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1.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223536, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are not enough nationwide studies on perinatal HIV transmission in connection with a combination of antiretroviral treatments in Spain. Our objectives were to study sociodemographic changes and trends in the rates of HIV diagnoses and perinatal transmission in Spain from 1997 to 2015. METHODS: A retrospective study using data from Spanish Paediatric HIV Network (CoRISpe) and Spanish Minimum Basic Data Set (MDBS) was performed. HIV- diagnosed children between 1997 and 2015 were selected. Sociodemographic, clinical and immunovirological data of HIV-infected children and their mothers were studied in four calendar periods (P1: 1997-2000; P2: 2001-2005; P3: 2006-2010; P4: 2011-2015). Rates of perinatal HIV diagnoses and transmission from 1997 to 2015 were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 532 HIV-infected children were included in this study. Of these children, 406 were Spanish (76.3%) and 126 immigrants (23.7%). A decrease in the number of HIV diagnoses, 203 (38.2%) children in the first (P1), 149 (28%) in the second (P2), 130 (24.4%) in the third (P3) and 50 (9.4%) in the fourth (P4) calendar periods was studied. The same decrease in the Spanish HIV-infected children (P1, 174 (46.6%), P2, 115 (30.8%), P3, 65 (17.4%) and P4, 19 (5.1%)) was monitored. However, an increase in the number of HIV diagnoses by sexual contact (P1: 0%; P2: 1.3%; P3: 4.6%; P4: 16%) was observed. The rates of new perinatal HIV diagnoses and perinatal transmission in Spanish children decreased from 0.167 to 0.005 per 100,000 inhabitants and 11.4% to 0.4% between 1997 and 2015, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A decline of perinatal HIV diagnoses and transmission was observed. However, an increase of teen-agers HIV diagnoses with sexual infection was studied. Public awareness campaigns directed to teen-agers are advisable to prevent HIV infection by sexual contact.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220552, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is associated with marked immune reconstitution. Although a long term viral suppression is achievable, not all children however, attain complete immunological recovery due to persistent immune activation. We use CD4/CD8 ratio like a marker of immune reconstitution. METHODS: Perinatal HIV-infected children who underwent a first-line cART, achieved viral suppression in the first year and maintained it for more than 5 years, with no viral rebound were included. Logistic models were applied to estimate the prognostic factors, clinical characteristics at cART start, of a lower CD4/CD8 ratio at the last visit. RESULTS: 146 HIV-infected children were included: 77% Caucasian, 45% male and 28% CDC C. Median age at cART initiation was 2.3 years (IQR: 0.5-6.2). 42 (30%) children received mono-dual therapy previously to cART. Time of undetectable viral load was 9.5 years (IQR: 7.8, 12.5). 33% of the children not achieved CD4/CD8 ratio >1. Univariate analysis showed an association between CD4/CD8 <1 with lower CD4 nadir and baseline CD4; older age at diagnosis and at cART initiation; and a previous exposure to mono-dual therapy. Multivariate analysis also revealed relationship between CD4/CD8 <1 and lower CD4 nadir (OR: 1.002, CI 95% 1.000-1.004) as well as previous exposure to mono-dual therapy (OR: 0.16, CI 95% 0.003-0.720). CONCLUSIONS: CD4/CD8 >1 was not achieved in 33% of the children. Lower CD4 nadir and previous exposure to suboptimal therapy, before initiating cART, are factors showing independently association with a worse immune recovery (CD4/CD8 < 1).

