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1.
J Anim Sci ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508102

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to collect and interpret three-axis acceleration, temperature, and relative humidity data from six locations within commercial transport trailers shipping market-weight pigs. Transport was observed in Kansas (n = 15) and North Carolina (n = 20). Prior to loading, three-axis accelerometers were affixed to six locations on the trailers: top fore (TF), top center (TC), top aft (TA), bottom fore (BF), bottom center (BC), and bottom aft (BA) compartments. Data were post-processed to calculate root mean square (RMS) accelerations and vibration dose values (VDV) in the vertical direction and the horizontal plane. These values were compared to exposure action values (EAV) and exposure limit values (ELV), vibration levels deemed uncomfortable and potentially dangerous to humans. Additionally, RMS and VDV were compared among the trailer compartments. The vertical RMS accelerations for all compartments exceeded the EAV for loads measured in Kansas, and for the majority of the compartments measured in North Carolina. Many compartments, specifically the BA compartment from all trips, exceeded the vertical ELV. Regardless of where the data were collected, fewer compartments exceeded the EAV in the horizontal orientation. Only BA compartments exceeded the ELV in the horizontal orientation. There were Area × Level interactions for vertical and horizontal RMS and VDV (P < 0.01). The BF compartment had a greater vertical RMS value than the TF, TC, and BC (P < 0.02) compartments, but did not differ (P = 0.06) from the TA compartment. The vertical RMS of the TA compartment did not differ from the TF, TC, and BC compartments (P > 0.13). The BF compartment had a greater (P = 0.02) vertical VDV value than the TC location, but did not differ from the other locations (P > 0.16). All other locations did not differ in vertical VDV (P > 0.12). The BF compartment had greater horizontal RMS than the TC and TA compartments (P < 0.01), but did not differ from TF and BC compartments (P > 0.12). All other compartments did not differ in horizontal RMS (P > 0.34). All compartments, aside from the BA compartment, did not differ in horizontal VDV (P > 0.19). Vibration analyses indicated the BA compartment had the greatest vertical and horizontal vibrations and a large percentage of the compartments exceed the EAV and ELV, which indicated pigs may have experienced uncomfortable trips that could cause discomfort or fatigue.

2.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2020: 7541941, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335872

RESUMO

Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune enteropathy induced by the ingestion of gluten from wheat, barley, and rye in genetically susceptible individuals. The global prevalence of CD is 1.4%. However, most of the prevalence studies have been conducted in Caucasian populations; few studies have been performed in Latin America. The aim of this study is to determine the seroprevalence of auto-antibodies used as markers for CD in a Colombian cohort. In this cross-sectional study, the serum samples from Colombian donors of the National Red Cross Blood Bank were collected between June and September 2017 in Bogotá, Colombia. All sera were tested for IgA antitissue transglutaminase (TTG) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Seropositive sera were tested for IgA antiendomysium (EMA) using indirect immunofluorescence assay. The ancestral genetic composition was determined in donor samples with antibody assay reactivity. Those with two seroreactive assays were typed for HLA class II DQ2 and DQ8. In total, 228 blood donors participated in the study. Among them, 113 were females (49.56%) with an average age of 31.63 years (SD ± 12.99); males had an average of 34.71 years (SD ± 13.01). Only 3 (1.31%) donors reported chronic diarrhea and nonintentional weight loss; 11 (4.82%) had a family history of CD. For the serological assays, 11 donors (4.82%) were seroreactive to IgA anti-TTG: 3 had high reactivity and 8 had low reactivity. Of those seroreactive to IgA anti-TTG, 3 (1.32%) were also seroreactive to anti-EMA, and they were typed as HLA-DQ8 or HLA-DQ2. The baseline ancestral percentage of the seroreactive donors was higher for European and Native American than for African genes. The seroprevalence for anti-TTG and anti-EMA with the presence of HLA-DQ8 and HLA-DQ2 was 1.32%. Additionally, 4.82% donor participants were reactive only for anti-TTG. Compared with other studies, our findings suggest that Colombia has a high prevalence of CD markers.

