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1.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980324

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the safety and effectiveness of the oral administration of a commercialised supplement containing R-alpha lipoic acid, taurine, vitamins C and E, lutein, zeaxanthin, zinc, copper and docosahexaenoic acid, in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), and in control subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective study of cases and controls was carried out, including 30 participants of both genders that were divided into: POAG Group (n=15) and a control group (CG; n=15), assigned to the oral intake of NuaDHA preparations Vision® (1 pill/day)+NuaDHA 1000 (2 pills/day) for 6 months. Participants were interviewed, ophthalmologically examined, and peripheral blood was taken for routine analysis and the determination of the pro-oxidant (malondialdehyde) and total antioxidant status. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 22.0 program. RESULTS: After 6 months of supplementation, there was a significant increase in the plasma total antioxidant status (1.073±0.090mM vs 1.276±0.107mM, P=.028), along with a parallel decrease in malondialdehyde (7.066±1.070µM vs 2.771±0.462µM, P=.005) in the POAG group. The malondialdehyde also decreased in the control group (6.17±1.336 vs. 2.51±0.391, P=.028). The Schirmer test improved (20-30%) and the subjective dry eye signs/symptoms noticeably decreased in the POAG group versus the CG. CONCLUSIONS: Formulations containing antioxidant vitamins, R-alpha lipoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, administered for 6 consecutive months, counteracted the oxidative stress by further stabilising the morphological/functional parameters of both the ocular surface and the glaucoma, without presenting with adverse effects or intolerances.

3.
An Sist Sanit Navar ; 42(3): 291-301, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Communication Skills Scale (CSS) is an instrument for evaluating communication skills in different health professionals; however, a differential analysis of their psychometric properties by professions and specific scales has not been performed. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the CSS and develop T-scores for the scale for nursing professionals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We developed an instrumental study to analyze the psychometric properties of the CSS, evaluating its items, reliability, evidence of validity and its internal structure. For this purpose, a battery of questionnaires was administered, which included the CSS, the General Self-efficacy Scale and the Specific Self-efficacy Scale for communication in difficult situations. RESULTS: The questionnaires were applied to 692 nurses. Discrimination indices >0,30 were obtained in all items. The confirmatory factor analysis of the two models (with four oblique factors and adding a second-order factor) revealed that all items had adequate factor loadings and the fit indices of both models were good. The internal consistency was 0,88 for the total scale and between 0,70 and 0,77 for the dimensions. A positive relationship between communication skills and general and specific self-efficacy was obtained. CONCLUSION: The CSS displayed appropriate psychometric properties (item analysis, internal structure, reliability and evidence of validity), relating the communication skills of nurses with their general and specific self-efficacy in communication in difficult situations.

4.
Environ Pollut ; 258: 113825, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874441

RESUMO

The establishment of a screening index would be a powerful tool to decide whether abandoned uranium mining areas should be rehabilitated or decommissioned. Thus, in this work we established a radiological index which uses the activity concentrations of different groups of gamma emitters from the natural radioactive series of 238U, 235U, and 232Th, as well as 40K and 137Cs. These activity concentrations were calculated by using the absorbed gamma radiation dose value of 175 nGy h-1 specified in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. We studied our index in an abandoned uranium mining area in Salamanca, Western Spain, and found that the most influential factors in this area were the presence of organic matter in the soil and the possible effect that plants and fungi may have on the retention of these aforementioned radionuclides. In addition, the results showed that contaminants are migrating in an easterly direction in line with the prevailing wind direction and we were able to identify areas in which the radiological risk is likely high. The mean effective dose rate was 2.51 ± 0.98 mSv y-1 which was equivalent to the levels obtained in previous works.