3.
World J Pediatr ; 15(5): 492-498, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies investigating health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in youth with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV+) are scarce. This study aimed to compare HRQoL of PHIV+ to sociodemographic-matched youth not living with HIV (HIV-), Spanish general youth population, and to explore associations between sociodemographic variables, drug consumption, and HRQoL. METHODS: PHIV+ youth were randomly selected from CoRISpe database (Cohort of the Spanish Pediatric HIV Network). HRQoL was evaluated by SF-12v2. RESULTS: Thirty-nine PHIV+ youth (mean age: 23.36 years, SD = 3.83) and thirty-nine HIV- youth (mean age: 22.97 years, SD = 3.80) participated in this study. PHIV+ obtained lower scores in SF-12 physical health subscale (PCS) than HIV- (P = 0.001) and Spanish general youth population (P = 0.006). PHIV+ had lower scores on the mental health subscale (MCS) than the Spanish general youth population (P < 0.001). PHIV+ who were at school obtained better scores than those were not at school. PHIV+ youth who had used cocaine and cannabis had lower scores in MCS (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for HRQoL management in the associated medical follow-up.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218491, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease (CD) is an emergent disease in Europe, due to immigration. The aims of this study are to describe the epidemiological characteristics of a cohort of Chagas infected pregnant women in Spain, to assess the vertical transmission (VT) rate and evaluate the usefulness of the PCR in the diagnosis of congenital infection in the first months of life. METHODS: A descriptive, retrospective study including Chagas seropositive pregnant women who were attended at three tertiary hospitals in Madrid, from January 2012 to September 2016. Infants were examined by PCR at birth and 1 month later and serologically studied at 9 months or later. Children were considered infected when the parasite was detected by PCR at any age or when serology remained positive without decline over the age of 9 months. RESULTS: We included 122 seropositive-infected pregnant women, 81% were from Bolivia and only 8.2% had been treated before. 125 newborns were studied and finally 109 were included (12.8% lost the follow-up before performing the last serology). The VT rate was 2.75% (95% CI: 0,57-8,8%). Infected infants had positive PCR at birth and 1 month later. All of them were treated successfully with benznidazole (PCR and serology became negative later on). All non-infected children presented negative PCR. The mean age at which uninfected patients had negative serology was 10.5 months. CONCLUSIONS: The VT rate is in keeping with literature and confirms the need to carry out a screening in pregnant women coming from endemic areas. PCR seems to be a useful tool to provide early diagnosis of congenital CD.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929024

RESUMO

Data for a total of 57 patients vertically coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) and 365 HIV-monoinfected patients were compared until their transition to adult care. No differences regarding the dynamics of CD4 and/or CD8 T-cell counts during childhood were found. The coexistence of HCV does not increase the risk of disease progression in vertically HIV-infected patients.

6.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 32(4): 617-625, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28978246

