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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358002

RESUMO

Food safety is a new area for novel applications of metagenomics analysis, which can not only detect and subtype foodborne pathogens in a single workflow but may also produce additional information with in depth analysis capabilities. In this study we applied a quasimetagenomic approach by combining short-term enrichment, immunomagnetic separation (IMS), multiple displacement amplification (MDA) and nanopore sequencing real-time analysis for simultaneous detection of Salmonella and Escherichia coli in wheat flour. Tryptic soy broth was selected for the 12-h enrichment of samples at 42°C. Enrichments were subjected to IMS using beads capable of capturing both Salmonella and E. coli The MDA was performed on harvested beads and amplified DNA fragments were subjected to DNA library preparation for sequencing. Sequencing was performed on a portable device with real-time basecalling adaptability and resulted sequences were subjected to two parallel pipelines for further analysis. After 1 h of sequencing the quasimetagenomic approach could detect all targets inoculated at approx. 1 CFU/g flour to the species level. Discriminatory power was determined by simultaneous detection of dual inoculums of Salmonella and E. coli, absence of detection in control samples and consistency in microbial flora composition of the same flour samples over several rounds of experiment. The total turnaround time for detection was approximately 20 h. Longer sequencing for up to 15 h enabled serotyping for many of the samples with more than 99% genome coverage which could be subjected to other appropriate genetic analysis pipelines in less than a total of 36 h.IMPORTANCE Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and Salmonella are of serious concern in low-moisture foods including wheat flour and its related products, causing illnesses, outbreaks and recalls. The development of advanced detection methods based on molecular principles of analysis are essential to incorporate into interventions intended to reduce their risk. In this work, a quasimetagenomic method based on real-time sequencing analysis and assisted by magnetic capture and DNA amplification was developed. This protocol is capable of detecting multiple Salmonella and/or E. coli in the sample within less than a day, and it can also generate sufficient whole genome sequences of the target organisms suitable for subsequent bioinformatics analysis. Multiplex detection and identification were accomplished in less than 20 h and additional whole genome analyses of different nature were attained within 36 h in contrast to several days in previous sequencing pipelines.

2.
Span J Psychol ; 23: e4, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436483

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships between self-reported life satisfaction, self-rated health, gender, and age in adolescents. 1,141 secondary school students aged between 12 and 17 participated in our study. The data were analyzed using bivariate and nonlinear canonical correlation analyses. The results of the bivariate correlation analysis support the results of previous studies. Life satisfaction was positively correlated with same-day perceived health (r = .37; p < .01) and negatively correlated with anxiety/depression (r = -.37; p < .01). Same-day perceived health was positively correlated with health in the past 12 months (r = .38; p < .01) and negatively correlated with pain/discomfort (r = -.32; p < .01) and with anxiety/depression (r = -.32; p < .01). The nonlinear canonical correlation analysis provided further evidence of the relationship between the variables, suggesting the complementarity of the indicators of self-rated health analyzed. Multiple fit values showed that demographic variables age (.61) and gender (.56) were the variables with the best discriminatory power. Graphically, two groups of related variables were displayed. A non-linear analysis better explains the relationships between the variables analyzed, showing that age and gender have a high level of discriminatory power for life satisfaction and self-rated health, suggesting a role as a moderator in the relationship between health and well-being variables.

4.
Eur J Haematol ; 2020 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418256

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The treatment paradigm in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) is evolving towards individualized, risk-directed and longer duration of therapy (DOT). The objective of this study was to describe treatment patterns and outcomes in non-transplant NDMM in four European countries. METHODS: This retrospective chart review included adults with NDMM diagnosed between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2013 (early cohort) or April 1, 2016 and March 31, 2017 (recent cohort). RESULTS: Among 836 patients, molecular testing was performed in 21% and 35% patients of early vs. recent cohorts; proteasome inhibitor (PI)/alkylator combinations were the principal first-line (1L) therapy (39% vs. 43%). Use of immunomodulatory drug (IMID)/alkylator combinations declined from early to recent cohort (26% vs. 13%) but IMID (7% vs. 16%) use increased. Few patients (5%) received 1L maintenance therapy. Two-thirds of patients were treated with a fixed duration intent, with a median 7-month 1L DOT and progression-free survival (PFS) of 32.8 months in the early cohort. Both 1L DOT and PFS were longer with oral compared to injectable regimens. CONCLUSIONS: Although frontline treatment patterns changed significantly, 1L DOT is short. The uptake of molecular testing and 1L maintenance is low. These results highlight areas of unmet need in NDMM.

