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1.
Bernoche, Claudia; Timerman, Sergio; Polastri, Thatiane Facholi; Giannetti, Natali Schiavo; Siqueira, Adailson Wagner da Silva; Piscopo, Agnaldo; Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Reis, Amélia Gorete Afonso da Costa; Tanaka, Ana Cristina Sayuri; Thomaz, Ana Maria; Quilici, Ana Paula; Catarino, Andrei Hilário; Ribeiro, Anna Christina de Lima; Barreto, Antonio Carlos Pereira; Azevedo, Antonio Fernando Barros de Filho; Pazin, Antonio Filho; Timerman, Ari; Scarpa, Bruna Romanelli; Timerman, Bruno; Tavares, Caio de Assis Moura; Martins, Cantidio Soares Lemos; Serrano, Carlos Vicente Junior; Malaque, Ceila Maria Sant'Ana; Pisani, Cristiano Faria; Batista, Daniel Valente; Leandro, Daniela Luana Fernandes; Szpilman, David; Gonçalves, Diego Manoel; Paiva, Edison Ferreira de; Osawa, Eduardo Atsushi; Lima, Eduardo Gomes; Adam, Eduardo Leal; Peixoto, Elaine; Evaristo, Eli Faria; Azeka, Estela; Silva, Fabio Bruno da; Wen, Fan Hui; Ferreira, Fatima Gil; Lima, Felipe Gallego; Fernandes, Felipe Lourenço; Ganem, Fernando; Galas, Filomena Regina Barbosa Gomes; Tarasoutchi, Flavio; Souza, Germano Emilio Conceição; Feitosa, Gilson Soares Filho; Foronda, Gustavo; Guimarães, Helio Penna; Abud, Isabela Cristina Kirnew; Leite, Ivanhoé Stuart Lima; Linhares, Jaime Paula Pessoa Filho; Moraes, Junior João Batista de Moura Xavier; Falcão, João Luiz Alencar de Araripe; Ramires, Jose Antônio Franchini; Cavalini, José Fernando; Saraiva, José Francisco Kerr; Abrão, Karen Cristine; Pinto, Lecio Figueira; Bianchi, Leonardo Luís Torres; Lopes, Leonardo Nícolau Geisler Daud; Piegas, Leopoldo Soares; Kopel, Liliane; Godoy, Lucas Colombo; Tobase, Lucia; Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahão; Dallan, Luís Augusto Palma; Caneo, Luiz Fernando; Cardoso, Luiz Francisco; Canesin, Manoel Fernandes; Park, Marcelo; Rabelo, Marcia Maria Noya; Malachias, Marcus Vinícius Bolívar; Gonçalves, Maria Aparecida Batistão; Almeida, Maria Fernanda Branco de; Souza, Maria Francilene Silva; Favarato, Maria Helena Sampaio; Carrion, Maria Julia Machline; Gonzalez, Maria Margarita; Bortolotto, Maria Rita de Figueiredo Lemos; Macatrão-Costa, Milena Frota; Shimoda, Mônica Satsuki; Oliveira-Junior, Mucio Tavares de; Ikari, Nana Miura; Dutra, Oscar Pereira; Berwanger, Otávio; Pinheiro, Patricia Ana Paiva Corrêa; Reis, Patrícia Feitosa Frota dos; Cellia, Pedro Henrique Moraes; Santos Filho, Raul Dias dos; Gianotto-Oliveira, Renan; Kalil Filho, Roberto; Guinsburg, Ruth; Managini, Sandrigo; Lage, Silvia Helena Gelas; Yeu, So Pei; Franchi, Sonia Meiken; Shimoda-Sakano, Tania; Accorsi, Tarso Duenhas; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci; Guimarães, Vanessa; Sallai, Vanessa Santos; Ávila, Walkiria Samuel; Sako, Yara Kimiko.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(3): 449-663, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1038561
2.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(2): 176-182, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-777414

RESUMO

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Great changes in medicine have taken place over the last 25 years worldwide. These changes in technologies, patient risks, patient profile, and laws regulating the medicine have impacted the incidence of cardiac arrest. It has been postulated that the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest has decreased over the years, especially in developed countries. The authors hypothesized that, as in the rest of the world, the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest is decreasing in Brazil, a developing country. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to search the literature to evaluate the publications that relate the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest in Brazil and analyze the trend in the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest. CONTENTS: There were 4 articles that met our inclusion criteria, resulting in 204,072 patients undergoing regional or general anesthesia in two tertiary and academic hospitals, totalizing 627 cases of intraoperative cardiac arrest. The mean intraoperative cardiac arrest incidence for the 25 years period was 30.72:10,000 anesthesias. There was a decrease from 39:10,000 anesthesias to 13:10,000 anesthesias in the analyzed period, with the related lethality from 48.3% to 30.8%. Also, the main causes of anesthesia-related cause of mortality changed from machine malfunction and drug overdose to hypovolemia and respiratory causes. CONCLUSIONS: There was a clear reduction in the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest in the last 25 years in Brazil. This reduction is seen worldwide and might be a result of multiple factors, including new laws regulating the medicine in Brazil, incorporation of technologies, better human development level of the country, and better patient care.


