement of immune dysregulation, specifically an imbalance in the levels of circulating T helper and regulatory T cells, in the pathophysiology of early-onset OCD.

World J Biol Psychiatry ; 20(5): 352-358, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28562177


Objective: The exact aetiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is unknown, although there is evidence to suggest a gene-environment interaction model. Several lines of evidence support a possible role of the immune system in this model. Methods: The present study explores the allele variability in HLA genes of class II (HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1) in a sample of 144 early-onset OCD compared with reference samples of general population in the same geographical area. Results: None of the 39 alleles identified (allele frequency >1%) showed significant differences between OCD and reference populations. Pooling the different alleles that comprised HLA-DR4 (including DRB1*04:01, DRB1*04:04 and DRB1*04:05 alleles) we observed a significantly higher frequency (X21 = 5.53, P = 0.018; OR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.08-2.48) of these alleles in the early-onset OCD sample (10.8%) than in the reference population (6.8%). Conclusions: Taking into account the role of HLA class II genes in the central nervous system, the results presented here support a role of the immune system in the pathophysiological model of OCD.

Front Immunol ; 9: 636, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29867916


Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most frequent symptomatic primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent infections, hypogammaglobulinemia and poor response to vaccines. Its diagnosis is made based on clinical and immunological criteria, after exclusion of other diseases that can cause similar phenotypes. Currently, less than 20% of cases of CVID have a known underlying genetic cause. We have analyzed whole-exome sequencing and copy number variants data of 36 children and adolescents diagnosed with CVID and healthy relatives to estimate the proportion of monogenic cases. We have replicated an association of CVID to p.C104R in TNFRSF13B and reported the second case of homozygous patient to date. Our results also identify five causative genetic variants in LRBA, CTLA4, NFKB1, and PIK3R1, as well as other very likely causative variants in PRKCD, MAPK8, or DOCK8 among others. We experimentally validate the effect of the LRBA stop-gain mutation which abolishes protein production and downregulates the expression of CTLA4, and of the frameshift indel in CTLA4 producing expression downregulation of the protein. Our results indicate a monogenic origin of at least 15-24% of the CVID cases included in the study. The proportion of monogenic patients seems to be lower in CVID than in other PID that have also been analyzed by whole exome or targeted gene panels sequencing. Regardless of the exact proportion of CVID monogenic cases, other genetic models have to be considered for CVID. We propose that because of its prevalence and other features as intermediate penetrancies and phenotypic variation within families, CVID could fit with other more complex genetic scenarios. In particular, in this work, we explore the possibility of CVID being originated by an oligogenic model with the presence of heterozygous mutations in interacting proteins or by the accumulation of detrimental variants in particular immunological pathways, as well as perform association tests to detect association with rare genetic functional variation in the CVID cohort compared to healthy controls.

Antígeno CTLA-4/genética , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/genética , Genótipo , Mutação/genética , Proteína Transmembrana Ativadora e Interagente do CAML/genética , Adolescente , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/fisiologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Modelos Biológicos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
J Neuroinflammation ; 14(1): 261, 2017 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29284508


BACKGROUND: Although the exact etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is unknown, there is growing evidence of a role for immune dysregulation in the pathophysiology of the disease, especially in the innate immune system including the microglia. To test this hypothesis, we studied inflammatory markers in monocytes from pediatric patients with OCD and from healthy controls. METHODS: We determined the percentages of total monocytes, CD16+ monocytes, and classical (CD14highCD16-), intermediate (CD14highCD16low), and non-classical (CD14lowCD16high) monocyte subsets in 102 patients with early-onset OCD and in 47 healthy controls. Moreover, proinflammatory cytokine production (GM-CSF, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α) was measured by multiplex Luminex analysis in isolated monocyte cultures, in basal conditions, after exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to stimulate immune response or after exposure to LPS and the immunosuppressant dexamethasone. RESULTS: OCD patients had significantly higher percentages of total monocytes and CD16+ monocytes than healthy controls, mainly due to an increase in the intermediate subset but also in the non-classical monocytes. Monocytes from OCD patients released higher amounts of GM-CSF, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α than healthy controls after exposure to LPS. However, there were no significant differences in basal cytokine production or the sensitivity of monocytes to dexamethasone treatment between both groups. Based on monocyte subset distribution and cytokine production after LPS stimulation, patients receiving psychoactive medications seem to have an intermediate inflammatory profile, that is, lower than non-medicated OCD individuals and higher than healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: These results strongly support the involvement of an enhanced proinflammatory innate immune response in the etiopathogenesis of early-onset OCD.

Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/metabolismo , Adolescente , Criança , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem