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1.
Ars pharm ; 62(1): 52-65, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET6-1768

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of diabetes type 2 is increasing worldwide, thus the search of novel alternative ther¬apies is needed. According to their traditional use, we selected five Bolivian plants Chenopodium quinoa (CQ) Ama¬ranthus caudatus (AC), Chenopodium pallidicaule (CP), Lupinus mutabilis (LM) and Smallanthus sonchifolius (SS) that are traditionally used to control glycemia. METHODS: The effect of a single oral administration of Ethanolic (EtOH), hydro-ethanolic (EtOH70) and aqueous (Aq) extracts from all plant species were tested for their effect on blood glucose in non-fasted mice and during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The effect on insulin secretion was evaluated in mice pancreatic islets. RESULTS: EtOH70 extracts of all the plants showed glucose-reducing effect at the highest dose evaluated (2000 mg/ kg b.w.). EtOH70 extracts improved the glucose tolerance evaluated by the OGTT in mice fasted for 12 hours. The extracts have different effects on glucose homeostasis since just extracts of AC, LM and CQ but not CP and SS in¬creased insulin secretion as shown on mice pancreatic islets. The phytochemical qualitative characterization of EtOH70 extracts detected phenolic acids and flavonoids in AC, CP and CQ; alkaloids in LM and anthocyanidins in SS. None of EtOH70 extracts tested showed in vitro or in vivo acute toxicity at concentrations where they exhibit glucose lowering effects. CONCLUSIONS: We report here that extracts from AC, CQ, CP, LM and SS exhibit glucose lowering effect while just AC, CQ and LM stimulate directly the insulin secretion


INTRODUCCIÓN: La prevalencia de diabetes tipo 2 está aumentando en todo el mundo, por lo que se necesita la búsqueda de nuevas terapias alternativas. Según su uso tradicional, seleccionamos cinco plantas bolivianas Chenopodium quinoa (CQ) Amaranthus caudatus (AC), Chenopodium pallidicaule (CP), Lupinus mutabilis (LM) y Smallanthus sonchifolius (SS) que se usan tradicionalmente para controlar la glucemia. MÉTODOS: Se evaluó el efecto de la administración oral única de extractos etanólicos (EtOH), hidroetanólicos (EtOH70) y acuosos (Aq) de las plantas mencionadas para determinar su efecto sobre la glucosa en sangre en ratones en o sin ayunas y durante la prueba de tolerancia a la glucosa oral (PTGO). El efecto sobre la secreción de insulina se evaluó en islotes pancreáticos de ratones. RESULTADOS: Los extractos de EtOH70 de todas las plantas disminuyeron la glucemia a la dosis más alta evaluada (2000 mg / kg b.w.). Los extractos de EtOH70 mejoraron la tolerancia a la glucosa evaluada mediante la PTGO en ratones con ayuno de 12 horas. Los extractos tienen diferentes efectos sobre la homeostasis de la glucosa, ya que solo los extractos de AC, LM y CQ pero no CP y SS aumentaron la secreción de insulina como se muestra en los islotes pancreáticos de los ratones. La caracterización cualitativa fitoquímica de extractos de EtOH70 detectó ácidos fenólicos y flavonoides en AC, CP y CQ, alcaloides en LM y antocianidinas en SS. Ninguno de los extractos de EtOH70 probados mostró toxicidad aguda in vitro o in vivo a concentraciones en las que exhiben efectos reductores de glucosa. CONCLUSIÓN: Los extractos de AC, CQ, CP, LM y SS exhiben un efecto reductor de la glucosa, mientras que solo AC, CQ y LM estimulan directamente la secreción de insulina