4.
Transl Anim Sci ; 4(3): txaa135, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32775965

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of four microalgae and antioxidant feeding regimens on beef longissimus lumborum color stability and palatability. Steers were blocked by weight and randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments fed during a 45-d feeding period. Treatments (n = 10 per treatment) consisted of a control diet (CON) and control diet plus 100 g∙steer-1∙d-1 microalgae (ALGAE), ALGAE plus antioxidants (103 IU/d vitamin E and Sel-Plex) fed throughout feeding (AOX), and AOX fed for the final 10 d of finishing (LATE). The longissimus lumborum muscle was removed, aged for 14 d, and fabricated into steaks for objective and subjective color and palatability analyses. There were treatment × day of display interactions for a* value and steak surface metmyoglobin percentage (P < 0.01). There were no treatment differences through day 4 of display for a* value (P > 0.16) and day 5 of display for surface metmyoglobin (P > 0.10). By day 10 of display, ALGAE steaks had a smaller a* value than all other treatments (P < 0.01). Steaks from AOX steers had a greater (P < 0.01) a* value than CON steaks, whereas both a* values did not differ from LATE steaks (P > 0.19). By the end of display, ALGAE steaks had more metmyoglobin than the other treatments (P < 0.01). Steaks from AOX steers had less metmyoglobin than CON and LATE steaks (P < 0.04), which did not differ (P > 0.25). Treatment did not affect trained panel ratings (P > 0.15); however, treatment did affect (P < 0.01) off-flavor intensity. Steaks from ALGAE and AOX steers had greater off-flavor ratings than CON steaks (P < 0.03), but did not differ (P = 0.10). Steaks from LATE steers did not differ in off-flavor ratings from the other treatments (P > 0.07). Use of antioxidants improved color stability of steaks from microalgae fed steers; however, panelists still detected off-flavors.

5.
Transl Anim Sci ; 4(3): txaa126, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766529

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of nicotinamide riboside (NR) on pectoralis major muscle (PM) development and growth. Fertilized Cobb 500 broiler eggs (N = 156; average weight of 70.3 g) were ordered by weight, and within each four egg strata, eggs were randomly assigned to treatments within a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Factor 1 consisted of NR treatment with eggs receiving 0 or 250 mM NR. Factor 2 consisted of injection location, with treatments injected into either the yolk sac or albumen. Eggs were incubated at a temperature of 37 °C and a relative humidity of 40 ± 2% for the first 18 d of incubation and humidity was increased to 60 ± 2 °C for the final 3 d. On day 10 of incubation, eggs were injected in their designated location with 100 µL of 0.9% sterile saline containing the assigned NR dose. Chicks were hatched, euthanized, and morphometric measurements of the body and left PM were collected. The left PM was also analyzed for muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) and density. There were no treatment × location or main effects for all body morphometric measurements (P > 0.07), except chest width of chicks from eggs injected in the yolk were wider (P = 0.01) than chicks from eggs injected in the albumen. There were only treatment × location interactions for PM weight and length (P < 0.01). When NR was injected into the albumen, PM weight did not differ (P = 0.09); however, when NR was injected into the yolk sac, PM weight increased (P < 0.01). When NR was injected into both locations, PM length increased (P < 0.01), but increased to a greater extent when NR was injected into the yolk sac. There were treatment main effects for PM width and depth (P < 0.01), with NR injected chicks having PM with greater width and depth. There were no treatment × location or main effects for PM fiber CSA (P > 0.06). There was a treatment × location interaction (P < 0.01) for fiber density. When NR was injected into the albumen, fiber density did not differ (P = 0.09); however, when NR was injected into the yolk sac, fiber density increased (P < 0.01). Injecting NR into the yolk sac of the developing embryo at day 10 of incubation increased PM development which was due to an increase in muscle density.

