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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Basolateral amygdalar (BLA) projections to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) play a key role in modulating behavioral responses to stress stimuli. Among the different neuromodulators known to impact BLA-PFC transmission, the corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) is of particular interest because of its role in modulating anxiety and stress-associated behaviors. While CRF type 1 receptor (CRFR1) has been involved in PFC functioning, the participation of CRF type 2 receptor (CRFR2) in BLA-PFC synaptic transmission remains unclear. METHODS: Immunofluorescence anatomical studies using rat PFC synaptosomes devoid of postsynaptic elements were performed in rats with intra BLA injection of biotinylated dextran amine. In vivo microdialysis and local field potential recordings were used to measure glutamate extracellular levels and changes in long-term potentiation in PFC induced by BLA stimulation in the absence or presence of CRF receptor antagonists. RESULTS: We found evidence for the presynaptic expression of CRFR2 protein and mRNA in PFC synaptic terminals originated from BLA. By means of microdialysis and electrophysiological recordings in combination with an intra-PFC infusion of the CRFR2 antagonist antisauvagine-30 (aSvg), we were able to determine that CRFR2 is functionally positioned to limit the strength of BLA transmission to the PFC through presynaptic inhibition of glutamate release. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows for the first time that CRFR2 is expressed in BLA afferents projecting to the PFC and exerts an inhibitory control of PFC responses to BLA inputs. Thus, changes in CRFR2 signaling is likely to disrupt the functional connectivity of the BLA-PFC pathway and associated behavioral responses.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(1)2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861663

RESUMO

In recent years, microalgae have attracted great interest for their potential applications in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industry as an interesting source of bioactive medicinal products and food ingredients with anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-microbial properties. One potential application for bioactive microalgae compounds is obesity treatment. This review gathers together in vitro and in vivo studies which address the anti-obesity effects of microalgae extracts. The scientific literature supplies evidence supporting an anti-obesity effect of several microalgae: Euglena gracilis, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Spirulina maxima, Spirulina platensis, or Nitzschia laevis. Regarding the mechanisms of action, microalgae can inhibit pre-adipocyte differentiation and reduce de novo lipogenesis and triglyceride (TG) assembly, thus limiting TG accumulation. Increased lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation can also be observed. Finally, microalgae can induce increased energy expenditure via thermogenesis activation in brown adipose tissue, and browning in white adipose tissue. Along with the reduction in body fat accumulation, other hallmarks of individuals with obesity, such as enhanced plasma lipid levels, insulin resistance, diabetes, or systemic low-grade inflammation are also improved by microalgae treatment. Not only the anti-obesity effect of microalgae but also the improvement of several comorbidities, previously observed in preclinical studies, has been confirmed in clinical trials.

3.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505802

RESUMO

Several studies have observed that gut microbiota can play a critical role in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) development. The gut microbiota is influenced by different environmental factors, which include diet. The aim of the present review is to summarize the information provided in the literature concerning the impact of changes in gut microbiota on the effects which dietary fat has on liver steatosis in rodent models. Most studies in which high-fat feeding has induced steatosis have reported reduced microbiota diversity, regardless of the percentage of energy provided by fat. At the phylum level, an increase in Firmicutes and a reduction in Bacteroidetes is commonly found, although widely diverging results have been described at class, order, family, and genus levels, likely due to differences in experimental design. Unfortunately, this fact makes it difficult to reach clear conclusions concerning the specific microbiota patterns associated with this feeding pattern. With regard to the relationship between high-fat feeding-induced changes in liver and microbiota composition, although several mechanisms such as alteration of gut integrity and increased permeability, inflammation, and metabolite production have been proposed, more scientific evidence is needed to address this issue and thus further studies are needed.