2.
Nutrients ; 10(7)2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30037028

RESUMO

Lupinus mutabilis (LM) is a legume part of Bolivian traditional diet that has a nutraceutical property reducing blood glucose levels. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing worldwide thus; the search for novel anti-diabetic drugs is needed. Based on its traditional use, we evaluated the anti-diabetic effect of LM in the spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat, a model of type 2 diabetes and in Wistar (W) rats as healthy control. LM seeds hydroethanolic extract, analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, is a complex mixture of volatile and non-volatile components. A single oral administration of LM extract (2000 mg/kg b.w.) improved glucose tolerance during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (30⁻120 min) in GK and W rats (p < 0.0001). The long-term treatment with LM (1000 mg/kg b.w.), for 21 days, improved the area under the curve (AUC) of glucose during OGTT at day 20, in both GK (p < 0.01) and W rats (p < 0.01). The HbA1c (GK rats, p < 0.05 and W rats, p < 0.0001) and the non-fasting glucose (GK rats, p < 0.05) were also reduced. LM increased both serum insulin levels (2.4-fold in GK rats and 2.5-fold W rats), and the glucose-induced (16.7 mM glucose) insulin release in isolated islets from treated animals (6.7-fold in GK rats, and 6.6-fold in W rats). Moreover, LM (10 mg/mL) stimulated in vitro glucose induced (16.7 mM glucose) insulin release in batch incubated GK and W rat islets (p < 0.0001). In perifused GK rat islets, insulin release in 16.7 mM glucose was increased 95.3-fold compared to untreated islets (p < 0.0001), while no significant differences were found in perifused W rat islets. The LM mechanism of action, evaluated using inhibitory compounds of the insulin secretion pathway, showed that LM-dependent insulin secretion was reduced 42% by diazoxide (p < 0.001), 70% by nifedipine (p < 0.001), 86.7% by H89 (p < 0.0001), 70.8% by calphostine-C (p < 0.0001) and 93% by pertussis toxin (p < 0.0001). A similar effect was observed in W rats islets. Our findings provide evidence that LM has an anti-diabetic effect through stimulation of insulin release. The effect is-dependent on L-type calcium channel, protein kinase A and C systems, and G protein-coupled exocytosis and is partially mediated by K-ATP channels.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Lupinus , Fitoterapia , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Exocitose , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/sangue , Secreção de Insulina , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Canais KATP/metabolismo , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos Wistar
3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 220: 155-158, 2018 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29621584

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Amaranthus caudatus is traditionally used to treat infections. Based on its traditional usage, we investigated the effect of A. caudatus on the bladder epithelial cells in the protection of E. coli infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The direct antimicrobial effects of A. caudatus on uropathogenic bacteria were investigated using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. Bladder epithelial cell lines T24 and 5637 and uropathogenic E. coli strain #12 were used to investigate the effect of A. caudatus. Bacterial adhesion and invasion into bladder cells treated with A. caudatus was analyzed. Expression of uroplakin-1a (UPK1A), ß1 integrin (ITGB1), caveolin-1 (CAV1) and the antimicrobial peptides human ß defensin-2 (DEFB4A) and LL-37 (CAMP) was evaluated using RT-PCR. RESULTS: No direct antibacterial effect on E. coli or any of the tested uropathogenic strains was observed by A. caudatus. However, we demonstrated reduced mRNA expression of uroplakin-1a and caveolin-1, but not ß1 integrin after treatment of uroepithelial cells, mirrored by the decreased adhesion and invasion of E. coli. A. caudatus treatment did not induce increased gene expression of the antimicrobial peptides, LL-37 and human ß-defensin-2. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that A. caudatus has a protective role on bladder epithelial cells against uropathogenic E. coli infection by decreasing the bacterial adhesion and invasion, thereby preventing infection.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Bexiga Urinária/citologia , Bexiga Urinária/microbiologia , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/genética , Urotélio/citologia , Urotélio/microbiologia
4.
Nutrients ; 10(1)2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29342984