RESUMO JUSTIFICATIVA: Nos últimos 25 anos ocorreram grandes mudanças na medicina em todo o mundo. Essas mudanças de tecnologias, riscos do paciente, perfil do paciente e leis que regulam medicamentos tiveram impacto na incidência de parada cardíaca (PC). Postula-se que a incidência de parada cardíaca intraoperatória (PCI) tem diminuído ao longo dos anos, especialmente em países desenvolvidos. A nossa hipótese foi que, como no resto do mundo, a incidência de PCI está diminuindo no Brasil, um país em desenvolvimento. OBJETIVOS: O objetivo deste estudo foi pesquisar e avaliar na literatura as publicações que relacionam a incidência de PCI no Brasil e analisar a tendência na incidência de PCI. CONTEÚDO: Descobrimos quatro artigos que atenderam aos critérios de inclusão, que resultaram em 204.072 pacientes submetidos à anestesia regional ou geral em dois hospitais terciários e acadêmicos e 627 casos de PCI. A média de incidência de PCI para o período de 25 anos foi de 30,72:10.000 anestesias. Houve uma diminuição de 39:10.000 anestesias para 13:10.000 anestesias no período analisado, com letalidade relacionada de 48,3% para 30,8%. Além disso, as principais causas de mortalidade relacionadas à anestesia mudaram de mau funcionamento de máquinas e overdose de medicamentos para hipovolemia e causas respiratórias. CONCLUSÕES: Houve uma clara redução na incidência de PCI nos últimos 25 anos no Brasil. Essa redução é observada em todo o mundo e pode ser o resultado de vários fatores, incluindo novas leis que regulam medicamentos no Brasil, incorporação de tecnologias, melhor nível de desenvolvimento humano do país e melhor assistência ao paciente.

3.
Braz J Anesthesiol ; 66(2): 176-82, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26952227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Great changes in medicine have taken place over the last 25 years worldwide. These changes in technologies, patient risks, patient profile, and laws regulating the medicine have impacted the incidence of cardiac arrest. It has been postulated that the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest has decreased over the years, especially in developed countries. The authors hypothesized that, as in the rest of the world, the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest is decreasing in Brazil, a developing country. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to search the literature to evaluate the publications that relate the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest in Brazil and analyze the trend in the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest. CONTENTS: There were 4 articles that met our inclusion criteria, resulting in 204,072 patients undergoing regional or general anesthesia in two tertiary and academic hospitals, totalizing 627 cases of intraoperative cardiac arrest. The mean intraoperative cardiac arrest incidence for the 25 years period was 30.72:10,000 anesthesias. There was a decrease from 39:10,000 anesthesias to 13:10,000 anesthesias in the analyzed period, with the related lethality from 48.3% to 30.8%. Also, the main causes of anesthesia-related cause of mortality changed from machine malfunction and drug overdose to hypovolemia and respiratory causes. CONCLUSIONS: There was a clear reduction in the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest in the last 25 years in Brazil. This reduction is seen worldwide and might be a result of multiple factors, including new laws regulating the medicine in Brazil, incorporation of technologies, better human development level of the country, and better patient care.


Assuntos
Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Parada Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/epidemiologia , Anestesia/métodos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Centros de Atenção Terciária
4.
Rev Bras Anestesiol ; 66(2): 176-82, 2016.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26847537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Great changes in medicine have taken place over the last 25 years worldwide. These changes in technologies, patient risks, patient profile, and laws regulating the medicine have impacted the incidence of cardiac arrest. It has been postulated that the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest has decreased over the years, especially in developed countries. The authors hypothesized that, as in the rest of the world, the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest is decreasing in Brazil, a developing country. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to search the literature to evaluate the publications that relate the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest in Brazil and analyze the trend in the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest. CONTENTS: There were 4 articles that met our inclusion criteria, resulting in 204,072 patients undergoing regional or general anesthesia in two tertiary and academic hospitals, totalizing 627 cases of intraoperative cardiac arrest. The mean intraoperative cardiac arrest incidence for the 25 years period was 30.72:10,000 anesthesias. There was a decrease from 39:10,000 anesthesias to 13:10,000 anesthesias in the analyzed period, with the related lethality from 48.3% to 30.8%. Also, the main causes of anesthesia-related cause of mortality changed from machine malfunction and drug overdose to hypovolemia and respiratory causes. CONCLUSIONS: There was a clear reduction in the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest in the last 25 years in Brazil. This reduction is seen worldwide and might be a result of multiple factors, including new laws regulating the medicine in Brazil, incorporation of technologies, better human development level of the country, and better patient care.