4.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 134: 50-60, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639590

RESUMO

Blue grama grass (Bouteloua gracilis) populations are found in widely variable environments, tolerating drought, alkaline soils and different levels of grazing. Many ploidy levels have been reported for this species that is also considered to be phenotypically plastic and morphologically variable. Recently a decline in its cover and frequency in the North American shortgrass steppe and central Mexico has been reported although much about the biology of the species is unknown, including genetic diversity throughout its distribution. Genetic and phylogeographic structure and phylogenetic relationships among B. gracilis were estimated employing next generation sequencing of a high number of SNPs and loci. Population genetics and Structure analyses were performed. We compared the marginal likelihoods of different migration models using MIGRATE and obtained the best population model of migration for our data. Demographic expansion of B. gracilis was observed graphically with a mismatch distribution obtained in DNAsp. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood methods were used to resolve phylogenetic relationships among B. gracilis and its closely related species as well as within B. gracilis populations. B. gracilis is sister to the B. chasei and B. herrera arrietae clade. Among the populations of the species two highly supported clades were resolved, grouping samples from Mexico and USA respectively. Allele frequencies determined three population clusters: CUSA from the Great Plains, MEX from central and southern Mexico, and WUSA-NMEX from northern Mexico and the western mountainous region of USA, the latter of which contains an allele admixture of the other two clusters. The haplotype network revealed an ancestral haplotype originating in Mexico, from which the rest of the haplotypes diversified to the north. Both evidence of gene flow and isolation among populations was observed. Genetic clusters are not genetically structured and variation is higher among populations. The genetic and morphological data do not support recognition of ecotypes or infraespecific taxa. However, the Great Plains populations are least diverse, making them most vulnerable to environmental change.


Assuntos
Filogeografia , Poaceae/classificação , Poaceae/genética , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Análise por Conglomerados , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Haplótipos/genética , México , Filogenia , Poaceae/anatomia & histologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(11)2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30400630

RESUMO

This review focuses on the role of 5'-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the effects of resveratrol (RSV) and some RSV derivatives on hepatic steatosis. In vitro studies, performed in different hepatic cell models, have demonstrated that RSV is effective in preventing liver TG accumulation by activating AMPK, due to its phosphorylation. These preventive effects have been confirmed in studies conducted in animal models, such as mice and rats, by administering the phenolic compound at the same time as the diet which induces TG accumulation in liver. The literature also includes studies focused on other type of models, such as animals showing alcohol-induced steatosis or even steatosis induced by administering chemical products. In addition to the preventive effects of RSV on hepatic steatosis, other studies have demonstrated that it can alleviate previously developed liver steatosis, thus its role as a therapeutic tool has been proposed. The implication of AMPK in the delipidating effects of RSV in in vivo models has also been demonstrated.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado Gorduroso/enzimologia , Resveratrol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Fígado Gorduroso/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Resveratrol/química
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(9)2018 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30205436

RESUMO

Aquaglyceroporins (AQPs) are transmembrane channels that mediate glycerol release and glycerol uptake. They are involved in fat metabolism, with implications in obesity. The aim was to determine whether the administration of resveratrol and pterostilbene during the six weeks of the experimental period would modify AQPs expression in white and brown adipose tissues from Wistar rats fed an obesogenic diet, and to establish a potential relationship with the delipidating properties of these compounds. Consequently, thirty-six rats were divided into four groups: (a) group fed a standard diet; and three more groups fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet: (b) high-fat high-sucrose group: (c) pterostilbene-treated group (30 mg/kg/d): (d) resveratrol-treated group (30 mg/kg/d). Epididymal, subcutaneous white adipose tissues and interscapular brown adipose tissue were dissected. AQPs gene expression (RT-PCR) and protein expression (western-blot) were measured. In white adipose tissue, pterostilbene reduced subcutaneous adipose tissue weight and prevented the decrease in AQP9 induced by obesogenic feeding, and thus glycerol uptake for triglyceride accumulation. Resveratrol reduced epididymal adipose tissue weight and avoided the decrease in AQPs related to glycerol release induced by high-fat high-sucrose feeding, suggesting the involvement of lipolysis in its body-fat lowering effect. Regarding brown adipose tissue, AQP7 seemed not to be involved in the previously reported thermogenic activity of both phenolic compounds.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Aquagliceroporinas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Resveratrol/uso terapêutico , Estilbenos/uso terapêutico , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Ratos Wistar , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue
7.
Eur J Nutr ; 57(4): 1343-1355, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28285433