5.
Data Brief ; 27: 104713, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31737759

RESUMO

The aim of this research is to present inferential statistical data on the influence of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) perceptions on consumer advocacy behaviors, and to consider when and how that relationship occurs. Data was provided by 252 customers of a food company located in Spain. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the psychometric proprieties of the measurement scales and to test the proposed direct hypotheses; conditional process analysis was used to test the proposed mediation hypothesis. The data indicate that CSR practices positively influence consumer advocacy behaviors through consumer admiration - the higher the integrity, the stronger the effect. This article provides data related to "Corporate social responsibility and consumer advocacy behaviors: The importance of emotions and moral virtues" [1].

6.
Rev Clin Esp ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711604

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the satisfaction of relatives of deceased patients with the care received in a palliative care unit (PCU) and compare it with cases in which a team with specific psychological care were not involved. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An anonymous survey (n=202) was administered to the relatives (response rate, 42.1%), which evaluated 9 issues related to the process of dying and the overall assessment of the care. RESULTS: The overall satisfaction was high (mean score of 9.22); the score for the full team was 9.40, while that of the team without the psychologist was 8.40 (P=.005). The items that scored highest were "team availability", "information received" and "assistance for facing the disease", followed by "pain control", "peaceful death", "assistance for patient-family communication", "grief support" and "quality of life". CONCLUSIONS: Based on the relatives' assessment, the hospital PCU teams help increase the quality of care at the end of life.

7.
Phys Med ; 67: 9-19, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610302

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a treatment modality that uses an external neutron beam to selectively inactive boron10-loaded tumor cells. This work presents the development and innovative use of radiobiological probability models to adequately evaluate and compare the therapeutic potential and versatility of beams presenting different neutron energy spectra. M&M: Aforementioned characteristics, collectively refer to as the performance of a beam, were defined on the basis of radiobiological probability models for the first time in BNCT. A model of uncomplicated tumor control probability (UTCP) for HN cancer was introduced. This model considers a NTCP able to predict severe mucositis and a TCP for non-uniform doses derived herein. A systematic study comprising a simplified HN cancer model is presented as a practical application of the introduced radiobiological figures of merit (FOM) for assessing and comparing the performance of different clinical beams. Applications involving treated HN cancer patients were also analyzed. RESULTS: The maximum UTCP proved suitable and sensitive to assess the performance of a beam, revealing particularities of the studied sources that the physical FOMs do not highlight. The radiobiological FOMs evaluated in patients showed to be useful tools both for retrospective analysis of the BNCT treatments, and for prospective studies of beam optimization and feasibility. CONCLUSIONS: The presented developments and applications demonstrated that it is possible to assess and compare performances of completely different beams fairly and adequately by assessing the radiobiological FOM UTCP. Thus, this figure would be a practical and essential aid to guide treatment decisions.

8.
Actas dermo-sifiliogr. (Ed. impr.) ; 110(8): 626-636, oct. 2019. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185500

RESUMO

Tanto el diagnóstico como el seguimiento en la dermatología dependerán en gran medida de una evaluación visual. Cuando no se puede llegar al diagnóstico, se procede a realizar una biopsia cutánea, un procedimiento invasivo y que con frecuencia los resultados retrasan debido a la demora del transporte, así como al procesamiento de la muestra. Por otro lado, las biopsias pueden destruir las lesiones, lo que imposibilitará realizar un seguimiento clínico de la evolución de la lesión a estudio. La microscopia confocal de reflectancia in vivo (MCR) ofrece una alternativa diagnóstica a la biopsia cutánea. Esta técnica captura en tiempo real imágenes de alta resolución y se utilizará en la evaluación de diversas condiciones dermatológicas. La identificación de características específicas en la MCR podría ayudar a diferenciar dermatosis con una morfología clínica similar. La dermatitis alérgica de contacto (DAC) y la dermatitis irritativa de contacto (DIC) se diagnostican generalmente gracias a pruebas epicutáneas; estas, a su vez, se basarán en un sistema de valoración subjetiva. El uso de la MCR tanto en la detección temprana, como en la clasificación de la intensidad de la DC, ha sido estudiado en múltiples estudios. Existirán algunas características comunes en la MCR de la DAC como de la DIC. Entre estas podemos señalar la disrupción del estrato córneo, la formación de vesículas, la exocitosis, la espongiosis y la paraqueratosis. Las características específicas para la DAC serán la presencia de vasodilatación, el aumento del grosor epidérmico, edema intercelular y acantosis. Las características específicas de la DIC son la presencia de los corneocitos disgregados y queratinocitos en diana. Esta revisión resume la utilidad de la MCR en las condiciones eccematosas de contacto cutáneas y busca incentivar futuras investigaciones, así como incrementar el interés clínico en esta prometedora técnica