5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 4(10): e002185, 2015 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26452987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Targeted automated external defibrillator (AED) programs have improved survival rates among patients who have an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in US airports, as well as European and Japanese railways. The Sao Paulo (Brazil) Metro subway carries 4.5 million people per day. A targeted AED program was begun in the Sao Paulo Metro with the objective to improve survival from cardiac arrest. METHODS AND RESULTS: A prospective, longitudinal, observational study of all cardiac arrests in the Sao Paulo Metro was performed from September 2006 through November 2012. This study focused on cardiac arrest by ventricular arrhythmias, and the primary endpoint was survival to hospital discharge with minimal neurological impairment. A total of 62 patients had an initial cardiac rhythm of ventricular fibrillation. Because no data on cardiac arrest treatment or outcomes existed before beginning this project, the first 16 months of the implementation was used as the initial experience and compared with the subsequent 5 years of full operation. Return of spontaneous circulation was not different between the initial 16 months and the subsequent 5 years (6 of 8 [75%] vs. 39 of 54 [72%]; P=0.88). However, survival to discharge was significantly different once the full program was instituted (0 of 8 vs. 23 of 54 [43%]; P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a targeted AED program in the Sao Paulo Metro subway system saved lives. A short interval between arrest and defibrillation was key for good long-term, neurologically intact survival. These results support strategic expansion of targeted AED programs in other large Latin American cities.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/instrumentação , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Desfibriladores , Cardioversão Elétrica/instrumentação , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Ferrovias , Serviços Urbanos de Saúde , Fibrilação Ventricular/terapia , Idoso , Brasil , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/mortalidade , Cardioversão Elétrica/efeitos adversos , Cardioversão Elétrica/mortalidade , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/fisiopatologia , Admissão do Paciente , Alta do Paciente , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo para o Tratamento , Transporte de Pacientes , Resultado do Tratamento , Fibrilação Ventricular/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Ventricular/mortalidade , Fibrilação Ventricular/fisiopatologia
6.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol ; 42(10): 1098-107, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26173999

RESUMO

The use of high doses of adrenaline is common in critical patients, especially during cardiac arrest. During these situations, myocardial dysfunction can be a result of multiple factors, including adrenaline use. In addition, opioids have been shown to have anti-arrhythmic and anti-ischemic mechanisms that may confer cardiac protection. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of fentanyl on myocardial function in pigs exposed to high-dose adrenaline. After institutional ethics committee approval, 26 pigs were randomly allocated to receive either 20 µg/kg fentanyl (n = 10; fentanyl group) administered 5 min before five doses of adrenaline (20 µg/kg), equivalent-volume saline (n = 10; saline group) using the same adrenaline dosing protocol, or neither fentanyl nor adrenaline (n = 6; sham group). The fentanyl group showed lower levels of troponin at the end of the sixth hour compared with the saline group (1.91 ± 1.47 vs 5.44 ± 5.35 ng/mL, P = 0.019). Transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry also showed less myocardial injury in the fentanyl group. The conclusion was reached that fentanyl attenuates myocardial injury caused by high-dose adrenaline without blunting the hemodynamic effect of adrenaline.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Epinefrina/efeitos adversos , Fentanila/farmacologia , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Coração/fisiologia , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Suínos , Fatores de Tempo , Troponina/metabolismo
7.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 70(3): 190-5, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26017650

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to assess cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality and rescuer fatigue when rescuers perform one or two minutes of continuous chest compressions. METHODS: This prospective crossover study included 148 lay rescuers who were continuously trained in a cardiopulmonary resuscitation course. The subjects underwent a 120-min training program comprising continuous chest compressions. After the course, half of the volunteers performed one minute of continuous chest compressions, and the others performed two minutes, both on a manikin model. After 30 minutes, the volunteers who had previously performed one minute now performed two minutes on the same manikin and vice versa. RESULTS: A comparison of continuous chest compressions performed for one and two minutes, respectively, showed that there were significant differences in the average rate of compressions per minute (121 vs. 124), the percentage of compressions of appropriate depth (76% vs. 54%), the average depth (53 vs. 47 mm), and the number of compressions with no errors (62 vs. 47%). No parameters were significantly different when comparing participants who performed regular physical activity with those who did not and participants who had a normal body mass index with overweight/obese participants. CONCLUSION: The quality of continuous chest compressions by lay rescuers is superior when it is performed for one minute rather than for two minutes, independent of the body mass index or regular physical activity, even if they are continuously trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. It is beneficial to rotate rescuers every minute when performing continuous chest compressions to provide higher quality and to achieve greater success in assisting a victim of cardiac arrest.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/educação , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/normas , Socorristas/educação , Massagem Cardíaca/normas , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Competência Clínica/normas , Estudos Cross-Over , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/normas , Exercício , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Manequins , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Clinics ; 70(3): 190-195, 03/2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-747110