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Industrial trans fatty acid (TFA) intake leads to impaired glucose metabolism. However, the overall effects reported are inconsistent and vary with the dietary FA composition and TFA isomer type and levels. We investigated TFA effects on glucose uptake, incorporation and oxidation, and glycogen synthesis in incubated soleus muscle under basal conditions or after treatment with insulin and/or palmitate. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were fed either linoleic acid (LA)-enriched (+LA) or LA-deprived (-LA) diet, supplemented (+LA + TFA or -LA + TFA) or not with TFA, for 60 days. Soleus muscle glucose metabolism was assessed in the absence or presence of insulin and/or palmitic acid. RESULTS: Under basal conditions, TFA enhanced glucose uptake and oxidation regardless of the LA status. Both TFA-supplemented groups had lower insulin response to glucose metabolism. Under insulin-stimulated conditions, TFA prevented the palmitate inhibition of muscle glucose uptake and metabolism in the +LA + TFA group. CONCLUSION: Dietary TFA enhanced glucose utilization in incubated soleus muscle under basal conditions and prevented the palmitate-induced inhibition in insulin-stimulated conditions. However, TFA reduced the insulin response to glucose uptake and metabolism. The effects mentioned above were influenced by the FA profile modifications induced by the dietary LA levels, suggesting that lipid metabolization and incorporation into plasma membrane are important determining factors of glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity.


Assuntos
Glucose/metabolismo , Ácido Linoleico/farmacologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Trans/farmacologia , Animais , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos , Insulina , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Ácidos Graxos Trans/química
8.
Psicol. conduct ; 26(2): 323-335, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-176019

RESUMO

Cross-cultural studies comparing eating attitudes among adolescents from southern-European countries are scarce. We aimed to compare body dissatisfaction, disordered-eating attitudes, awareness and internalisation of the unrealistic-body-ideal, self-esteem, perfectionism and impulsivity among adolescents from Spain and Portugal. Participants were 249 Spanish and 206 Portuguese adolescents (51.2% girls) aged 12-15 (M= 13.3 years, SD= 0.6). A 2 × 2 (country × sex) MANOVA was conducted for each self-reported measure. Girls scored higher on awareness and internalisation of the unrealistic-body-ideal, body-dissatisfaction, disordered-eating attitudes and lower on self-esteem than boys did. Regarding the country, Portuguese adolescents scored higher than Spaniards on eating disorder attitudes, impulsivity and perfectionism. Our findings show significant differences between country and gender, highlighting the importance of specific gender-oriented prevention strategies


Las diferencias transculturales en la insatisfacción corporal y las actitudes alimentarias de riesgo en adolescentes han sido escasamente estudiadas en el sur de Europa. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la insatisfacción corporal, las actitudes alimentarias alteradas, la interiorización del ideal estético, la autoestima, el perfeccionismo y la impulsividad de adolescentes de Espana y Portugal. Participaron 249 adolescentes españoles y 206 portugueses (51,2% de chicas) de entre 12 y 15 años (M= 13,3 años; DT= 0,6). Se realizó un MANOVA considerando un diseño 2 × 2 (país × sexo) para cada medida autoinformada. Las chicas obtuvieron puntuaciones más altas en interiorización del ideal estético, insatisfacción corporal, conductas alimentarias alteradas y menor autoestima que los chicos. En cuanto al país, los adolescentes portugueses puntuaron más alto que los españoles en actitudes alimentarias alteradas, impulsividad y perfeccionismo. Nuestros hallazgos muestran diferencias significativas entre país y sexo, destacando la importancia de las estrategias de prevención específicas para cada sexo