RESUMO

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 prevalence is increasing worldwide; thus efforts to develop novel therapeutic strategies are required. Amaranthus caudatus (AC) is a pseudo-cereal with reported anti-diabetic effects that is usually consumed in food preparations in Bolivia. This study evaluated the anti-diabetic nutraceutical property of an AC hydroethanolic extract that contains mainly sugars and traces of polyphenols and amino acids (as shown by nalysis with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)), in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats and healthy Wistar (W) rats. A single oral administration of AC extract (2000 mg/kg body weight) improved glucose tolerance during Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests (OGTT) in both GK rats and in W rats. Long-term treatment (21 days) with AC (1000 mg/kg b.w.) improved the glucose tolerance evaluated by the area under the curve (AUC) of glucose levels during the OGTT, in both GK and W rats. The HbA1c levels were reduced in both GK (19.83%) and W rats (10.7%). This effect was secondary to an increase in serum insulin levels in both GK and W rats and confirmed in pancreatic islets, isolated from treated animals, where the chronic AC exposure increased the insulin production 4.1-fold in GK and 3.7-fold in W rat islets. Furthermore, the effect of AC on in vitro glucose-dependent insulin secretion (16.7 mM glucose) was concentration-dependent up to 50 mg/mL, with 8.5-fold increase in GK and 5.7-fold in W rat islets, and the insulin secretion in perifused GK and W rat islets increased 31 and nine times, respectively. The mechanism of action of AC on insulin secretion was shown to involve calcium, PKA and PKC activation, and G-protein coupled-exocytosis since the AC effect was reduced 38% by nifedipine (L-type channel inhibitor), 77% by H89 (PKA inhibitor), 79% by Calphostine-C (PKC inhibitor) and 20% by pertussis toxin (G-protein suppressor).


Assuntos
Amaranthus/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Insulina/sangue , Insulina/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Secreção de Insulina , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643523

RESUMO

Lupinus mutabilis is a South American herb with edible beans, known to reduce serum glucose levels in diabetic patients. Furthermore, L. mutabilis contains phytochemicals known to decrease bacterial load. Based on the increased urinary tract infections experienced among patients with diabetes, we investigated the effect of L. mutabilis on bladder epithelial cells in the protection of E. coli infection during normal and high glucose concentrations. We did not observe any direct antibacterial effect by L. mutabilis extract. Instead we observed an influence on the host cells, with indirect impact on bacteria and their possibility of causing infection. L. mutabilis extract decreased adhesion to bladder epithelial cells of uropathogenic bacteria, including drug-resistant strains. Moreover, uroplakin1a, involved in adhesion, was downregulated while the antimicrobial peptide RNase 7 was upregulated in L. mutabilis treated cells irrespectively of glucose concentration. This supports an early effect fighting bacteria. Additionally, L. mutabilis prevented bacterial biofilm formation, which is used by bacteria to evade the immune system and antibiotics. In summary, L. mutabilis protects against bacterial infection in uroepithelial cells by preventing adhesion through alteration of the cell surface, increasing antimicrobial peptide expression, and reducing biofilm formation. Together, this promotes bacterial clearance, suggesting that L. mutabilis as extract or as a dietary item can contribute to the prevention of urinary tract infections, which is of importance in an era of increasing antibiotic resistance.

6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 198: 214-220, 2017 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28087472

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Clinopodium bolivianum is a South American plant with anti-inflammatory and anti-infective activities. The increasing antibiotic resistance urges for alternative therapy. Based on its use in traditional medicine, we investigated the effect of C. bolivianum on the ability to defend bladder epithelial cells from E. coli infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The extract was analyzed by LC-MS. Bladder epithelial cell lines T24 and 5637 and uropathogenic E. coli No. 12, its isogenic mutant WE16 csgBA bscA::Cm and CFT073 were used to investigate the effect of C. bolivianum on uroepithelial infection. Bacterial adherence and invasion to cells treated with C. bolivianum were analyzed. Expression of uroplakin 1a, ß1 integrin, caveolin-1, IL-8 and antimicrobial peptides in response to C. bolivianum treatment was assessed using RT-PCR. Protein expression was confirmed by Western blot analysis or ELISA. The antimicrobial effects of C. bolivianum on bacteria and fungus were investigated using minimum inhibitory concentration. Furthermore, the formation of biofilm was investigated with crystal violet assay. RESULTS: C. bolivianum extract consisted of more than 70 different types of phytochemicals including sugars and phenolic compounds. The extract decreased the uroplakin 1a expression and E. coli adhesion and invasion of uroepithelial cells while up-regulated caveolin-1. In uninfected C. bolivianum treated cells, IL-8 was lower than in non-treated cells. In infected cells, however, no difference was observed between treated and non-treated cells. Further, C. bolivianum treatment reduced uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) biofilms but did not inhibit bacterial growth. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that C. bolivianum has a protective role on bladder epithelial cells against UPEC infection by decreasing the bacterial adhesion, invasion and biofilm formation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Lamiaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Caveolina 1/genética , Linhagem Celular , Cromatografia Líquida , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , América do Sul , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle , Uroplaquina Ia/genética , Urotélio/citologia , Urotélio/microbiologia
7.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 122: 202-208, 2014 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25048356