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to assess cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality and rescuer fatigue when rescuers perform one or two minutes of continuous chest compressions. METHODS: This prospective crossover study included 148 lay rescuers who were continuously trained in a cardiopulmonary resuscitation course. The subjects underwent a 120-min training program comprising continuous chest compressions. After the course, half of the volunteers performed one minute of continuous chest compressions, and the others performed two minutes, both on a manikin model. After 30 minutes, the volunteers who had previously performed one minute now performed two minutes on the same manikin and vice versa. RESULTS: A comparison of continuous chest compressions performed for one and two minutes, respectively, showed that there were significant differences in the average rate of compressions per minute (121 vs. 124), the percentage of compressions of appropriate depth (76% vs. 54%), the average depth (53 vs. 47 mm), and the number of compressions with no errors (62 vs. 47%). No parameters were significantly different when comparing participants who performed regular physical activity with those who did not and participants who had a normal body mass index with overweight/obese participants. CONCLUSION: The quality of continuous chest compressions by lay rescuers is superior when it is performed for one minute rather than for two minutes, independent of the body mass index or regular physical activity, even if they are continuously trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. It is beneficial to rotate rescuers every minute when performing continuous chest compressions to provide higher quality and to achieve greater success in assisting a victim of cardiac arrest. .


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/virologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/sangue , Helicobacter pylori/imunologia
12.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 131(5): 309-14, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24310799

RESUMO

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Although advances in surgical and anesthetic techniques have reduced perioperative morbidity-mortality, the survival rate following cardiac arrest remains low. The aim of this study was to evaluate, over the course of one year, the prevalence of intraoperative cardiac arrest and the 30-day survival rate after this event in a tertiary teaching hospital. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study in a tertiary teaching hospital. METHODS: Following approval by the institutional ethics committee, anesthetic procedures and cases of intraoperative cardiac arrest between January and December 2007 were evaluated. Patients undergoing cardiac surgery were excluded. The data were gathered prospectively using the modified Utstein model, with evaluation of demographic data, pre-arrest conditions, intraoperative care, care during arrest and postoperative outcome up to the 30th day. The data were recorded by the attending anesthesiologist. RESULTS: During the study period, 40,379 anesthetic procedures were performed, and 52 cases of intraoperative cardiac arrest occurred (frequency of 13:10,000). Among these, 69% presented spontaneous return of circulation after the initial arrest, and only 25% survived for 30 days after the event. The following factors were associated with shorter survival: American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status IV and V, emergency surgery, hemorrhagic events, hypovolemia as the cause of arrest and use of atropine during resuscitation. CONCLUSIONS: Although the frequency of cardiac arrest in the surgical environment has declined and resources to attend to this exist, the survival rate is low. Factors associated with worst prognosis are more frequent in critical patients.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Complicações Intraoperatórias/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 23(3): 55-60, jul.-set.2013.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-754417

RESUMO

A educação continuada constitui um critério de avaliaçãode qualidade do ensino das instituições, sendo uma das ferramentasmais importantes na capacitação dos profissionaisda saúde, na atualização profissional e no aprimoramentoda equipe multidisciplinar. A simulação diminui a distânciaexistente entre o que se ensina na teoria e sua aplicabilidadena prática profissional. O treinamento com cenários é dividido,didaticamente, em três momentos: elaboração, execuçãoe debriefing. O debriefing é o momento utilizado para análisee reflexão do que foi vivido durante a simulação, para que sedescubra o que foi aprendido e sua aplicabilidade a partir deexperiências vividas em situações reais. A simulação clínicatambém permite que os profissionais estejam mais aptos a anteversituações clínicas adversas, possam cometer erros e, atémesmo, tirar suas dúvidas antes de lidar com situações reais,sempre em ambientes controlados e sob constante supervisão...