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Comparação Transcultural , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Autoimagem , Análise de Variância , Portugal/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia
9.
Molecules ; 22(12)2017 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29186045

RESUMO

Science constantly seeks to identify new molecules that could be used as dietary functional ingredients in the fight against obesity and its co-morbidities. Among them, polyphenols represent a group of molecules of increasing interest. One of the most widely studied polyphenols is resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), which has been proposed as an "energy restriction mimetic" because it can exert energy restriction-like effects. The aim of this review is to analyze the effects of resveratrol on obesity under different feeding conditions, such as overfeeding, normal feeding, and energy restriction, in animals and humans. The vast majority of the studies reported have addressed the administration of resveratrol to animals alongside an obesogenic diet. Under these experimental conditions usually a decreased body weight amount was found. To date, studies that focus on the effects of resveratrol under normal feeding or energy restriction conditions in animals and humans are scarcer. In these studies no changes in body fat were reported. After analyzing the results obtained under overfeeding, normal feeding, and energy restriction conditions, it can be stated that resveratrol is useful in reducing body fat accumulation, and thus preventing obesity. Nevertheless, for ethical reasons, these results have been obtained in animals. By contrast, there are no evidences showing the usefulness of this phenolic compound in reducing previously accumulated body fat. Consequently, as of yet, there is not scientific support for proposing resveratrol as a new anti-obesity treatment tool.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Dieta , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/metabolismo , Resveratrol , Estilbenos/química , Estilbenos/uso terapêutico
10.
PLoS One ; 12(11): e0188177, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29145474

RESUMO

The development of mesencephalic dopamine neurons and their survival later in life requires the continuous presence of the transcription factor Nurr1 (NR4A2). Nurr1 belongs to the nuclear receptors superfamily. However, it is an orphan member that does not require a ligand to regulate the transcription of its target genes. Therefore, controlling the expression of Nurr1 is an important manner to control its function. Several reports have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate Nurr1 expression. However, Nurr1 has several splicing variants, posing the question what variants are subjected to miRNA regulation. In this work, we identified a long 3'UTR variant of rat Nurr1 mRNA. We used bioinformatics analysis to identify miRNAs with the potential to regulate Nurr1 expression. Reporter assays performed with the luciferase gene fused to the short (658 bp) or long (1,339 bp) 3'UTR of rat Nurr1 mRNAs, showed that miR-93, miR-204 and miR-302d selectively regulate the mRNA with the longest 3'UTR. We found that the longest variant of Nurr1 mRNA expresses in the rat mesencephalon as assessed by PCR. The transfection of rat mesencephalic neurons with mixed miR-93, miR-204 and miR-302d resulted in a significant reduction of Nurr1 protein levels. In conclusion, Nurr1 mRNA variant with the longest 3'UTR undergoes a specific regulation by miRNAs. It is discussed the importance of fine-tuning Nurr1 protein levels in mesencephalic dopamine neurons.


Assuntos
Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Dopamina/metabolismo , Mesencéfalo/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Membro 2 do Grupo A da Subfamília 4 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mesencéfalo/citologia , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
11.
Br J Nutr ; 118(11): 906-913, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29173222