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the leading cause of congenital infection worldwide. Data about the management of CMV infection in pregnant women are scarce, and treatment options are very limited. The aim of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of cytomegalovirus hyperimmune globulin (CMV-HIG) for the prevention and treatment of congenital CMV (cCMV) infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted in three tertiary hospitals in Madrid. In the period 2009-2015, CMV-HIG (Cytotect® CP Biotest, Biotest) treatment was offered to all pregnant women with primary CMV infection and/or detection of CMV-DNA in amniotic fluid in participating centers. Women were divided into prevention and treatment groups (PG and TG, respectively). Those with primary CMV infection who had not undergone amniocentesis comprised the PG and received monthly CMV-HIG (100 UI/kg). If CMV-DNA was subsequently detected in amniotic fluid, one extra dose of CMV-HIG (200 UI/kg) was given 4 weeks after the last dose. Those women were considered to be part of the PG group despite detection of CMV-DNA in amniotic fluid. In the case of a negative result in CMV-DNA detection in amniotic fluid or if amniocentesis was not performed, monthly HIG was given up to the end of the pregnancy. RESULTS: Thirty-six pregnant women were included. Median gestational age at birth was 39 weeks (interquartile range: 38-40) and two children (5.5%) were premature (born at 28 and 34 weeks' gestation). Amniocentesis was performed in 30/36 (83.4%) pregnancies and CMV PCR was positive in 21 of them (70%). One fetus with a positive PCR in amniotic fluid that received one dose of HIG after amniocentesis presented a negative CMV-PCR in urine at birth, and was asymptomatic at 12 months of age. Twenty-four children were infected at birth, and 16/21 (76.2%) presented no sequelae at 12 months, while two (9.5%) had a mild unilateral hearing loss and three (14.3%) severe hearing loss or neurological sequelae. Seventeen women were included in the PG and 19 in the TG. In the PG 7/17 (41%) fetuses were infected, one pregnancy was terminated due to abnormalities in cordocentesis and one showed a mild hearing loss at 12 months of age. In the TG, 18/19 children (95%) were diagnosed with cCMV, while the remaining neonate had negative urine CMV at birth. Eight out of the 19 fetuses (42.1%) showed CMV related abnormalities in the fetal US before HIG treatment. Complete clinical assessment in the neonatal period and at 12 months of age was available in 16 and 15 children, respectively. At birth 50% were symptomatic and at 12 months of age, 4/15 (26.7%) showed a hearing loss and 3/15 (20%) neurologic impairment. Fetuses with abnormalities in ultrasonography before HIG presented a high risk of sequelae (odds ratios: 60; 95%CI: 3-1185; p = .007). DISCUSSION: Prophylactic HIG administration in pregnant women after CMV primary infection seems not to reduce significantly the rate of congenital infection, but is safe and it could have a favorable effect on the symptoms and sequelae of infected fetuses. The risk of long-term sequelae in fetuses without US abnormalities before HIG is low, so it could be an option in infected fetuses with normal imaging. On the other hand, the risk of sequelae among infected fetuses with abnormalities in fetal ultrasonography before HIG despite treatment is high.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/terapia , Doenças Fetais/prevenção & controle , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Adulto , Amniocentese , Líquido Amniótico/virologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/congênito , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Doenças Fetais/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal
9.
PLoS Med ; 15(1): e1002491, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29381702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Published estimates of mortality and progression to AIDS as children with HIV approach adulthood are limited. We describe rates and risk factors for death and AIDS-defining events in children and adolescents after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in 17 middle- and high-income countries, including some in Western and Central Europe (W&CE), Eastern Europe (Russia and Ukraine), and Thailand. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Children with perinatal HIV aged <18 years initiating cART were followed until their 21st birthday, transfer to adult care, death, loss to follow-up, or last visit up until 31 December 2013. Rates of death and first AIDS-defining events were calculated. Baseline and time-updated risk factors for early/late (≤/>6 months of cART) death and progression to AIDS were assessed. Of 3,526 children included, 32% were from the United Kingdom or Ireland, 30% from elsewhere in W&CE, 18% from Russia or Ukraine, and 20% from Thailand. At cART initiation, median age was 5.2 (IQR 1.4-9.3) years; 35% of children aged <5 years had a CD4 lymphocyte percentage <15% in 1997-2003, which fell to 15% of children in 2011 onwards (p < 0.001). Similarly, 53% and 18% of children ≥5 years had a CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 in 1997-2003 and in 2011 onwards, respectively (p < 0.001). Median follow-up was 5.6 (2.9-8.7) years. Of 94 deaths and 237 first AIDS-defining events, 43 (46%) and 100 (42%) were within 6 months of initiating cART, respectively. Multivariable predictors of early death were: being in the first year of life; residence in Russia, Ukraine, or Thailand; AIDS at cART start; initiating cART on a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimen; severe immune suppression; and low BMI-for-age z-score. Current severe immune suppression, low current BMI-for-age z-score, and current viral load >400 c/mL predicted late death. Predictors of early and late progression to AIDS were similar. Study limitations include incomplete recording of US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) disease stage B events and serious adverse events in some countries; events that were distributed over a long time period, and that we lacked power to analyse trends in patterns and causes of death over time. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, 3,526 children and adolescents with perinatal HIV infection initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) in countries in Europe and Thailand. We observed that over 40% of deaths occurred ≤6 months after cART initiation. Greater early mortality risk in infants, as compared to older children, and in Russia, Ukraine, or Thailand as compared to W&CE, raises concern. Current severe immune suppression, being underweight, and unsuppressed viral load were associated with a higher risk of death at >6 months after initiation of cART.