Continuing education is a major criterion for the evaluationof the quality of teaching institutions, so it is one of the mostimportant tools in the training of health professionals in professionalupdating and improving the multidisciplinary team.Simulation decreases the gap between what is taught in theoryand its applicability in practice. The training scenario is divideddidactically in three stages: preparation, execution anddebriefing. The debriefing is the time required for analysis andreflection of what was experienced during the simulation, sothat they disco ver what they have leamed and their applicabilityfrom experiences in real situations. Simulation also allowsclinical professionals to be more able to predict adverse clinicalsituations, so that they can make mistakes or even get therequestions solved before dealing with real situations, alwaysin controlled environments and under constant supervision...


Assuntos
Humanos , Capacitação em Serviço/ética , Capacitação/ética , Educação Médica Continuada/métodos , Simulação de Doença/diagnóstico
14.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 100(2): 105-13, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23503818

RESUMO

Despite advances related to the prevention and treatment in the past few years, many lives are lost to cardiac arrest and cardiovascular events in general in Brazil every year. Basic Life Support involves cardiovascular emergency treatment mainly in the pre-hospital environment, with emphasis on the early recognition and delivery of cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers focused on high-quality thoracic compressions and rapid defibrillation by means of the implementation of public access-to-defibrillation programs. These aspects are of the utmost importance and may make the difference on the patient's outcomes, such as on hospital survival with no permanent neurological damage. Early initiation of the Advanced Cardiology Life Support also plays an essential role by keeping the quality of thoracic compressions; adequate airway management; specific treatment for the different arrest rhythms; defibrillation; and assessment and treatment of the possible causes during all the assistance. More recently, emphasis has been given to post-resuscitation care, with the purpose of reducing mortality by means of early recognition and treatment of the post-cardiac arrest syndrome. Therapeutic hypothermia has provided significant improvement of neurological damage and should be performed in comatose individuals post-cardiac arrest. For physicians working in the emergency department or intensive care unit, it is extremely important to improve the treatment given to these patients by means of specific training, thus giving them the chance of higher success and of better survival rates.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Adulto , Brasil , Desfibriladores , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Humanos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Taquicardia Ventricular/terapia , Fibrilação Ventricular/terapia
15.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 100(2): 105-113, fev. 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-667950

RESUMO

Apesar de avanços nos últimos anos relacionados à prevenção e a tratamento, muitas são as vidas perdidas anualmente no Brasil relacionado à parada cardíaca e a eventos cardiovasculares em geral. O Suporte Básico de Vida envolve o atendimento às emergências cardiovasculares principalmente em ambiente pré-hospitalar, enfatizando reconhecimento e realização precoces das manobras de ressuscitação cardiopulmonar com foco na realização de compressões torácicas de boa qualidade, assim como na rápida desfibrilação, por meio da implementação dos programas de acesso público à desfibrilação. Esses aspectos são de fundamental importância e podem fazer diferença no desfecho dos casos como sobrevida hospitalar sem sequelas neurológicas. O início precoce do Suporte Avançado de Vida em Cardiologia também possui papel essencial, mantendo, durante todo o atendimento, a qualidade das compressões torácicas, adequado manejo da via aérea, tratamento específico dos diferentes ritmos de parada, desfibrilação, avaliação e tratamento das possíveis causas. Mais recentemente dá-se ênfase a cuidados pós-ressuscitação, visando reduzir a mortalidade por meio do reconhecimento precoce e tratamento da síndrome pós-parada cardíaca. A hipotermia terapêutica tem demonstrado melhora significativa da lesão neurológica e deve ser realizada em indivíduos comatosos pós-parada cardíaca. Para os médicos que trabalham na emergência ou unidade de terapia intensiva é de grande importância o aperfeiçoamento no tratamento desses pacientes por meio de treinamentos específicos, possibilitando maiores chances de sucesso e maior sobrevida.


Despite advances related to the prevention and treatment in the past few years, many lives are lost to cardiac arrest and cardiovascular events in general in Brazil every year. Basic Life Support involves cardiovascular emergency treatment mainly in the pre-hospital environment, with emphasis on the early recognition and delivery of cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers focused on high-quality thoracic compressions and rapid defibrillation by means of the implementation of public access-to-defibrillation programs. These aspects are of the utmost importance and may make the difference on the patient's outcomes, such as on hospital survival with no permanent neurological damage. Early initiation of the Advanced Cardiology Life Support also plays an essential role by keeping the quality of thoracic compressions; adequate airway management; specific treatment for the different arrest rhythms; defibrillation; and assessment and treatment of the possible causes during all the assistance. More recently, emphasis has been given to post-resuscitation care, with the purpose of reducing mortality by means of early recognition and treatment of the post-cardiac arrest syndrome. Therapeutic hypothermia has provided significant improvement of neurological damage and should be performed in comatose individuals post-cardiac arrest. For physicians working in the emergency department or intensive care unit, it is extremely important to improve the treatment given to these patients by means of specific training, thus giving them the chance of higher success and of better survival rates.