Dermatologic diagnosis and monitoring have been dependent largely on visual grading. A skin biopsy is performed in case of diagnostic uncertainty, but can be traumatic, and results are delayed due to time for specimen transport and processing. Biopsies also destroy specimens, prohibiting lesion evolution monitoring. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) offers a diagnostic alternative to skin biopsy. RCM captures real-time, high-resolution images, and has been piloted for the evaluation of various dermatologic conditions. Identification of unique RCM features may distinguish dermatoses with similar clinical morphologies. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) are diagnosed by patch testing that currently uses a subjective scoring system. RCM has increasingly been studied for early detection and severity grading of CD. Common RCM features shared by ACD and ICD are stratum corneum disruption, vesicle formation, exocytosis, spongiosis, and parakeratosis. Features unique to ACD are vasodilation, increased epidermal thickness, intercellular edema, and acanthosis. Features unique to ICD are detached corneocytes and targetoid keratinocytes. This review summarizes the use of RCM in evaluating contact eccematous conditions and aims to spark future research and interest in this promising tool


Assuntos
Humanos , Microscopia Confocal/instrumentação , Dermatopatias Eczematosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Dermatite de Contato/diagnóstico por imagem , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Eczema/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico Precoce
9.
Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim ; 66(8): 409-416, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488244

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Thoracic erector spinae plane (ESP) block is now used for postoperative analgesia. However, although reports of lumbar ESP have been published, the anesthetic spread and mechanism of action of this technique remains unclear. We describe the lumbar ESP block technique and evaluate the spread of 20ml of solution administered at the level of the transverse process of L4 in a cadaver model. METHODS: Observational study after 12 lumbar ESP blocks at L4 on a fresh cadaver model (6 bilaterally). The spread of 20ml of injected contrast solution was assessed by computed tomography in all 6 samples. Four of the samples were evaluated by anatomical study, 2 by plane dissection, and 2 others were frozen and cut into 2-2.5cm axial slices. RESULTS: The injected solution spread from L2 to L5 in a cranio-caudal direction in the erector spinae muscle, reaching the facet joints medially and the thoracolumbar fascia laterally. In 33% of cases the solution did not spread anterior to the transverse process; in 51%, spread was minimal and did not affect the corresponding spinal nerves, and in 2 samples (16%), spread was extensive and reached the corresponding spinal nerves. CONCLUSIONS: Lumbar ESP at L4 always acts on the posterior branches of the spinal nerves, but seldom spreads to the paravertebral space to block the spinal nerve.

10.
Acta Ortop Mex ; 33(1): 24-27, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480122

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the outcome of arthroscopic release in three patients with chronical lateral epicondylitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Arthroscopic release in three patients with lateral epicondylitis is performed. Mayo Clinic scale for evaluation of results is used. A review and discussion of the literature is made. RESULTS: Three patients, two female and one male, the common activities was principal labors, not athletes. Patients had significant pain. It was the principal symptom that affect the score of the rating scale. These scores improved after surgery. It was achieved early return to normal daily activities. No neurological complications were reported. DISCUSSION: Arthroscopic treatment was an alternative safe and effective for treating chronical lateral epicondilitis in this three cases. It allows simultaneous joint exploration for diagnostic purposes and to treat associated pathologies. Broader Series and studies are necessary in order to establish definitive protocols in our cases.