RESUMO

Natamycin is an effective, broad spectrum antifungal with no reported resistance, in contrast to most antimicrobials. It also exhibits reduced (oral and topical) toxicity to humans, which is probably associated with the lack of effects on mammalian cell membranes. In this paper we employ Langmuir monolayers to mimic a cell membrane, whose properties are interrogated with various techniques. We found that natamycin has negligible effects on Langmuir monolayers of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), but it strongly affects cholesterol monolayers. Natamycin causes the surface pressure isotherm of a cholesterol monolayer to expand even at high surface pressures since it penetrates into the hydrophobic chains. It also reduces the compressibility modulus, probably because natamycin disturbs the organization of the cholesterol molecules, as inferred with polarization-modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). In mixed cholesterol/DPPC monolayers, strong effects from natamycin were only observed when the cholesterol concentration was 50mol% or higher, well above its concentration in a mammalian cell membrane. For a sterol concentration that mimics a real cell membrane in mammals, i.e. with 25mol% of cholesterol, the effects were negligible, which may explain why natamycin has low toxicity when ingested and/or employed to treat superficial fungal infections.


Assuntos
1,2-Dipalmitoilfosfatidilcolina/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Colesterol/química , Natamicina/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Antifúngicos/toxicidade , Mamíferos , Natamicina/administração & dosagem , Natamicina/toxicidade
8.
J Prosthet Dent ; 110(2): 141-3, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23929376

RESUMO

This article describes a predictable technique for rectifying an asymmetrical incisal plane after the placement of a maxillary immediate denture. The inability to have a wax trial placement precludes an esthetic evaluation of the maxillary anterior teeth, which may lead to esthetic errors. After correction of the incisal plane, a rebase procedure and a clinical remount follow after appropriate healing time for the patient after extraction.


Assuntos
Oclusão Dentária , Planejamento de Dentadura , Prótese Total Imediata , Prótese Total Superior , Resinas Acrílicas/química , Materiais Dentários/química , Bases de Dentadura , Reembasamento de Dentadura , Estética Dentária , Humanos , Dente Artificial
9.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 69(4): 446-452, out.-dez. 2010. graf, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-CTDPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: lil-595186

RESUMO

As piscinas representam locais de recreação, porém podem colocar em risco a saúde dos usuários pela possibilidade de veicular agentes danosos. A norma técnica do Estado de São Paulo para o controle de qualidade das águas de piscina entrou em vigor em 1979, e requer revisão. Este trabalho avaliou as condições sanitárias das águas de piscinas do Município de Praia Grande/SP. Foram coletadas quatro amostras semanais por estabelecimento, sendo duas piscinas públicas e seis particulares, totalizando-se 32 amostras. Os exames microbiológicos foram realizados segundo a APHA, 2005, para coliformes totais, Escherichia coli, Enterococos, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, bolores e leveduras. As análises físico-químicas de turbidez, cloreto, nitrato, nitrito, cor, condutividade, ferro, sulfato, dureza total, odor, temperatura, pH e cloro residual livre foram efetuadas, de acordo com a ANVISA/MS, 2005. Apenas duas amostras estavam de acordo com a legislação e 30 mostraram não conformidade, quanto aos parâmetros estabelecidos (cloro residual livre e pH). Houve presença de coliformes totais, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Staphylococcus aureus, não previstos na norma. Além da necessidade de controle permanente da qualidade das águas de piscinas localizadas no mencionado município, esses achados oferecem subsídios para efetuar atualização da legislação em vigor no Estado de São Paulo.