Assuntos
Adulto , Humanos , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Brasil , Desfibriladores , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Taquicardia Ventricular/terapia , Fibrilação Ventricular/terapia
16.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 131(5): 309-314, 2013. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-695335

RESUMO

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Although advances in surgical and anesthetic techniques have reduced perioperative morbidity-mortality, the survival rate following cardiac arrest remains low. The aim of this study was to evaluate, over the course of one year, the prevalence of intraoperative cardiac arrest and the 30-day survival rate after this event in a tertiary teaching hospital. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study in a tertiary teaching hospital. METHODS: Following approval by the institutional ethics committee, anesthetic procedures and cases of intraoperative cardiac arrest between January and December 2007 were evaluated. Patients undergoing cardiac surgery were excluded. The data were gathered prospectively using the modified Utstein model, with evaluation of demographic data, pre-arrest conditions, intraoperative care, care during arrest and postoperative outcome up to the 30th day. The data were recorded by the attending anesthesiologist. RESULTS: During the study period, 40,379 anesthetic procedures were performed, and 52 cases of intraoperative cardiac arrest occurred (frequency of 13:10,000). Among these, 69% presented spontaneous return of circulation after the initial arrest, and only 25% survived for 30 days after the event. The following factors were associated with shorter survival: American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status IV and V, emergency surgery, hemorrhagic events, hypovolemia as the cause of arrest and use of atropine during resuscitation. CONCLUSIONS: Although the frequency of cardiac arrest in the surgical environment has declined and resources to attend to this exist, the survival rate is low. Factors associated with worst prognosis are more frequent in critical patients. .


CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Apesar de avanços nas técnicas cirúrgicas e anestésicas terem reduzido a morbimortalidade perioperatória, a taxa de sobrevivência após parada cardíaca (PC) permanece baixa. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, ao longo de um ano, a incidência de PC intraoperatória e de sobrevida por 30 dias após esse evento em um hospital terciário de ensino. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo de coorte prospectivo em hospital terci ário de ensino. MÉTODOS: Após aprovação pela Comissão de Ética institucional, os procedimentos anestésicos e os casos de PC intraoperatórios foram avaliados no período de janeiro a dezembro de 2007, excluindo-se pacientes submetidos a cirurgia cardíaca. Os dados foram coletados prospectivamente utilizando o modelo Utstein modificado, com avaliação dos dados demográficos, das condições pré-PC, dos cuidados intraoperatórios e durante a PC e do desfecho pós-operatório até o trigésimo dia. Os dados foram registrados pelo anestesiologista assistente. RESULTADOS: Durante o per íodo de estudo, 40.379 procedimentos anestésicos foram realizados, com ocorrência de 52 casos de PC intraoperatória (frequência de 13:10000). Entre estes, 69% apresentaram retorno da circulação espontânea após a primeira parada e apenas 25% sobreviveram 30 dias após o evento. Os seguintes fatores foram associados com menor sobrevida: estado físico IV e V (Sociedade Americana de Anestesiologia), cirurgias de emergência, eventos hemorrágicos, hipovolemia como causa da parada e uso de atropina durante a reanimação. CONCLUSÕES: Embora a frequência de PC no ambiente cirúrgico tenha caído e existam recursos para seu atendimento, a taxa de sobrevivência é baixa. ...


Assuntos
Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Complicações Intraoperatórias/mortalidade , Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Brasil , Parada Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 10(3)maio-jun. 2012.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-621483