6.
Nanoscale ; 12(16): 9178-9185, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297891

RESUMO

Chromophore-appended cyclodextrins combine the supramolecular loading capabilities of cyclodextrins (CDs) with the optical properties of the affixed chromophores. Among fluorescent materials, carbon dots (CNDs) are attractive and the feasibility of CND-appended CDs as sensors has been demonstrated by different authors. However, CNDs are intrinsically heterogeneous materials and their ulterior functionalization yields hybrid composites that are not well defined in terms of structure and composition. Inspired by the fluorescence properties of 5-oxo-1,2,3,5-tetrahydroimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-7-carboxylic acid (IPCA), the most paradigmatic of the molecular fluorophores detected in CNDs, herein we report two highly efficient synthetic chemical strategies for the preparation of IPCA-appended CDs that behave as CND-based CD "turn off-on" biosensors suitable for the analysis of cholesterol and ß-galactosidase activity. We have deconstructed the CND-CD systems to demonstrate that (i) the role of CNDs is limited to acting as a support for the molecular fluorophores produced during their synthesis and (ii) the molecular fluorophores suffice for the determination of the enzymatic activity based on the quenching by p-nitrophenol as a sacrificial quencher.

7.
Polymers (Basel) ; 12(4)2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331241

RESUMO

Peripheral nerves are basic communication structures guiding motor and sensory information from the central nervous system to receptor units. Severed peripheral nerve injuries represent a large clinical problem with relevant challenges to successful synthetic nerve repair scaffolds as substitutes to autologous nerve grafting. Numerous studies reported the use of hollow tubes made of synthetic polymers sutured between severed nerve stumps to promote nerve regeneration while providing protection for external factors, such as scar tissue formation and inflammation. Few approaches have described the potential use of a lumen structure comprised of microchannels or microfibers to provide axon growth avoiding misdirection and fostering proper healing. Here, we report the use of a 3D porous microchannel-based structure made of a photocurable methacrylated polycaprolactone, whose mechanical properties are comparable to native nerves. The neuro-regenerative properties of the polymer were assessed in vitro, prior to the implantation of the 3D porous structure, in a 6-mm rat sciatic nerve gap injury. The manufactured implants were biocompatible and able to be resorbed by the host's body at a suitable rate, allowing the complete healing of the nerve. The innovative design of the highly porous structure with the axon guiding microchannels, along with the observation of myelinated axons and Schwann cells in the in vivo tests, led to a significant progress towards the standardized use of synthetic 3D multichannel-based structures in peripheral nerve surgery.

8.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(41): 5484-5487, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347241

RESUMO

Two new families of lanthanide antennas are described. 8-Methoxy-4,5-dihydrocyclopenta[de]quinolin-2(1H)-one phosphonates or carboxylates behave as selective antennas exhibiting Eu3+ luminescence in organic solvents, while quinolin-2(1H)-one analogues selectively sensitize the Tb3+ emission. These emissions are quenched by H2O addition. Based on this behaviour, the new lanthanide antennas can be used as highly sensitive water sensors.

9.
J Chromatogr A ; 1622: 461118, 2020 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307105

RESUMO

A novel application, which combines targeted and non-targeted approaches, using gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GCHRMS) for multiresidue analysis of pesticides in fruits and vegetables is proposed; the aim is to add information to that obtained from targeted methods to be used in pesticide residues monitoring laboratories. Extract from fruit samples obtained with QuEChERS method are analysed with two different approaches: a first step in targeted mode in full scan, and a second step in non-targeted mode with HRMS deconvolution. The targeted method was validated for 191 pesticides, in banana, watermelon, pear and strawberry, with recoveries within 70-120%, precision-RSD <20%, linearity between 1-100 µg/kg (5-100 µg/kg in strawberry) and quantification limits (LOQs) of 5 µg/kg. For targeted method, 12 different pesticides in 14 samples were detected. The non-targeted approach allowed the corroboration of all the results obtained through targeted method, in addition other compounds were tentatively identified.