This study aimed to assess the health conditions of water from public and private swimming pools locatedin Praia Grande, São Paulo State, Brazil, regarding the microbiological control and physical-chemicalcharacteristics. Four samples were collected weekly from each site, being two public swimming pools andsix private ones (sports academies), and a total of 32 samples were analyzed. The microbiological tests wereperformed according to APHA, 2005, for coliforms, Escherichia coli, Enterococos, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Staphylococcus aureus, yeasts and molds. The physical and chemical analyses were carried out using themethodology described by ANVISA/MS, 2005. Turbidity, chloride, nitrate, nitrite, color, conductivity, iron,sulfate, total hardness and smell were determined; in the field, temperature, pH and free residual chlorinewere measured. Only two samples were approved, and 30 were in disagreement in the restricted free residualchlorine and pH parameters, and also coliforms group, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureuswere isolated, which are not included in the specific legislation. A permanent control of water quality ofswimming pools located in the municipality should be monitored, as well as a review on the São PauloState legislation in force is required, and also the inclusion of new parameters.


Assuntos
Cloro Residual , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Legislação como Assunto , Microrganismos Aquáticos , Saneamento de Piscinas , Saúde Pública
10.
Wien Med Wochenschr ; 160(17-18): 458-63, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20714812

RESUMO

Over the years, the importance of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) in bone physiology and pathophysiology has been thoroughly documented. Denosumab, also known as AMG 162, is a fully human monoclonal antibody against RANKL which is being studied in the treatment of metabolic, inflammatory, and malignant bone diseases. The purpose of this review is to analyze the potential role of denosumab in osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, bone metastases and multiple myeloma.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Ligante RANK/imunologia , Ligante RANK/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Densidade Óssea/imunologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Reabsorção Óssea/tratamento farmacológico , Reabsorção Óssea/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Citocinas/sangue , Denosumab , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mieloma Múltiplo/imunologia , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/imunologia , Osteoporose/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Chem Ecol ; 36(6): 565-9, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20431925

RESUMO

Reproductive division of labor in advanced eusocial honey bees and stingless bees is based on the ability of totipotent female larvae to develop into either workers or queens. In nearly all species, caste is determined by larval nutrition. However, the mechanism that triggers queen development in Melipona bees is still unresolved. Several hypotheses have been proposed, ranging from the proximate (a genetic determination of caste development) to the ultimate (a model in which larvae have complete control over their own caste fate). Here, we showed that the addition of geraniol, the main compound in labial gland secretions of nurse workers, to the larval food significantly increases the number of larvae that develop into queens. Interestingly, the proportion of queens in treated brood exactly matched the value (25%) predicted by the two-locus, two-allele model of genetic queen determination, in which only females that are heterozygous at both loci are capable of developing into queens. We conclude that labial gland secretions, added to the food of some cells by nurse bees, trigger queen development, provided that the larvae are genetically predisposed towards this developmental pathway. In Melipona beecheii, geraniol acts as a primer pheromone representing the first caste determination substance identified to date.


Assuntos
Abelhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Terpenos/química , Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa , Feminino , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glândulas Salivares/química , Predomínio Social , Terpenos/farmacologia
12.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 25(9): 1147-50, 2002 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12230106

RESUMO

Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of 14 South American medicinal plants were tested for inhibitory activity on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Both extracts were relatively non-toxic to human lymphocytic MT-2 cells, but only the aqueous extract of Baccharis trinervis exhibited potent anti-HIV activity in an in vitro MTT assay. To delineate the extract-sensitive phase, some studies of the antiviral properties of the active extract are described in this paper. Based on the results presented here, a separation scheme was devised, which permitted the preliminary fractionation of the extract, with the aim of finding an inhibitor of this virus.