10.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 37(6): e149-e156, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29206747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Novel antiretroviral formulations that are palatable, safe, and effective are needed for infants and children. METHODS: PRINCE-2 is an ongoing clinical trial assessing safety, efficacy, and palatability of once-daily atazanavir powder formulation boosted with ritonavir (ATV + RTV) plus optimized dual nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors therapy in antiretroviral-naïve/experienced children with screening HIV-1 RNA ≥1000 copies/mL. Children 3 months to <11 years received ATV + RTV by 5 baseline weight bands: 5 to <10 kg = 150/80 mg; 5 to <10 kg = 200/80 mg; 10 to <15 kg = 200/80 mg; 15 to <25 kg = 250/80 mg; and 25 to <35 kg = 300/100 mg. RESULTS: Of 99 treated children, 83.8% and 59.6% remained on ATV powder until 24 and 48 weeks, respectively. Through 48 weeks, the most common adverse events were upper respiratory tract infections (33.3%), gastroenteritis (28.3%), vomiting (21.2%) and hyperbilirubinemia (18.2%; none leading to treatment discontinuation). Serious adverse events occurred in 20.2% of patients. Laboratory grade 3-4 hyperbilirubinemia occurred in 9.2% and elevated total/pancreatic amylase in 33.7%/3.1%. At week 24, proportions with virologic suppression (HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL; intention-to-treat analysis) across weight bands were 10/23 (43.5%), 2/12 (16.5%), 10/21 (47.6%), 19/35 (54.3%) and 5/8 (62.5%), respectively. Virologic suppression was similar in antiretroviral-naïve/experienced patients and lowest in the 5 to <10 kg = 200/80 mg group, likely because of higher baseline HIV-1 RNA and discontinuation (66.7%). Overall, virologic suppression at weeks 24 (46.5%) and 48 (43.0%) was comparable. At week 48, 83.3% and 74.1% of caregivers reported no trouble giving ATV powder and RTV, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: ATV powder palatability, efficacy and lack of unexpected safety findings support its use for HIV-1-infected children ≥3 months to <11 years.

11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 96(39): e7858, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28953612

RESUMO

Vertical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has decreased in industrialized countries in recent decades, but there are no studies on the mechanisms of HIV transmission among infected children in Spain. Our aim was to study the characteristics and trends of diagnoses of vertically HIV-infected children in Spain from 2004 to 2013.Vertically HIV-infected children were selected if they were diagnosed from 2004 to 2013, were aged 0 to 18 years old, and were included in the Cohort of the Spanish Pediatric HIV Network (CoRISpe). Demographic, clinical, immunological, and virological data at diagnosis were obtained. The rate of diagnoses of vertically HIV-infected children was calculated as the number of cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Obstetric data of mothers of Spanish children and prophylaxis at childbirth and postpartum were obtained.A total of 218 HIV-infected children were included in the study. Of this sample, 182 children (83.5%) were perinatally HIV infected, and 125 out of those 182 children (68.7%) were born in Spain. The vertically HIV-infected Spanish children were diagnosed earlier and were in better clinical and immunological condition at diagnosis than were foreign children. The rate of vertically HIV-infected children declined from 0.09 in 2004 to 0.03 in 2013 due to the decrease in the rate of children born in Spain (0.08 in 2004 vs 0.01 in 2013). A total of 60 out of 107 mothers (56.1%) of Spanish children were diagnosed at or after childbirth. However, this number declined between 2004 and 2013.The rate of new HIV diagnoses of vertically HIV-infected children decreased significantly between 2004 and 2013 from 0.09 to 0.03 per 100,000 inhabitants.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 12(8): e0183558, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28841701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An increasing number of perinatally HIV-infected women (PHIV) are reaching adulthood and becoming pregnant. Most PHIV women have been exposed to a high number of antiretroviral regimens, and they may have difficulties to achieve viral suppression. Psychosocial problems are not uncommon and could be an important barrier for treatment adherence. The effects of chronic HIV infection and long-term exposure to antiretroviral treatment of PHIV women cause concerns on the developing fetus. The aims of this study were to describe the prevention of mother-to-child transmission strategies in PHIV women and the infant outcomes in the Madrid Cohort of HIV-infected mother-infant pairs. METHODS: All PHIV pregnant women registered in the Cohort that gave birth from 2000 to 2015 were included in the study. RESULTS: Twenty-eight pregnancies in twenty-two perinatally infected women were registered. Most women were Caucasian and heavily treatment-experienced. Nine cases (32.1%) were at high risk of HIV mother-to-child transmission. Maternal HIV-1 viral load was detectable close to delivery in four women (14.3%). The management of these cases was described, and the treatment strategies were discussed. None of the newborns acquired HIV infection. Eight infants (28.6%) were small for gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: This study included a large series of pregnancies among PHIV women attended according to a youth-centered care model. The challenges in the management of this population by health-care providers were described. Specific strategies to minimize perinatal transmission risks should be addressed in future collaborative studies.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Espanha/epidemiologia , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 20172017 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28069783