6.
Transl Anim Sci ; 4(1): 339-351, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704994

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of the LIPEX finishing diet regimen on pork chop n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content and fresh meat quality. Twenty-eight finishing pigs (PIC 359 × F1 Hermitage/NGT; initial BW 81.5 ± 2.55 kg) were subjected to a 49-d feeding trial. Treatments consisted of a 2 × 2 factorial design with Sex (n = 14 barrows and gilts each) and Diet as main effects. Dietary treatments consisted of a 2-phase standard finishing diet regimen or a 2-phase LIPEX finishing diet regimen (EXL Milling, Lloydminster, SK, Canada). The LIPEX diet regimen added the EXL LIPEX.FA369 additive during phase 1 and the EXL LIPEX.FA369 and XFE Omega-3 Finishing Touch during phase 2. Five-days postmortem, whole boneless pork loins were transported to the Kansas State University Meats Laboratory, aged 14 d, and halved immediately behind the spinalis dorsi. After blooming for 30 min, chops were evaluated for Japanese color score and National Pork Producers Council (NPPC) color and marbling scores. A 2.54-cm chop was taken immediately anterior to the loin cut and was used for fatty acid and proximate composition analyses. Four 2.54-cm chops were cut from the posterior portion of the loin and were utilized for a 7-d simulated retail display analyses, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and trained sensory panel. There were no Sex × Diet interactions for all variables measured in the study (P > 0.10). The LIPEX finishing regimen increased chop C18:3n-3, C20:5, and C22:5, which decreased the n-6:n-3 ratio (P < 0.01). There were no Diet effects on pH, Japanese and NPPC color and marbling scores, and proximate composition (P > 0.23). Diet did not affect cook loss, WBSF, and trained sensory panel scores (P > 0.012). There were no 2- or 3-way interactions between Diet, Sex, and Day, or Diet and Sex main effects for L*a* values, surface oxy- and metmyoglobin percentages, or visual panel chop redness and surface discoloration scores (P > 0.14). Feeding the LIPEX finishing diet regimen increased chop n-3 PUFA content without negatively impacting fresh chop palatability or color stability.

7.
Transl Anim Sci ; 4(2): txaa065, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32705060

RESUMO

A total of 976 pigs (PIC 327 × Camborough; PIC, Hendersonville, TN; initially 22.0 ± 1.53 kg body weight [BW]) were used in a 160-d growth study to evaluate the effects of increasing space allowance and varying marketing strategies on growth performance of pigs raised to market weights of ~165 kg. Pens of pigs were blocked by location within the barn and allotted to one of six treatments. Pen served as the experimental unit, and there were eight replicate pens per treatment. The first four treatments consisted of increased initial stocking density and did not utilize topping strategies: (1) 14 pigs/pen (1.17 m2/pig), (2) 17 pigs/pen (0.97 m2/pig), (3) 20 pigs/pen (0.82 m2/pig), and (4) 23 pigs/pen (0.71 m2/pig). The fifth treatment began with 25 pigs/pen (0.66 m2/pig) and had four marketing events with the heaviest 3 pigs/pen removed on day 93, and additional pigs removed to a common inventory of 20 pigs/pen on day 122 and 17 pigs/pen on day 147 with final marketing on day 160. The final treatment began the experiment with 23 pigs/pen (0.71 m2/pig) with three marketing events to achieve a common inventory of 20 pigs/pen on day 108 and 17 pigs/pen on day 147. Pens of pigs were weighed and feed disappearance measured on days 0, 55, 93, 108, 122, 135, 147, and 160. As space allowance decreased from 1.17 to 0.71 m2/pig via increased initial pen inventory (treatments 1 to 4), overall average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) decreased (linear, P < 0.001), while gain:feed ratio (G:F) did not differ (P > 0.05). The treatments with multiple marketing events were compared with each other and with the treatment that began with 0.71 m2/pig and only marketed once at the end of the study. Overall ADG and ADFI were not different (P > 0.05) among these three treatments. Marketing pigs three or four times improved (P < 0.05) G:F compared with the treatment that began the study with 0.71 m2/pig and marketed only once. Reducing floor space allowance for heavy weight pigs decreased intake, which resulted in lower growth rate and final BW, with these reductions occurring before the critical k-value was reached. Total weight gain per pen was maximized with the lowest space allowance and the multiple marketing treatments. Thus, strategic use of pig removals prior to final marketing may allow producers to maximize both number of pigs and total weight marketed through a barn when feeding to heavy weights.