RESUMO

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) might regulate the lipid depots in liver and adipose tissue. As there is an association between maternal nutrition, fat depots and risk of offspring chronic disease, the aim was to investigate the effect of maternal CLA consumption on TAG regulation and some inflammatory parameters in adult male rat offspring receiving or not receiving CLA. Female Wistar rats were fed control (C) or CLA-supplemented (1 %, w/w) diets during 4 weeks before and throughout pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, male offspring of CLA rats were fed C or CLA diets (CLA/C and CLA/CLA groups, respectively), whereas C male rat offspring were fed a C diet (C/C group) for 9 weeks. Serum TAG levels were increased in the CLA/CLA and CLA/C groups, associated with a reduction of lipoprotein lipase activity and weights of adipose tissue. The liver TAG levels were decreased in the CLA/CLA group, related to a significant reduction of fatty acid synthase (FAS), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme activities, as well as to the mRNA levels of FAS, ACC, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c. Even though normal TAG levels were found in the liver of CLA/C rats, a reduction of lipogenesis was also observed. Thus, these results demonstrated a programming effect of CLA on the lipid metabolic pathways leading to a preventive effect on the TAG accretion in adipose tissue and the liver of male rat offspring. This knowledge could be important to develop some dietary strategies leading to a reduced incidence of obesity and fatty acid liver disease in humans.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/farmacologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/genética , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/sangue , Ácido Graxo Sintases/genética , Ácido Graxo Sintases/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Feminino , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/genética , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Gravidez , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/genética , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo
12.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1403(1): 118-131, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28796895

RESUMO

The prevalence of obesity has been increasing in recent decades and is reaching epidemic proportions. The current options for overweight and obesity management are energy restriction and physical activity. However, compliance with these treatments is frequently poor and less successful than expected. Therefore, the scientific community is interested in active biomolecules, which may be useful in body weight management. Among them, resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) has generated great interest as an antiobesity agent. The focus of this report is the mechanisms of action of resveratrol on several tissues (i.e., white and brown adipose tissues, liver, and skeletal muscle). Resveratrol blunts fat accumulation through decreasing adipogenesis and/or de novo lipogenesis in white adipose tissue. The effects on lipolysis are controversial. Regarding brown adipose tissue, resveratrol increases the capacity for adaptive thermogenesis. As far as liver and skeletal muscle is concerned, resveratrol increases lipid oxidation in both tissues. Therefore, in rodents, there is a general consensus concerning the effect of resveratrol on reducing body fat accumulation. By contrast, in humans, the studies are scarce, and no clear antiobesity action has been revealed so far.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Estilbenos/uso terapêutico , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Resveratrol , Estilbenos/farmacologia
13.
Int J Neuropsychopharmacol ; 20(8): 660-669, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28531297

RESUMO

Background: Increased locomotor activity in response to the same stimulus is an index of behavioral sensitization observed in preclinical models of drug addiction and compulsive behaviors. Repeated administration of quinpirole, a D2/D3 dopamine agonist, induces locomotor sensitization. This effect is potentiated and accelerated by co-administration of U69593, a kappa opioid receptor agonist. The mechanism underlying kappa opioid receptor potentiation of quinpirole-induced locomotor sensitization remains to be elucidated. Methods: Immunofluorescence anatomical studies were undertaken in mice brain slices and rat presynaptic synaptosomes to reveal kappa opioid receptor and D2R pre- and postsynaptic colocalization in the nucleus accumbens. Tonic and phasic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens of rats repeatedly treated with U69593 and quinpirole was assessed by microdialysis and fast scan cyclic voltammetry. Results: Anatomical data show that kappa opioid receptor and D2R colocalize postsynaptically in medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens and the highest presynaptic colocalization occurs on the same dopamine terminals. Significantly reduced dopamine levels were observed in quinpirole, and U69593-quinpirole treated rats, explaining sensitization of D2R. Presynaptic inhibition induced by kappa opioid receptor and D2R of electrically evoked dopamine release was faster in U69593-quinpirole compared with quinpirole-repeatedly treated rats. Conclusions: Pre- and postsynaptic colocalization of kappa opioid receptor and D2R supports a role for kappa opioid receptor potentiating both the D2R inhibitory autoreceptor function and the inhibitory action of D2R on efferent medium spiny neurons. Kappa opioid receptor co-activation accelerates D2R sensitization by contributing to decrease dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Accumbens/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimpirol/farmacologia , Receptores de Dopamina D2/metabolismo , Receptores Opioides kappa/metabolismo , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Animais , Benzenoacetamidas/farmacologia , Dopamina/metabolismo , Espaço Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Espaço Extracelular/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Inibição Neural/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibição Neural/fisiologia , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Núcleo Accumbens/citologia , Núcleo Accumbens/metabolismo , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Dopamina D2/agonistas , Receptores Opioides kappa/agonistas , Sinapses/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinapses/metabolismo , Sinaptossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinaptossomos/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
14.
Nutrients ; 9(4)2017 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28375178