RESUMO

We report the case of an 11-month-old infant who had a medical history of meningococcal septicaemia 6 months prior to this admission and presented to hospital with an episode of fever due to Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteraemia. During this second admission, an abdominal ultrasound scan revealed secondary asplenia.


Assuntos
Meningite Meningocócica/complicações , Sepse/complicações , Baço/anormalidades , Assistência ao Convalescente , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Meningite Meningocócica/prevenção & controle , Neisseria meningitidis , Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Baço/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia
14.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 36(6): 578-583, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28005690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our aim was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) in vertically HIV-infected patients and to investigate whether low BMD is related to immune activation and senescence induced by HIV infection. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 98 vertically HIV-infected patients. BMD was measured by dual-energy radiograph absorptiometry at lumbar spine. Height adjustment of BMD Z score was performed using height-for-age Z score. T-cell immune activation and senescence were analyzed in a subgroup of 54 patients by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Median age was 15.9 years, 71.4% were Caucasian, 99% received antiretroviral therapy and 80.6% had undetectable viral load. Low BMD (BMD Z score ≤ -2) was present in 15.3% of cases, but after height adjustment in 4.1% of cases. Height-adjusted BMD Z score was positively correlated with body mass index Z score, CD4/CD8 ratio and nadir CD4, and inversely with duration of severe immunosuppression and parathyroid hormone values. In the multivariate model including age, gender, ethnicity, encephalopathy, Tanner stage, nadir CD4, duration of viral suppression, CD4 count, CD4/CD8 ratio, body mass index, cumulative duration of antiretroviral therapy, tenofovir and protease inhibitors exposure, nadir CD4 was independently associated to height-adjusted BMD Z score. No association was found between height-adjusted BMD Z score and T-cell activation or senescence. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of low BMD in vertically HIV-infected patients was low after height adjustment. Nadir CD4, but not T-cell activation or senescence, was an independent predictor for low BMD. Larger and prospective studies are needed to achieve better knowledge of the pathogenesis of low BMD in vertical HIV infection.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Adolescente , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Estatura , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 95(24): e3842, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27310962