10.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233512

RESUMO

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is one of the most harmful greenhouse gases producing environmental risks. Therefore, developing ways of degrading SF6 without forming hazardous products is increasingly important. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time the plasmon-catalytic heterogeneous degradation of SF6 into nonhazardous MgF2 and MgSO4 products by nontoxic and sustainable plasmonic magnesium/magnesium oxide (Mg/MgO) nanoparticles, which are also effective as a plasmon-enhanced SF6 chemometric sensor. The main product depends on the excitation wavelength; when the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) is in the ultraviolet, then MgF2 forms, while visible light LSPR results in MgSO4. Furthermore, Mg/MgO platforms can be regenerated in few seconds by hydrogen plasma treatment and can be reused in a new cycle of air purification. Therefore, this research first demonstrates effectiveness of Mg/MgO plasmon-catalysis enabling environmental remediation with the concurrent functionalities of monitoring, degrading, and detecting sulfur and fluorine gases in the atmosphere.

11.
Res Vet Sci ; 131: 117-130, 2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334156

RESUMO

First references of the endangered autochthonous Majorcan Ca Mè dog date from the 13th century and enhance its skills and adaptability to the orography. Genealogical historical records were traced back to founders. Founder number in the reference population (397), maximum generations traced, and average number of complete generations were 32, 5, and 2.75, respectively. Structure assessment revealed the existence of subpopulations regarding criteria such as owners (402), breeders (55), coat colours (liver, lemon, black and orange) and spotting patterns (piebald, roan, solid colour, tie or star presence). Average inbreeding (F) within colour groups ranged from 6.3-10.4%, for orange and black populations, respectively. F ranged from 9.43-12.22% for roan patterns and star presence, respectively. Tan point markings showed an F coefficient of 5.85%. The study of genetic diversity revealed a slightly different genetic background between subpopulations. Average coancestry between and within coat colours suggested orange and roan traits could be ascribed to the original nuclei, without omitting the high relationships among other subpopulations. Breeding strategy should select breeding pairs holding a relatedness coefficient below 15%. Hence, coat patterns in dog breeds can help preserving the genetic diversity in endangered dogs, even when these are geographically isolated.

13.
Leukemia ; 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203146

RESUMO

Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) is suspected of being a risk factor for patients with cancer. This study aimed to assess the clinical consequences of CHIP in patients with lymphoma intended for high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) in a population-based setting. We identified 892 lymphoma patients who had undergone stem cell harvest at all transplant centers in Denmark. A total of 565 patients had an available harvest sample, which was analysed for CHIP by next-generation sequencing, and the median follow-up was 9.1 years. Of the patients who were intended for immediate ASCT, 25.5% (112/440) carried at least one CHIP mutation. In contrast to previous single-center studies CHIP was not associated with inferior overall survival (OS) in multivariate analyses. However, patients with mutations in genes of the DNA repair pathway (PPM1D, TP53, RAD21, BRCC3) had a significant inferior OS (HR after 1 year of follow-up 2.79, 95% confidence interval 1.71-4.56; p < 0.0001), which also was evident in multivariate analysis (p = 0.00067). These patients had also increased rates of therapy-related leukemia and admission to intensive care. Furthermore, in patients who did not undergo immediate ASCT, a significant inferior OS of individuals with DNA repair mutations was also identified (p = 0.003).