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to determine whether the reduction in liver fat previously observed in our laboratory in a cohort of rats which had been fed an obesogenic diet was mediated by changes in the expression of microRNA (miRNA)-103-3p, miRNA-107-3p and miRNA-122-5p, which represent 70% of total miRNAs in the liver, as well as in their target genes. The expression of the three analysed miRNAs was reduced in rats treated with resveratrol. A reduction in sterol-regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and an increase in carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (CPT1a) were observed in resveratrol-treated rats. No changes were found in fatty acid synthase (FAS). In cultured hepatocytes, SREBP1 protein was increased after the transfection of each miRNA. FAS protein expression was decreased after the transfection of miRNA-122-5p, and CPT1a protein was down-regulated by the over-expression of miRNA-107-3p. This study provides new evidences which show that srebf1 is a target gene for miRNA-103-3p and miRNA-107-3p, fasn a target gene for miRNA-122-5p and cpt1a a target gene for miRNA-107-3p. Moreover, the reduction in liver steatosis induced by resveratrol in rats fed an obesegenic diet is mediated, at least in part, by the increase in CPT1a protein expression and activity, via a decrease in miRNA-107-3p expression.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Animais , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/genética , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Regulação para Baixo , Ácido Graxo Sintases/genética , Ácido Graxo Sintases/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/induzido quimicamente , Fígado Gorduroso/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Resveratrol , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo
15.
Nutr Neurosci ; 20(7): 424-435, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27098669

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) are critical for the normal structure and function of the brain. Trans fatty acids (TFA) and the source of the dietary fatty acids (FA) interfere with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TFA supplementation in diets containing different proportions of n-9, n-6, and n-3 FA on the brain FA profile, including the retention of TFA, LC-PUFA levels, and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios. These parameters were also investigated in the liver, considering that LC-PUFA are mainly bioconverted from their dietary precursors in this tissue and transported by serum to the brain. Also, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) gene expressions were evaluated. METHODS: Male CF1 mice were fed (16 weeks) diets containing different oils (olive, corn, and rapeseed) with distinct proportions of n-9, n-6, and n-3 FA (55.2/17.2/0.7, 32.0/51.3/0.9, and 61.1/18.4/8.6), respectively, substituted or not with 0.75% of TFA. FA composition of the brain, liver, and serum was assessed by gas chromatography. RESULTS: TFA were incorporated into, and therefore retained in the brain, liver, and serum. However, the magnitude of retention was dependent on the tissue and type of isomer. In the brain, total TFA retention was lower than 1% in all diets. DISCUSSION: Dietary n-3 PUFA decreased TFA retention and increased DHA accretion in the brain. The results underscore the importance of the type of dietary FA on the retention of TFA in the brain and also on the changes of the FA profile.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Trans/administração & dosagem , Animais , Ácido Araquidônico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Araquidônico/sangue , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/genética , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Trans/sangue
16.
Eat Behav ; 25: 51-57, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27600592