RESUMO

To assess the safety and efficacy of rilpivirine in combination with emtricitabine and tenofovir (RPV/FTC/TDF) as a once-daily single-tablet regimen (STR) in HIV-1-infected children and adolescents we performed a multicenter case series study of HIV-1-infected patients. Inclusion criteria were initiation of therapy with RPV/FTC/TDF before the age of 18. Patients were divided into undetectable viral load (uVL) group, HIV-1 RNA < 20 copies/mL on stable combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), and detectable viral load (dVL) group, HIV-1 RNA ≥ 20 copies/mL at RPV/FTC/TDF initiation. Patients were monitored from the date of RPV/FTC/TDF initiation until June 30, 2015, RPV/FTC/TDF discontinuation or failure to follow-up. Seventeen patients (8 in uVL and 9 in dVL group) with age between 11.6 and 17.6 were included. Reasons for switching were toxicity (n = 4) and simplification (n = 4) in uVL; viral failure (n = 8) and cART initiation (n = 1) in the dVL group. After a median follow-up of 90 (uVL) and 40 weeks (dVL), 7/8 (86%) patients maintained and 8/9 (89%) achieved and maintained HIV-1 suppression. Median CD4 count increased from 542 to 780/µL (uVL, P = 0.069) and 480 to 830/µL (dVL, P = 0.051). Five patients (2 in uVL and 3 in dVL) improved their immunological status from moderate to no immunosuppression. Serum lipid profiles improved in both groups; cholesterol dropped significantly in the dVL group (P = 0.008). Grade 1 laboratory adverse events (AEs) were observed in 3 patients. No clinical AEs occurred. Adherence was complete in 9 patients (5 in uVL and 4 in dVL); 1 adolescent interrupted treatment. Once-daily STR with RPV/FTC/TDF may be a safe and effective choice in selected HIV-1-infected adolescents and children.


Assuntos
Emtricitabina/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/genética , RNA Viral/análise , Tenofovir/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Criança , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Uso Off-Label , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
AIDS Care ; 28(1): 124-30, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26307530

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Advances in care and antiretroviral treatment, improved life expectancy and quality of life in children with perinatally-acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. There is increasing interest in the chronic effects of growing up with HIV. The aim of this study was to assess the psychosocial, emotional and behavioural functioning in a cohort of perinatally-acquired HIV-infected adolescents. Data were obtained through semi-structured interviews and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for emotional and behavioural disorders screening. RESULTS: A total of 95 patients (58% women) were assessed with a median age of 15 years (11-19.1) and a median age at diagnosis of 1.7 years (0-12.2). The median CD4 count, at the inclusion, was 626 cells/mm(3) (132-998), with 34% (10-52%). Viral load was <50 copies/ml in 72% of patients. Eighty-one per cent knew their diagnosis and optimal adherence was achieved in 53%. Passive coping was reported in 58.4% of the adolescents. Only 7.7% of teenagers had a complete and adequate knowledge of their disease and only 18.2% had shared it with their friends. Six unwanted pregnancies occurred (11% of women). Most of them (90%) attended school but 60% had been held back one or more school years. Overall, SDQ scored a risk of behavioural and emotional problems in 24.5%. The report of behaviours associated with hyperactivity was high in 14.9% of the population and borderline in 18.1%. Adolescents with encephalopathy accounted for 44% of those whose total scores fell in either the abnormal and borderline ranges for emotional difficulties (p = .038). CONCLUSION: Perinatally-acquired HIV-infected adolescents showed significant psychosocial and behavioural health risks that should bring attention to prevention and health care programmes. An earlier disclosure to children could favour a better psychological adjustment and a better treatment adherence. Future studies are needed to assess the relationship between vertically acquired HIV-infection and hyperactivity.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Adesão à Medicação , Revelação da Verdade , Adolescente , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Estigma Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
17.
AIDS ; 29(16): 2155-9, 2015 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26544580