RESUMO

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Dispositivos como o metrônomo tem demonstrado aumentar a qualidade da reanimação cardiopulmonar (RCP). O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a frequência e a profundidade das compressões torácicas (CT) realizadas com e sem o auxílio do metrônomo.MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo com 44 estudantes de medicina do 1º ano que foram avaliados imediatamente após o curso "Heartsaver DEA". Foi utilizado metrônomo durante o curso,na frequência de 100 por minuto, a fim de auxiliar as CT. Os estudantes realizaram um minuto de CT utilizando o manequim AmbuMan Prolife, parte sem o auxílio do metrônomo (Grupo A) e a outra parte com o auxílio do dispositivo (Grupo B), que permaneceu na frequência de 100 por minuto. Cada avaliação foi filmada e a análise das compressões foi realizada por um instrutor que desconhecia cada grupo. RESULTADOS: A média de idade e a porcentagem do sexo masculino no Grupo A e no Grupo B foram de 20,7 ± 3,5 versus 22,5± 1,9 (p = 0,004) e 45,4% versus 54,6% (p = 0,763), respectivamente. Durante um minuto de compressões torácicas, para os Grupos A e B, a média da frequência foi de 110,3 ± 14,2 versus103,6 ± 9,6, respectivamente (p = 0,37) e a média da porcentagem de compressões com profundidade adequada foi de 39,6% ± 34,7 versus 87,4% ± 21,7, respectivamente (p < 0,001). CONCLUSÃO: O uso do metrônomo durante o treinamento foi efetivo, demonstrado pela frequência correta obtida em ambos os grupos. A profundidade das compressões foi melhor no grupo que utilizou o metrônomo, talvez pelo fato dos estudantes concentrarem maior atenção na profundidade das compressões já que o dispositivo auxiliava na sua frequência.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Devices such as metronome have demonstrated to increase the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The objective was evaluating the frequency and depth of chest compressions (CC) performed with and without the aid of the metronome.METHOD: This prospective study involving 44 medical students coursing the first year, were evaluated immediately after the "Heartsaver AED" course. During the training, a metronome was used to guide the compressions frequency (100 per minute). The students performed CC during one minute, both using AmbuMan Prolife manikins, a group without metronome (Group A) and another group with metronome (Group B) guidance with "tock" prompts for compressions, at rate of 100 per minute. Each session was filmed and analysis of the compressions was performed by an instructor without knowledge of each group. RESULTS: The average age and percentage of male gender of Group A and Group B was 20.7 ± 3.5 vs. 22.5 ± 1.9 (p = 0.004) and 45.4% vs. 54.6% (p = 0.763), respectively. During 1 min of CC, considering Group A and Group B, the average rate of compressions was 110.3 ± 14.2 vs. 103.6 ± 9.6, respectively (p= 0.37) and the average percentage of correct depth compression was 39.6% ± 34.7 vs. 87.4% ± 21.7, respectively (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Using the metronome during training was effective, demonstrated by the frequency of correct CC in both groups. The greatest depth of CC in the group with metronome may be related to less concern with the frequency due to the presence of the stimulus sound and greater focus on appropriate depth of compressions.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Parada Cardíaca , Massagem Cardíaca , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 10(2)mar.-abr. 2012.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-621466

RESUMO

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A reanimação cardiopulmonar (RCP) somente com compressões torácicas (CT) tem sido amplamente discutida nos últimos anos, principalmente quando realizadas por leigos que testemunham vítimas de parada cardiorrespiratória (PCR). O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a qualidade das CT realizadas por leigos antes e após curso "Familiares e Amigos: RCP a Qualquer Hora®". MÉTODO: Participaram do estudo 73 indivíduos que não tinham conhecimento prévio sobre RCP. O estudo foi dividido em três etapas. Na primeira, foi solicitado ao voluntário que realizasse dois minutos de CT, da maneira que julgasse correta, em um manequim que registra tal habilidade. A seguir, o voluntário realizou o curso proposto e, por último, o participante executou novamente dois minutos de CT, utilizando o mesmo manequim da primeira etapa. RESULTADOS: A média de idade dos participantes foi de 20,2 ± 2,9 anos, 26% do sexo masculino. Antes e após o curso, durante dois minutos de CT, os seguintes parâmetros revelaram diferença significativa: a média do número total de compressões (166 versus 198, p = 0,0001), a frequência (89 versus 99 compressões/minuto, p = 0,0055) e a porcentagem de posição correta das mãos (51% versus 87%, p < 0,0001). Já a porcentagem de CT com profundidade adequada foi de 20% antes e de 27% após o curso, não revelando diferença significativa, p = 0,0580. CONCLUSÃO: A qualidade das CT melhorou significativamente após treinamento de RCP. A profundidade das CT ainda é insuficiente mesmo após o treinamento o que enfatiza a necessidade de dispositivos que forneçam um feedback durante a realizaçãoda RCP.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hands-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has been widely studied and discusse din recent years, especially when performed by lay people who witnessed cardiopulmonary arrest. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of chest compressions (CCs) performed by lay people before and after the course "Family andFriends CPR Anytime®". METHOD: We evaluated 73 individuals who had no prior knowledge about CPR. The study was divided into three steps. At first, the volunteer was asked to conduct two minutes of CCs, as he/she deems proper, on a mannequin that records such skill. Then the volunteer made the course. Finally, the participant performed again two minutes of CCs using the same dummy first step. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 20.2 ± 2.9 years, 26% male. Before and after the course, two minutes of CCs, the following parameters have shown significant differences: the average total number of compressions (166 vs. 198, p = 0.0001),frequency (89 vs. 99 compressions/min, p = 0.0055) and percentage of correct position of the hands (51% vs. 87%, p < 0.0001).On the other hand, the percentage of CCs with adequate depth was 20% from 27% before and after the course, revealed no significant difference, p = 0.0580. CONCLUSION: The quality of CCs improved significantly after CPR training. However, the depth of CCs remained still insufficient even after training, which emphasizes the need of devices that can provide a quality feedback during CPR.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Massagem Cardíaca , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/educação , Estudantes , Capacitação
19.
J. health inform ; 4(1)jan.-mar. 2012. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-621712