RESUMO

AIMS: As eating disorders have severe consequences, they require prevention. We aimed to compare maladaptive beliefs related to eating disorders by following two programs based on media literacy in adolescents at post-test intervention, and after 6 and 12month-follow-ups. The Male and Female Nutrition and Media Literacy Model preventive program (NUT+MEF+MEM+ML in Spanish) and the Theater Alive program are both based on the same contents, the former being presented in a multimedia and interactive format and the latter in a drama format. Both were compared to a control group without intervention, whose participants received usual classes before the assessments. METHOD: Participants were 178 adolescents in the second year of compulsory secondary education from fours schools of Terrassa (Catalonia, Spain). All participants in each school were assigned to the same group, depending on school schedules. A mixed 3 (group: Theater Alive, NUT+MEF+MEM+ML, control)×3 (time: post-test, 6-month-follow-up, 12-month-follow-up) factorial design was used to evaluate the effect on maladaptive beliefs measured using a CE-TCA tool. RESULTS: When compared to the control group, both Theater Alive (d=0.88) and NUT+MEM+MEF+ML (d=0.60) obtained lower scores over time, the latter being not statistically significant. DISCUSSION: The Theater Alive program may produce an effect of cognitive dissonance that might eliminate the discrepancy between the contents of the play and those that are internalized, thus modifying maladaptive beliefs. Participants in the Theater Alive program, as actors in front of an audience, had to defend certain content that was rehearsed over and over again to the point until it became internalized.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Adolescente , Drama , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alfabetização em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Espanha
17.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 68(5): 546-552, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27998197

RESUMO

Studies have reported the relationship between the excessive intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and trans fatty acids (t-FA) and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Since 2006, the MERCOSUR countries require that the mandatory nutrition labeling should include information not only about the content of SFA but also about the content of t-FA. This does not apply to fractionated products at the point of retail, such as bakery products. This paper aimed to determine the total fat content and the fatty acid profile in unpackaged traditional bakery products (breads, biscuits and pastries) in Santa Fe, Argentina. Except for French bread, the contribution of t-FA and SFA to the total FA consumption from baked products was high. On the other hand, due to the high variability detected in the FA composition of bakery products between bakeries, it would be necessary to implement regulations making nutrition labeling mandatory in these products.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Análise de Alimentos , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Argentina
18.
Brain Res ; 1652: 14-20, 2016 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27687740

RESUMO

Dopamine neurons are overstimulated by drugs of abuse and suffer molecular alterations that lead to addiction behavior. Nurr1 is a transcription factor crucial for dopamine neurons survival and dopamine production, activating the transcription of key genes like tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Interestingly, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) has emerged as a new Nurr1 partner in response to inflammatory stimulus. In this study we evaluated the effects of single and repeated amphetamine administration in the expression of Nurr1 and the NF-κB p65 subunit in the rat ventral tegmental area (VTA). We found that acute amphetamine treatment increased Nurr1, p65 and TH protein levels in the VTA. On the other hand, chronic amphetamine treatment decreased Nurr1 and p65 protein levels, but TH was unchanged. Mammalian reporter assays in cell lines showed that p65 represses Nurr1 transcriptional activity in an artificial promoter driven by Nurr1 response elements and in the native rat TH promoter. These results indicate that Nurr1 and NF-κB p65 factors are involved in the adaptive response of dopamine neurons to psychostimulants and that both transcription factors could be regulating Nurr1-dependent transactivation in the VTA.


Assuntos
Anfetamina/administração & dosagem , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Membro 2 do Grupo A da Subfamília 4 de Receptores Nucleares/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Área Tegmentar Ventral/efeitos dos fármacos , Área Tegmentar Ventral/metabolismo , Animais , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Membro 2 do Grupo A da Subfamília 4 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Células PC12 , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fatores de Tempo , Fator de Transcrição RelA/genética , Transfecção , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo
19.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 33(supl.1): 11-19, oct. 2016. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-844431