8.
J Anim Sci ; 98(4)2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157294

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the impact of quality grade and steak location on color stability of semitendinosus (ST) steaks during a 9-d refrigerated study. Twenty-one ST muscles (12 Choice and 9 Select) were purchased from a commercial beef packing plant and fabricated into twelve 2.54-cm thick steaks per muscle. Steaks 1, 6, and 12 were designated for immunohistochemistry while remaining steak locations of proximal (steaks 2 to 4), middle (5 to 8), and distal (9 to 11) were randomly assigned to 0, 4, or 9 d of simulated retail display. Surface color attributes of day-9 steaks were recorded daily by a visual color panel and spectrophotometer. On days 0, 4, and 9 of display, steaks were analyzed for metmyoglobin reducing ability (MRA) and oxygen consumption (OC). Grade × day of display (DOD) interactions were detected for L*, a*, surface oxymyoglobin (OMb) and metmyoglobin (MMb) percentages, and visual panel surface redness and discoloration scores (P ≤ 0.02); however, no Grade × DOD interactions were observed for MRA or OC (P > 0.17). There were location main effect (LOC) × DOD interactions for L*, a*, surface MMb, visual panel surface redness and discoloration, and MRA (P ≤ 0.02). Distal steaks had lower L* values compared with the other locations (P < 0.01), which coincided with steaks being rated visually darker red (P < 0.01). Proximal steaks had greater a* values and had less surface discoloration than middle steaks (P < 0.05), which had an increased percentage of surface MMb (P ≤ 0.04). Distal and proximal steaks had increased MRA compared with middle steaks on days 0 and 4 (P < 0.05), and distal steaks had greater OC than the other locations throughout display (P < 0.01). There were fewer type I fibers at the proximal end with a greater percentage located at the middle and distal ends, and an increased percentage of type IIX fibers at the middle and proximal locations (P ≤ 0.01). Less type IIA fibers were detected at the middle LOC compared with the other two locations (P < 0.10). Larger type I, IIA, and IIX fibers were located at the proximal and middle locations compared with the distal LOC (P < 0.01). ST color and color-stability characteristics were influenced by DOD and LOC, which may partially be explained by differences in fiber types among locations.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio , Carne Vermelha/normas , Animais , Cor , Músculos Isquiossurais/metabolismo , Metamioglobina/análise , Metamioglobina/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Mioglobina/análise , Mioglobina/metabolismo , NAD/análise , NAD/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Carne Vermelha/análise
9.
J Anim Sci ; 98(2)2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999826

RESUMO

The utility and attractiveness of adipose tissue within meat products vary based on species, cut, and consumer preference. In beef, producers are rewarded for producing carcasses with greater visual marbling at the 12th and 13th rib juncture, while pork producers are either not rewarded or penalized for producing carcasses with too much adipose tissue. Some consumers prefer to purchase leaner meat cuts, while other consumers pay premiums to consume products with elevated fat content. While no clear consumer adipose tissue preference standard exists, advances in beef and swine nutrition have enabled producers to target markets that enable them to maximize profits. One niche market that has increased in popularity over the last decade is manipulating the fatty acid profile, specifically increasing omega-3 fatty acid content, of beef and pork products to increase their appeal in a healthy diet. While much research has documented the ability of preharvest diet to alter the fatty acid profile of beef and pork, the same studies have indicated both the color and palatability of these products were negatively affected if preharvest diets were not managed properly. The following review discusses the biology of adipose tissue and lipid accumulation, altering the omega-3 fatty acid profile of beef and pork, negative fresh meat color and palatability associated with these studies, and strategies to mitigate the negative effects of increased omega-3 fatty acid content.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Carne de Porco/análise , Carne Vermelha/análise , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Cor , Comportamento do Consumidor , Dieta/veterinária , Suínos
10.
Turk J Haematol ; 37(1): 36-41, 2020 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612695