Assuntos
Artroscopia , Cotovelo de Tenista , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Dor/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cotovelo de Tenista/complicações , Cotovelo de Tenista/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Clin Transl Oncol ; 21(12): 1746-1753, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385227

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An increase in the number of cancer cases is expected in the near future. Breast cancer (BC) mortality rates increase with age even when adjusted for other variables. Here we analyzed BC disease-free survival (BCDFS) and BC specific survival (BCSS) in the El Alamo III BC registry of GEICAM Spanish Breast Cancer Group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: El Alamo III is a retrospective registry of BC patients diagnosed between 1998 and 2001. Patients with stage I-III invasive BC of age groups 55-64 years (y), 70-74 years and ≥ 75 years were included. Patients and tumors characteristics, treatments and recurrences and deaths were analyzed. RESULTS: 4343 patients were included within the following age intervals: 2288 (55-64 years), 960 (70-74 years), and 1095 (≥ 75 years). Older patients (≥ 70 years) were diagnosed with more advanced tumors (stage III) than younger patients (21.5% versus 13.4%, p < 0.0001). Mastectomies were performed more on older patients and they received less chemotherapy than younger patients (66.6% versus 43.1%, p < 0.00001 and 30.8% versus 71.6%, p < 0.0001, respectively). With a median follow-up of 5.9 years, 17.7% patients had BCDFS events in the younger group and 19.8% in the older group (p < 0.0001). A decrease in BCSS was also observed in older patients, either when analyzing patients ≥ 70y (p < 0.0001) and when differentiating by the two older groups (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that older BC patients have worse outcomes what can be a consequence of receiving inadequate adjuvant treatments. Specific trials for these patients are warranted to allow us to treat them with the same scientific rigor than younger patients.

13.
Clin Transl Oncol ; 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264148

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of boost radiotherapy on ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) after breast-conserving surgery and whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT) with or without boost. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Retrospective, multicentre study of 622 patients (624 tumors) diagnosed with pure DCIS from 1993-2011. RESULTS: Most tumors (377/624; 60.4%) received a boost. At a median follow-up of 8.8 years, IBTR occurred in 64 cases (10.3%). A higher percentage of patients with risk factors for IBTR received a boost (p < 0.05). Boost was not associated with lower rates of IBTR than WBRT alone (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.42-1.35). On the univariate analyses, IBTR was significantly associated with tumor size (11-20 mm, HR 2.32, 95% CI 1.27-4.24; and > 20 mm, HR 2.10, 95% CI 1.14-3.88), re-excision (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.04-2.96), and tamoxifen (HR 2.03, 95% CI 1.12-3.70). Boost dose > 16 Gy had a protective effect (HR 0.39, 95% CI 0.187-0.824). Multivariate analyses confirmed the independent associations between IBTR and 11-20 mm (p = 0.02) and > 20 mm (p = 0.009) tumours, and re-excision (p = 0.006). On the margin-stratified multivariate analysis, tamoxifen was a poor prognostic factor in the close/positive margin subgroup (HR 4.28 95% CI 1.23-14.88), while the highest boost dose ( > 16 Gy) had a significant positive effect (HR 0.34, 95% CI 0.13-0.86) in the negative margin subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: Radiotherapy boost did not improve the risk of IBTR. Boost radiotherapy was more common in patients with high-risk disease. Tumor size and re-excision were significant independent prognostic factors.