14.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(3)2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183253

RESUMO

Assessing dominance and additive effects of casein complex single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (αS1, αS2, ß, and κ casein), and their epistatic relationships may maximize our knowledge on the genetic regulation of profitable traits. Contextually, new genomic selection perspectives may translate this higher efficiency into higher accuracies for milk yield and components' genetic parameters and breeding values. A total of 2594 lactation records were collected from 159 Murciano-Granadina goats (2005-2018), genotyped for 48 casein loci-located SNPs. Bonferroni-corrected nonparametric tests, categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA), and nonlinear canonical correlations were performed to quantify additive, dominance, and interSNP epistatic effects and evaluate the outcomes of their inclusion in quantitative and qualitative milk production traits' genetic models (yield, protein, fat, solids, and lactose contents and somatic cells count). Milk yield, lactose, and somatic cell count heritabilities increased considerably when the model including genetic effects was considered (0.46, 0.30, 0.43, respectively). Components standard prediction errors decreased, and accuracies and reliabilities increased when genetic effects were considered. Conclusively, including genetic effects and relationships among these heritable biomarkers may improve model efficiency, genetic parameters, and breeding values for milk yield and composition, optimizing selection practices profitability for components whose technological application may be especially relevant for the cheese-making dairy sector.

15.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(3): e15699, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, mobile health (mHealth)-related apps have been developed to help manage chronic diseases. Apps may allow patients with a chronic disease characterized by exacerbations, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), to track and even suspect disease exacerbations, thereby facilitating self-management and prompt intervention. Nevertheless, there is insufficient evidence regarding patient compliance in the daily use of mHealth apps for chronic disease monitoring. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to provide further evidence in support of prospectively recording daily symptoms as a useful strategy to detect COPD exacerbations through the smartphone app, Prevexair. It also aimed to analyze daily compliance and the frequency and characteristics of acute exacerbations of COPD recorded using Prevexair. METHODS: This is a multicenter cohort study with prospective case recruitment including 116 patients with COPD who had a documented history of frequent exacerbations and were monitored over the course of 6 months. At recruitment, the Prevexair app was installed on their smartphones, and patients were instructed on how to use the app. The information recorded in the app included symptom changes, use of medication, and use of health care resources. The patients received messages on healthy lifestyle behaviors and a record of their cumulative symptoms in the app. There was no regular contact with the research team and no mentoring process. An exacerbation was considered reported if medical attention was sought and considered unreported if it was not reported to a health care professional. RESULTS: Overall, compliance with daily records in the app was 66.6% (120/180), with a duration compliance of 78.8%, which was similar across disease severity, age, and comorbidity variables. However, patients who were active smokers, with greater dyspnea and a diagnosis of depression and obesity had lower compliance (P<.05). During the study, the patients experienced a total of 262 exacerbations according to daily records in the app, 99 (37.8%) of which were reported exacerbations and 163 (62.2%) were unreported exacerbations. None of the subject-related variables were found to be significantly associated with reporting. The duration of the event and number of symptoms present during the first day were strongly associated with reporting. Despite substantial variations in the COPD Assessment Test (CAT), there was improvement only among patients with no exacerbation and those with reported exacerbations. Nevertheless, CAT scores deteriorated among patients with unreported exacerbations. CONCLUSIONS: The daily use of the Prevexair app is feasible and acceptable for patients with COPD who are motivated in their self-care because of frequent exacerbations of their disease. Monitoring through the Prevexair app showed great potential for the implementation of self-care plans and offered a better diagnosis of their chronic condition.

16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2704, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066749

RESUMO

It is relevant to evaluate MDR-tuberculosis in prisons and its impact on the global epidemiology of this disease. However, systematic molecular epidemiology programs in prisons are lacking. A health-screening program performed on arrival for inmates transferred from Peruvian prisons to Spain led to the diagnosis of five MDR-TB cases from one of the biggest prisons in Latin America. They grouped into two MIRU-VNTR-clusters (Callao-1 and Callao-2), suggesting a reservoir of two prevalent MDR strains. A high-rate of overexposure was deduced because one of the five cases was coinfected by a pansusceptible strain. Callao-1 strain was also identified in 2018 in a community case in Spain who had been in the same Peruvian prison in 2002-5. A strain-specific-PCR tailored from WGS data was implemented in Peru, allowing the confirmation that these strains were currently responsible for the majority of the MDR cases in that prison, including a new mixed infection.