RESUMO

Maraviroc (MVC) is not approved for HIV-1-infected paediatric patients. This is the first assessment of the use of MVC-based salvage therapy in vertically HIV-1-infected paediatric patients in clinical settings. The results suggest that MVC-based salvage therapy is useful in children and adolescents with extensive resistance profile leading to maintained virological suppression in up to 88% of the patients with CCR5-tropic virus. The likelihood of treatment success might increase when MVC is combined with other active drugs.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Cicloexanos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Uso Off-Label , Triazóis/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Maraviroc , Estudos Retrospectivos , Terapia de Salvação/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 15: 119, 2015 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25880777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced mortality among HIV-infected children. However, there is growing concern about long-term effects associated to ART. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic abnormalities in a cohort of perinatally HIV-infected adolescents and young adults and to identify associated factors. METHODS: We present results from a cross-sectional analysis including individuals 12 to 20 years of age, from a prospective, longitudinal cohort of perinatally-acquired HIV-infected children, adolescents and young adults in Madrid. Clinical and immunological data were recorded and complete lipid and glycemic profiles were determined. RESULTS: Ninety-nine adolescents were included, with a median age of 15.3 years [13.6-16.7]. Patients with abnormal levels of lipids were as follows: 27.2% total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dl, 25.9% LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) ≥ 130 mg/dl, 14.1% HDL-C < 35 mg/dl and 39.8% triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dl. Current use of protease inhibitors (PI) was associated with higher triglyceride values (p = 0.022). Four (4.6%) patients showed fasting glucose ≥ 100 mg/dl and 30.6% presented with insulin resistance (IR) (HOMA-IR over the 90th centile). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for sex, age, weight, Tanner stage, protease inhibitors (PI) and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) treatment length and CD4 nadir, IR was associated with higher waist circumference Z score; OR: 3.92(CI95%: 1.15-13.4) (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: There was a high prevalence of insulin resistance and lipid abnormalities in this cohort of perinatally-acquired HIV-infected adolescents. A simple clinical measurement like waist circumference Z score might be a reliable marker and predictor of insulin resistance in these patients.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Dislipidemias/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Resistência à Insulina , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Adolescente , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
19.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 34(5): e125-31, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25876103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated increased risk of adverse cardiac outcomes in adults with HIV infection. However, few studies have addressed this problem in vertically HIV-infected children and adolescents, and the long-term cardiac health of this unique population in the antiretroviral therapy era is still unknown. METHODS: Ventricular function was evaluated cross-sectionally in a group of HIV-infected children and adolescents and healthy controls, using conventional echocardiography along with tissue Doppler imaging and strain analysis by speckle tracking. Simultaneously, measurements of carotid intima-media thickness were performed. RESULTS: A total of 64 cases and 58 controls were included, mean age was 13.6 ± 5.4 years and 64% were females. All but 2 patients were on antiretroviral treatment, and 64% had undetectable viral load. HIV-infected patients showed higher intima-media thickness (0.425 ± 0.019 vs. 0.415 ± 0.019 mm, P = 0.003). Statistically significant differences were found between groups in ejection fraction and fractional shortening (66.1% and 36.2% in the HIV-infected group vs. 71.5% and 40.8% in the control group, respectively, P = 0.001), although individual values fell within or near normal ranges. There were no significant differences in diastolic function, tissue Doppler imaging or cardiac strain (longitudinal and rotational) between both groups. No associations were identified between echocardiographic parameters and current CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts, CD4+ T-lymphocyte nadir, HIV viral load, duration or type of antiretroviral treatment regimens. CONCLUSIONS: In a context of highly effective antiretroviral treatment, no differences were found regarding cardiac abnormalities using conventional and advanced ultrasound imaging techniques in this cohort of vertically HIV-infected children and adolescents, when compared with healthy controls.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Testes de Função Cardíaca , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 32(5): 311-9, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24582834

RESUMO

The main objective in the management of HIV-infected pregnant women is prevention of mother-to-child transmission; therefore, it is essential to provide universal antiretroviral treatment, regardless of CD4 count. All pregnant women must receive adequate information and undergo HIV serology testing at the first visit. If the serological status is unknown at the time of delivery, or in the immediate postpartum, HIV serology testing has to be performed as soon as possible. In this document, recommendations are made regarding the health of the mother and from the perspective of minimizing mother-to-child transmission.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
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