RESUMO

Objective: CD4+CD8+ double-positive T-cells (DPTs) have been classified as a separate T-cell subpopulation, with two main phenotypes: CD4high CD8low and CD4low CD8high. In recent years, the relevance of DPTs in the pathogenesis of infections, tumors, and autoimmune diseases has been recognized. Reference values among healthy individuals remain unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study is to provide a reference value for DPTs in peripheral blood from healthy donors in a blood bank in Bogotá, Colombia, and to determine the activation status using a surface marker. Materials and Methods: One hundred healthy donors were enrolled in the study. Peripheral blood cells were stained for CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD154 (CD40L), and cellular viability was assessed with 7-aminoactinomycin D and analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: The median value for DPTs was 2.6% (interquartile range=1.70%-3.67%). Women had higher percentages of DPTs than men (3.3% vs. 2.1%). The subpopulation of CD4low CD8high showed higher expression of CD154 than the other T-cell subpopulations. Conclusion: DPT reference values were obtained from blood bank donors. A sex difference was found, and the CD4low CD8high subpopulation had the highest activation marker expression.


Assuntos
Bancos de Sangue , Doadores de Sangue , Antígenos CD4/metabolismo , Antígenos CD8/metabolismo , Contagem de Linfócitos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Colômbia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cell Immunol ; 348: 103974, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879029

RESUMO

Chronic infection by Trypanosoma cruzi decreases T cell proliferation and it is most likely accompanied by changes in signals required for activation. We assessed the effect of T. cruzi antigens on mitogen-induced proliferation of T cells from uninfected individuals and the association with the expression of molecules involved in antigen presentation, T cell costimulation and activation, and cytokine production. T. cruzi antigen exposure reduced mitogen-induced proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in PBMC cultures, but only reduced mitogen-induced proliferation in the CD4+ T cells from sorted cell cultures cocultured with antigen-pulsed CD3- cells. CD40/CD80 and CD86 expression were reduced in antigen-pulsed DCs and monocytes, respectively. TNF-α, IL-10 and CCL17 levels were increased in cultures with antigen-pulsed CD3- cells, while CD3ζ chain expression was reduced in T cells from cultures with antigen. Our findings suggest that T. cruzi could alter T cell proliferation indirectly by downregulating costimulatory molecules and inducing the secretion of IL-10 and directly by decreasing TCR signaling.


Assuntos
Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Complexo CD3/imunologia , Doença de Chagas/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Masculino , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Trypanosoma cruzi
12.
Poult Sci ; : 100926, 2020 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518322

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of in ovo injection of nicotinamide riboside (NR) on broiler embryonic myogenesis. Fertilized Cobb 500 broiler eggs (N = 240) were sorted by weight and within each strata, randomly assigned to 1 of 4 NR dose treatments (0 mmol, 250 mmol, 500 mmol, or 1 mol; final concentration in yolk of 0, 2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 mmol) of NR. At day 10 of incubation, 100 µL of the assigned NR dose was injected into the yolk sac of the developing embryo, and chicks were euthanized within 24 h of hatching. Pectoralis major muscle (PMM) and individual fiber morphometrics were collected. Chicks injected with NR had greater PMM weight and length (P < 0.01), but did not differ from each other (P > 0.14). Chicks from eggs injected with NR had greater PMM weight and width than control chicks (P < 0.01), but did not differ from each other (P = 0.86). Chicks from eggs injected with 500 mmol NR had greater PMM depth than control and 1M chicks (P < 0.04), which did not differ (P = 0.24) from each other. Chicks from eggs injected with 250 mmol NR did not differ in PMM length compared with all other treatments (P > 0.06). There was no treatment effect (P = 0.20) for PMM fiber cross-sectional area; however, there was a treatment effect (P < 0.01) for muscle fiber density. Chicks from eggs injected with 1 mol NR had greater fiber density than all other treatments (P < 0.01). Chicks injected with 250 and 500 mmol NR had greater fiber density than control chicks (P < 0.01), but did not differ (P < 0.06) from each other. Injecting developing embryos at day 10 of incubation increased hatched chick PMM morphometrics, which were partly because of the NR catalyzed increase in muscle fiber density.