17.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 61, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) was developed and validated in 1990 and translated into Spanish in 1999. Since then, the original version has been used in numerous studies, but it has not been re-evaluated in terms of language in the new generations of older adults. The purpose of this study is to confirm the validity of the Spanish version of the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI-SP) after three decades to be used as part of an ongoing field trial. METHODS: The GOHAI-SP was pilot tested in a focus group to confirm linguistic comprehension. A version with minor language changes was administered to individuals with metabolic syndrome aged 55-75 years from one health care district in southern Spain as part of an ongoing field trial (PREDIMED-Plus). Clinical evaluation included assessment of dental and periodontal status. The psychometric properties of the GOHAI-SP were evaluated through stability and internal consistency measures, and concurrent and discriminant validity were assessed. RESULTS: The new version of the GOHAI-SP was administered to 100 individuals. The application time was reduced by 7 min. The alpha value for reliability was 0.87. The item-scale correlation coefficients ranged from 0.54 to 0.75, and the test-re-test correlation for the total score was 0.75. There were inverse correlations between GOHAI-SP scores and the number of lost teeth and the decayed-missing-filled teeth index (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The GOHAI-SP questionnaire remains a valid and useful tool to assess oral health-related quality of life in primary health care settings. A linguistic update of the questionnaire brought improvements to the instrument application. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The PREDIMED-Plus trial is registered in the ISRCTN registry with reference number ISRCTN89898870. Registration date: 4th July 2014.

19.
Adicciones ; 0(0): 1348, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100047

RESUMO

Preclinical studies have shown that social stress increases vulnerability to the reinforcing effects of cocaine. However, the results are not always homogeneous, revealing a subpopulation that does not show a preference for cocaine. Thus, the main aim of the present study was to characterize the behavioral profile of resilient mice to the stress-induced rewarding effects of cocaine using an animal model of repeated social defeat stress (SD). To this end, male adult mice of the C57/BL6 strain were exposed to SD and, three weeks later, assessed using the Conditioned Place Preference paradigm induced by an ineffective dose of cocaine (1mg/kg). Afterwards, the striatal levels of interleukin 6 were measured, as social stress usually induces a neuroinflammatory response. Control mice did not develop CPP, while defeated mice did overall develop a preference for the drug-paired compartment. Based on the conditioning score that they exhibited, the SD sample was subdivided into resilient (did not develop preference) and susceptible mice (developed preference). During the SD sessions, resilient animals showed less flight and submission behaviors than susceptible mice and they presented attack behaviors towards the residents, thereby showing their resistance to being defeated. There were no differences in the neuroinflammatory response, probably due to the long time elapsed after the last SD session. These results suggest that an active coping style to social stress may be decisive in protecting the individual from developing an addiction.

20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050585

RESUMO

Myostatin is a myokine that regulates muscle function and mass, producing muscle atrophy. Myostatin induces the degradation of myofibrillar proteins, such as myosin heavy chain or troponin. The main pathway that mediates protein degradation during muscle atrophy is the ubiquitin proteasome system, by increasing the expression of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. In addition, myostatin activates the NF-κB signaling pathway. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) also regulates muscle mass. Angiotensin (1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) has anti-atrophic properties in skeletal muscle. In this paper, we evaluated the effect of Ang-(1-7) on muscle atrophy and signaling induced by myostatin. The results show that Ang-(1-7) prevented the decrease of the myotube diameter and myofibrillar protein levels induced by myostatin. Ang-(1-7) also abolished the increase of myostatin-induced reactive oxygen species production, atrogin-1, MuRF-1, and TNF-α gene expressions and NF-κB signaling activation. Ang-(1-7) inhibited the activity mediated by myostatin through Mas receptor, as is demonstrated by the loss of all Ang-(1-7)-induced effects when the Mas receptor antagonist A779 was used. Our results show that the effects of Ang-(1-7) on the myostatin-dependent muscle atrophy and signaling are blocked by MK-2206, an inhibitor of Akt/PKB. Together, these data indicate that Ang-(1-7) inhibited muscle atrophy and signaling induced by myostatin through a mechanism dependent on Mas receptor and Akt/PKB.

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