RESUMO

The present document describes the Cohort of HIV/AIDS children detected in Chile from 1987 to August 2014 and the effectiveness of the Protocol for Prevention of Vertical Transmission (PPVT) of HIV infection. Of the 375 HIV infected children enrolled since 1987 to August 2014, 245 of them are still in pediatric control. From the analysis of the Cohort is inferred that: a) it has observed an improvement in the detection of the HIV infected child, in number and precocious time; b) the majority of these children continue to be detected by clinic symptoms and signs (mainly unspecific and infectious manifestations); c) the ARVT use has meant a clinic and immunologic improvement with diminution of the infections, principally opportunistic infections, with a better life quality, a prolongation of survival and a diminution of lethality; d) as more survival has been produced, cancer has begun to be detected, a very infrequent complication observed in them before the ARVT use. The PPVT started in 1995, and was reinforced in 2005 with the "Joint Norm of HIV and Syphilis Vertical Transmission Prevention" (MINSAL), both have meant a diminution of the HIV vertical transmission from > 35% (before 1995) to < 2% nowadays in the mother-child binomial; also have permitted a second generation of HIV exposed children born without infection. In spite this PPVT, still HIV infected child continue to be detected which imply failures in some points of the health system.


Se presentan datos de la cohorte de niños con infección por VIH/SIDA detectados en Chile desde el año 1987 a agosto de 2014 y datos de la transmisión vertical (TV) del VIH con uso de protocolos de prevención de TV (PPTV). De los 375 niños infectados con VIH en este período, siguen en control pediátrico 245. Del análisis de la cohorte se desprende que: a) ha habido una mejoría en la pesquisa de los niños infectados con VIH, tanto en número como en precocidad; b) estos niños siguen detectándose, en su mayoría, por hechos clínicos (manifestaciones inespecíficas e infecciosas principalmente); c) el uso de TARV ha significado una mejoría clínica e inmunológica con disminución de las infecciones, principalmente las oportunistas, con una mejor calidad de vida, prolongación de la sobrevida, y disminución de la letalidad; d) por su mayor sobrevida, se ha observado el desarrollo de cánceres, muy infrecuentes en ellos antes del uso de terapia anti-retroviral. La aplicación de Protocolos de Prevención de la TV desde 1995, reforzada el 2005 con la “Norma Conjunta de la Prevención de la Transmisión Vertical del VIH y Sífilis” (MINSAL), ha significado una disminución de la TV del VIH desde más de 35% (antes de 1995) a < 2% actualmente en los binomios en prevención; además ha permitido que una segunda generación de niños expuestos al VIH nazca no infectada. A pesar de estos PPTV, aún siguen naciendo niños infectados con VIH, lo que implica fallas en algunos puntos del sistema de salud.

20.
Br J Nutr ; 116(4): 611-20, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27464460

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of trans-fatty acids (TFA) on liver and serum TAG regulation in mice fed diets containing different proportions of n-3, n-6 and n-9 unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) from olive (O), maize (C) or rapeseed (R) oils partially substituted or not with TFA (Ot, Ct and Rt, respectively). Male CF1 mice were fed (30 d) one of these diets. The effects of the partial substitution (1 %, w/w) of different UFA with TFA on the activity and expression of hepatic enzymes involved in lipogenesis and fatty acids oxidation were evaluated, as well as their transcription factor expressions. Some of the mechanisms involved in the serum TAG regulation, hepatic VLDL rich in TAG (VLDL-TAG) secretion rate and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity were assessed. In liver, TFA induced an increase in TAG content in the Ot and Rt groups, and this effect was associated with an imbalance between lipogenesis and ß-oxidation. In the Ot group, exacerbated lipogenesis may be one of the mechanisms responsible for the liver steatosis induced by TFA, whereas in Rt it has been related to a decreased ß-oxidation, compared with their respective controls. The enhanced hepatic VLDL-TAG secretion in the Ot and Rt groups was compensated with a differential removal of TAG by LPL enzyme in extrahepatic tissues, leading to unchanged serum TAG levels. In brief, the effects of low levels of TFA on liver and serum TAG regulation in mice depend on the dietary proportions of n-3, n-6 and n-9 UFA.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Trans/farmacologia , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Óleo de Milho/química , Óleo de Milho/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Leucotrienos/metabolismo , Lipogênese , Lipase Lipoproteica/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas VLDL/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Azeite de Oliva/química , Azeite de Oliva/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleo de Brassica napus , Triglicerídeos/biossíntese
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