14.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1671, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379862

RESUMO

Monocytes are classified according to their CD14 and CD16 expression into classical (reparative), intermediate (inflammatory), and non-classical. This study assessed the frequency of monocyte and the relationship between monocyte subset percentages and the levels of blood cytokines in Colombian chagasic patients with different clinical forms. This study included chagasic patients in different clinical stages: indeterminate (IND) n = 14, chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC) n = 14, and heart transplant chagasic (HTCC) n = 9; controls with non-chagasic cardiopathy (NCC) n = 15, and healthy individuals (HI) n = 15. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated, labeled for CD14, CD16, and HLA-DR, and analyzed by flow cytometry. Cytokines were measured with a bead-based immunoassay. Percentages of total CD14+ CD16+ and CD14+ HLA-DR+ monocytes were higher in patients with heart involvement (CCC, HTCC, and NCC) than controls. Percentages of intermediate monocytes increased in symptomatic chagasic patients (CCC and HTCC) compared to asymptomatic chagasic patients (IND) and controls (HI). Asymptomatic chagasic patients (IND) had higher percentages of classical monocytes, an increased production of CCL17 chemokine compared to chagasic symptomatic patients (CCC), and their levels of CCL17 was positively correlated with the percentage of classical monocyte subset. In CCC, the percentages of intermediate and classical monocytes were positively correlated with IL-6 levels, which were higher in this group compared to HI, and negatively with IL-12p40 concentration, respectively. Remarkably, there also was an important increased of classical monocytes frequency in three chronic chagasic patients who underwent cardiac transplant, of which one received anti-parasitic treatment. Our findings suggest that cardiac chagasic patients have an increased percentage of inflammatory monocytes and produce more IL-6, a biomarker of heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction, whereas asymptomatic chagasic individuals present a higher percentage of reparative monocytes and CCL17.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Doença de Chagas/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
16.
Biol Open ; 8(5)2019 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085547

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most prevalent type of primary brain tumor. Treatment options include maximal surgical resection and drug-radiotherapy combination. However, patient prognosis remains very poor, prompting the search for new models for drug discovery and testing, especially those that allow assessment of in vivo responses to treatment. Zebrafish xenograft models have an enormous potential to study tumor behavior, proliferation and cellular interactions. Here, an in vivo imaging and proliferation assessment method of human GBM xenograft in zebrafish larvae is introduced. Zebrafish larvae microinjected with fluorescently labeled human GBM cells were screened daily using a stereomicroscope and imaged by light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM); volumetric modeling and composite reconstructions were done in single individuals. Larvae containing tumors were enzymatically dissociated, and proliferation of cancer cells was measured using dye dilution by flow cytometry. GBM micro-tumors formed mainly in the zebrafish yolk sac and perivitelline space following injection in the yolk sac, with an engraftment rate of 73%. Daily image analysis suggested cellular division, as micro-tumors progressively grew with differentiated fluorescence intensity signals. Using dye dilution assay by flow cytometry, at least three GBM cells' division cycles were identified. The combination of LSFM and flow cytometry allows assessment of proliferation and tumor growth of human GBM inside zebrafish, making it a useful model to identify effective anti-proliferative agents in a preclinical setting.