Assuntos
Baccharis , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , HIV/fisiologia , Humanos , Componentes Aéreos da Planta , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais , América do Sul
13.
Rev. ciênc. farm ; 19(1): 39-47, 1998. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-229469

RESUMO

Säo comparadas as principais características morfológicas e estruturais de três espécies da família Zingiberaceae empregadas medicinalmente sob a denominaçäo coletiva de "cana-do-brejo": Costus spiralis (Jacquim) Roscoe. Costus arabicus L. e Hedychium coronarium Koening. Säo de importância diganóstica os detalhes referentes à inserçäo das folhas, espessura das lígulas, estrutura do mesofilo, inclusöes celulares, anexos epidérmicos e espessamento de estrias de Caspary. Empregou-se microscopia ótica neste estudo.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais/anatomia & histologia , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Microscopia
14.
Biofarbo ; 4(4): 63-6, dic. 1995. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-285444

RESUMO

La plumbagina utilizada en la experiencia fue aislada de la Pera benesis (EUPHORBIACEAE), compuesto que ha revelado presentar actividad antibacteriana, antimicótica, pesticida y contra la leishmaniasis. Los resultadosobtenidos de DL-50 a través del Método de Reed Muench y Spearman Karber fueron de 7,9 y 6,15 mg/Kg de peso corporal respectivamente, y 4,94 a 7,65 como límites de confianza, reportándose a la plumbagina como un compuesto tóxico


Assuntos
Leishmaniose , Dose Letal Mediana , Plumbago litteralis , Posologia , Bolívia , Substâncias Perigosas
15.
Rev. gastroenterol. Perú ; 15(1): 35-41, ene.-abr. 1995. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-161877

RESUMO

En ocasiones la etiología de la diarrea persistente no puede ser identificada y su mecanismo de producción es complejo y no bien aclarado, por lo que se hace necesario conocer el estado de la flora entérica del intestino delgado para definir si la alteración de éste constituye un factor para la prolongación de la diarrea. Se estudian 30 niños con diarrea aguda y 30 con diarrea persistente menores de un año de edad, en el que se toma una muestra de contenido duodenal a través de una sonda de doble lumen radiopaca, procesándose microbiológicamente por métodos de siembra cuantitativa para la búsqueda de los microorganismos entéricos, anaeróbicos, así como miembros del género Cándida y correlacionándose dichos resultados microbiológicos de las heces. La presencia del sobrecrecimiento bacteriano y la identificación de enterobacterias en la microflora duodenal, es una factor importante a considerar en la persistencia de la diarrea. Se constató la alteración en la flora duodenal cualitativa y cuantitativamente en ambos grupos de estudio


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Diarreia/etiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Enterobacteriaceae/patogenicidade , Diarreia/fisiopatologia , Diarreia/terapia , Enterobacter/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metronidazol , Estado Nutricional/imunologia
16.
Biofarbo ; 3(3): 63-6, oct. 1994. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-285429

RESUMO

La determinación de los efectos se realizó en la clasificada en el Herbario Nacional (Lic.Rossi de Michel) Acasía macracantha Willd (tusca), planta medicinal utilizada popularmente en la región de Tarija, para el tratamiento de afecciones a nivel de la mucosa gástrica. El efecto anti-inflamatoriofue determinado en ratones previamente tratados con el extracto acuoso(E.A.Ig/Kg.v.o) produciendo la reducción del edema de pata inducido por la carragenina en un 25 por ciento frente al 32.1 por ciento del observado por la indometacina(10 mg/Kg.v.o.). El efecto antiulceroso fue del 60 por ciento determinado en ratones previamente tratados con el extracto acuoso en base a la metodología descrita por Macaubas y col(1988), los resultados indican que la tusca puede presentar un gran potencial terapéutico para el tratamiento de afecciones anti-inflamatorias sin presentar efectos colaterales a nivel de la mucosa gástrica


Assuntos
Humanos , Mucosa Gástrica , Inflamação , Bolívia , Plantas Medicinais , Úlcera Gástrica
18.
Biofarbo ; 2(2): 19-21, dic. 1993. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-285404

RESUMO

Con el objeto de evaluar las propiedades biológicas de las plantas medicinales de nuestra región es que el Instituto de Investigaciones Farmacia-Bioquímicas, ha emprendido la estandarización de modelos biológicos parala determinación de actividades en extractos vegetales. Una de ellas es la referida a la actividad cicatrizante, la cual es de interés por el limitado número demedicamentos y su elevado costo que ellos presentan en el mercado


Assuntos
Bioquímica , Modelos Biológicos , Farmácia , Bolívia , Extratos Vegetais , Plantas Medicinais
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