RESUMO

Objetivo: Descrever o desenvolvimento e a implantação do sistema informatizado padronizado no Instituto do Coração do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo para o registro de atendimento da parada cardiorrespiratória (PCR). Método: O registro eletrônico de atendimento da PCR foi baseado no Protocolo de Utstein e desenvolvido pelo Serviço de Informática da instituição, tendo a participação de um grupo de especialistas. Utilizou-se o Sistema Integrado de Informações InCor (SI3), com acesso seguro baseado nos perfis de acesso e comunicação segura por meio do protocolo Security Socket Layer. Após o desenvolvimento, o registro eletrônico foi disponibilizado para todas as unidades da instituição por meio do SI3. Resultados: O módulo de registro de ressuscitação é constituído de uma tela de identificação do paciente e cinco telas que contemplam informações do Protocolo de Utstein. À partir da implantação do sistema, foi possível coletar dados sobre o atendimento da PCR, como o tempo despendido e número de profissionais envolvidos para o atendimento. Conclusão: O desenvolvimento do módulo de registro de ressuscitação é útil para facilitar a obtenção de registros completos e adequados. Contudo, faz-se necessário à realização de novos estudos, com o intuito de avaliar o sistema informatizado.


Objective: To describe the development and implantation of computerized system standardized in Heart Institute, Medical School, University of São Paulo to the records of attendance of heart arrest (HA).Method: The electronic record of attendance of HA was based on the Utstein protocol and developed by the Informatics Department of the institution, with the participation of a experts group. We used the InCor Integrated Information System (SI3), with secure access based on access profiles, and secure communication through the Security Socket Layer. After the development, the electronic record was available for all units of the institution through the SI3. Results: The resuscitation record module consists of a patient identification screen and five screens that include information of Utstein Protocol. With the system implantation, was possible to collect data about attendance of HA, as the time spent and number of professionals involved in this attendance. Conclusion: The development of resuscitation record module is useful to facilitate the obtaining of the adequate and complete records. However, it is necessary to conduct other studies that evaluating the computerized system.


Objetivo: Describir el desarrollo y la implantación del sistema informatizado estandarizado en el Instituto del Corazón del Hospital de las Clínicas de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Sao Paulo para el registro del tratamiento del paro cardiorrespiratorio (PRC). Método: El registro electrónico del tratamiento del PCR fue desarrollado por el Servicio de Informática de la institución, teniendo la participación de un grupo de especialistas. Fue utilizado el Sistema Integrado de Informações InCor (SI3), con acceso seguro y basado en los perfiles de acceso y comunicación segura por medio del protocolo Security Socket Layer. Después del desarrollo, el registro electrónico fue disponible para todas las unidades de la institución por medio del SI3. Resultados: El módulo del registro de la resucitación se compone de una pantalla para identificar el paciente y otras cinco pantallas, que incluyen las informaciones del protocolo Utstein. A partir de la implantación del sistema, fue posible recoger datos sobre el tratamiento del PCR, como el tiempo empleado y el número de profesionales implicados en el tratamiento. Conclusión: La creación del módulo de registro de la resucitación es útil para facilitar la obtención de los registros completos y adecuados. Sin embargo, es necesario realizar nuevos estudios, con el fin de evaluar el sistema computarizado.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Parada Cardíaca , Sistemas de Informação , Informática Médica
20.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 96(4): e77-80, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21552653

RESUMO

Cardiocerebral Resuscitation (CCR) is a new approach to the resuscitation of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The first major component of CCR is continuous chest compressions (also referred to as chest compression-only CPR or "hands-only CPR") advocated as part of CCR for all bystanders who witness a sudden collapse of presumed cardiac origin. The second component of CCR is a new ACLS treatment algorithm for Emergency Medical Services. This algorithm emphasizes uninterrupted chest compressions regardless of other ongoing assignments as part of the rescue effort. A third component has recently been added to CCR, namely aggressive post-resuscitation care. Cardiocerebral resuscitation has increased bystander participation and has improved survival rates in a number of communities. Now is the time for other communities to re-examine their own outcomes with cardiac arrest and consider joining those cities and communities that have doubled and even tripled their survival from OHCA.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Cardioversão Elétrica/métodos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/normas , Humanos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
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