17.
Front Oncol ; 9: 245, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31024847

RESUMO

Acute leukemia is a heterogeneous set of diseases affecting children and adults. Current prognostic factors are not accurate predictors of the clinical outcome of adult patients and the stratification of risk groups remains insufficient. For that reason, this study proposes a multifactorial analysis which integrates clinical parameters, ex vivo tumor characterization and behavioral in vivo analysis in zebrafish. This model represents a new approach to understand leukemic primary cells behavior and features associated with aggressiveness and metastatic potential. Xenotransplantation of primary samples from patients newly diagnosed with acute leukemia in zebrafish embryos at 48 hpf was used to asses survival rate, dissemination pattern, and metastatic potential. Seven samples from young adults classified in adverse, favorable or intermediate risk group were characterized. Tumor heterogeneity defined by Leukemic stem cell (LSC) proportion, was performed by metabolic and cell membrane biomarkers characterization. Thus, our work combines all these parameters with a robust quantification strategy that provides important information about leukemia biology, their relationship with specific niches and the existent inter and intra-tumor heterogeneity in acute leukemia. In regard to prognostic factors, leukemic stem cell proportion and Patient-derived xenografts (PDX) migration into zebrafish were the variables with highest weights for the prediction analysis. Higher ALDH activity, less differentiated cells and a broader and random migration pattern are related with worse clinical outcome after induction chemotherapy. This model also recapitulates multiple aspects of human acute leukemia and therefore is a promising tool to be employed not only for preclinical studies but also supposes a new tool with a higher resolution compared to traditional methods for an accurate stratification of patients into worse or favorable clinical outcome.

18.
Transl Anim Sci ; 3(2): 633-640, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704833

RESUMO

Several studies have suggested there is a critical relationship between piglet birth weight and preweaning mortality. Thus, the objective of the current work was to identify a birth weight threshold value for preweaning mortality. Birth weight and survival data from two studies involving a combined total of 4,068 piglets from 394 litters on four commercial farms (three European, one U.S.) were compiled for a pooled, multistudy analysis. Overall preweaning mortality across the two studies was 12.2%. Key variables used in the analysis were piglet birth weight (measured within 24 h of birth) and corresponding survival outcome (dead or live) by weaning at 3-4 wk of age. A mixed effects logistic regression model was fit to estimate the relationship between preweaning mortality and birth weight. A random effect of study was included to account for overall differences in mortality between the two studies. A piecewise linear predictor was selected to best represent the drastic decrease in preweaning mortality found as birth weight increased in the range of 0.5-1.0 kg and the less extreme change in weight above 1.0 kg. The change point of the birth weight and preweaning mortality model was determined by comparing model fit based on maximizing the likelihood over the interval ranging from 0.5 to 2.3 kg birth weight. Results from the analysis showed a curvilinear relationship between birth weight and preweaning mortality where the birth weight change point value or threshold value was 1.11 kg. In the combined data set, 15.2% of pigs had birth weights ≤1.11 kg. This subpopulation of pigs had a 34.4% preweaning mortality rate and represented 43% of total preweaning mortalities. These findings imply interventions targeted at reducing the incidence of piglets with birth weights ≤1.11 kg have potential to improve piglet survivability. Additional research is needed to validate 1.11 kg as the birth weight threshold for increased risk of preweaning mortality.

19.
Transl Anim Sci ; 3(2): 692-708, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704837

RESUMO

A total of 69 sows (DNA Line 200 × 400) and their progeny were used to determine if feeding a combination of vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D3 influences neonatal and sow vitamin D status, muscle fiber morphometrics at birth and weaning, and subsequent growth performance. Within 3 d of breeding, sows were allotted to one of three dietary treatments fortified with 1,500 IU/kg vitamin D3 (CON), 500 IU/kg vitamin D3 + 25 µg/kg 25(OH)D3 (DL), or 1,500 IU/kg vitamin D3 + 50 µg/kg 25(OH)D3 (DH). When pigs were sacrificed at birth, there were no treatment effects for all fiber morphometric measures (P > 0.170), except primary fiber number and the ratio of secondary to primary muscle fibers (P < 0.016). Pigs from CON fed sows had fewer primary fibers than pigs from sows fed the DH treatment (P = 0.014), with pigs from sows fed DL treatment not differing from either (P > 0.104). Pigs from CON and DL fed sows had a greater secondary to primary muscle fiber ratio compared to pigs from DH sows (P < 0.022) but did not differ from each other (P = 0.994). There were treatment × time interactions for all sow and pig serum metabolites (P < 0.001). Therefore, treatment means were compared within the time period. At all time periods, sow serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations differed for all treatments with the magnitude of difference largest at weaning (P < 0.011), where serum 25(OH)D3 concentration was always the greatest when sows were fed the DH diet. At birth, piglets from DH fed sows had greater serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations than piglets from sows fed the DL treatment (P = 0.003), with piglets from sows fed CON treatment not differing from either (P > 0.061). At weaning, serum concentrations of 25(OH)D3 in piglets from all sow treatments were different (P < 0.001), with the greatest concentration in piglets from DH sows, followed by CON, and followed by DL. There were no treatment × time interactions for any of the metabolites measured in milk and no treatment or time main effects for 24,25(OH)2D3 concentration (P > 0.068). Colostrum collected within 12 h of parturition contained less (P = 0.001) 25(OH)D3 than milk collected on day 21 of lactation. Regardless of time, concentrations of 25(OH)D3 in milk were different (P < 0.030), with the largest 25(OH)D3 concentration from DH fed sows, followed by DL, and then CON. In conclusion, combining vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D3 in the maternal diet improves the vitamin D status of the dam and progeny and it increases primary muscle fiber number at birth.

20.
J Anim Sci ; 97(2): 669-686, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30452653

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the extent marbling compensates for reduced beef palatability at elevated degrees of doneness and to determine the relationship of residual moisture and fat in cooked steaks to beef palatability, specifically beef juiciness. Paired strip loins (IMPS # 180) were collected to equally represent five quality treatments [Prime, Top Choice (modest and moderate marbling), Low Choice, Select, and Select Enhanced (110% of raw weight)]. Steaks were grouped into sets of three consecutively cut steaks and randomly assigned a degree of doneness (DOD): very-rare (VR; 55 °C), rare (R; 60 °C), medium-rare (MR; 63 °C), medium (M; 71 °C), well done (WD; 77 °C), or very well done (VWD; 82 °C). Samples were subjected to consumer and trained sensory evaluation, Warner-Braztler shear force (WBSF), slice shear force (SSF), pressed juice percentage (PJP) evaluation, and raw and cooked proximate analysis. There were no (P > 0.05) quality treatment × DOD interactions for consumer sensory ratings, indicating increased DOD had the same negative impact regardless of marbling level. There was a quality treatment × DOD interaction (P < 0.05) for the percentage of steaks rated acceptable by consumers for juiciness. Increased marbling modified the point in which steaks became unacceptable for juiciness. Similarly, there was a quality treatment × DOD interaction (P < 0.05) for trained juiciness ratings. When cooked to MR and lower, Prime was rated only 8% to 18% higher (P < 0.05) than Select for trained juiciness ratings, but was rated 38% to 123% higher (P < 0.05) than Select when cooked to M and higher. Besides cooking loss, combined cooked moisture and fat percentage was more highly associated (P < 0.01) to consumer juiciness (r = 0.69) and trained initial (r = 0.84) and sustained (r = 0.85) juiciness ratings than all other objective evaluations. Using regression analyses, cooked moisture and fat percentages, alone, were poor indicators of consumer and trained juiciness ratings. However, when combined, the regression equations explained 45%, 74%, and 69% of the variation in consumer, trained initial, and trained sustained juiciness ratings, respectively. These results indicate that increased marbling levels only offer "insurance" for juiciness of steaks that are cooked to high degrees of doneness, but not for other palatability traits. Additionally, cooked residual moisture and fat percentages, when combined, are a good indicator of sensory juiciness ratings.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Carne Vermelha/normas , Adulto , Animais , Peso Corporal , Culinária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Distribuição Aleatória , Carne Vermelha/análise , Análise de Regressão , Percepção Gustatória , Adulto Jovem
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