14.
Clin Transl Oncol ; 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359339

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: CD47 over expression has been reported in several tumor subtypes. CD47 interacts with SIRPalpha on macrophages inhibiting phagocytic signal, providing a survival advantage to tumor. CD47, therefore, represents a valuable target for immunotherapy and is currently under clinical investigation. We aimed to study CD47 expression in Hodgkin Reed Sternberg cells (HRS). METHODS: We tested a polyclonal CD47 antibody (LifeSpan Biosciences, Seattle, WA) expression along with classical HRS cell markers on a tissue array of 16 classical Hodgkin Lymphoma (CHL) tumor biopsies obtained from newly diagnosed, non-selected patients (8 Female, 8 Male patients) in our institution from October 2016 to January 2018. Histologic subtypes were nodular sclerosis in 11 cases, mixed Cellularity in 3 cases and lymphocyte rich in 2 additional cases. Median age was 53 years (Range: 8, 74). Early stage disease was found in three patients without unfavorable prognostic factors according to EORTC and GHSG criteria, one patient with unfavorable prognostic factors and nine patients had advanced disease. Bulk disease was present in one patient. Normal lymphoid tissue and normal prostate epithelium were used as normal controls as recommended by manufacturer. Approval from the Local Ethical committee was obtained before any analysis. RESULTS: CD47 was overexpressed on all HRS cells with a characteristic dot-like pattern in 13/13 cases of CHL. HRS clearly expressed CD47 more intensely than infiltrating T and stromal cells. DISCUSSION: We propose that HRS cells, by up-regulating CD47, might avoid innate immunity check on tumor growth, which could be circumvented using blocking monoclonal antibodies.

15.
Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim ; 66(10): 537-542, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358364

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Thoracic erector spinae plane block is now performed in many different surgical procedures, including lumbar spinal fusion. We evaluated the analgesic effect of lumbar ESP performed at L4 after lumbar spinal fusion surgery. METHODS AND CASE SERIES: Eight patients scheduled for lumbar spinal fusion were included in the case series. Erector spinae plane block was performed at L4 preoperatively, administering 20ml of 0.2% ropivacaine on each side. We recorded patient-reported pain intensity during the first 48 postoperative hours using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and rescue analgesia requirements. Pain at rest was controlled in all patients (VAS 0 to 3), although pain on movement ranged from mild to severe (VAS 0 to 8). Rescue analgesia consumption ranged from 1 to 22mg morphine. CONCLUSIONS: Lumbar ESP appears to contribute to pain control during the first 48hours after lumbar spinal fusion.

16.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 1046, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31191465

RESUMO

The intake of fermented foods is gaining increasing interest due to their health-promoting benefits. Among them, fermented dairy foods have been associated with obesity prevention, and reduction of the risk of metabolic disorders and immune-related pathologies. Fermented foods could lead to these health benefits by providing the consumer with both easily metabolizable nutrients and beneficial microorganisms. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between the consumption of fermented dairy products and the intestinal microbiota, serum lipid profile, and the pro-oxidant/inflammatory status. 130 healthy adults were evaluated. Dietary fermented food intake was assessed by an annual food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), including 26 fermented dairy products. Levels of the major phylogenetic types of the intestinal microbiota were determined by qPCR, and concentration of fecal short chain fatty acids were assessed by gas chromatography. Serum glucose and lipid profile, as well as serum malondialdehyde (MDA), C-reactive protein (CRP), and leptin levels were determined by standardized protocols. Among fermented dairy foods, natural yogurt, sweetened yogurt and matured/semi-matured cheese were the most consumed. While natural yogurt consumers showed increased fecal levels of Akkermansia with respect to non-consumers, sweetened yogurt intake was associated to lower levels of Bacteroides. Serum levels of CRP were also significantly reduced in yogurt consumers. Our results underline the interest in exploring the potential effects of the different yogurt types and the role the microbiota may play in such effects.

17.
Enferm Intensiva ; 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253585

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study aim was to explore the experience of doctors and nursing assistants in the management of physical restraint (PR) in critical care units. METHOD: A multicentre phenomenological study that included 14 critical care units (CCU) in Madrid (Spain). The CCU were stratified according to their use of physical restraint: "frequently used" versus "seldom used". Three focus groups were formed: the first comprised nursing assistants from CCUs that frequently used physical restraint, the second comprised nursing assistants from CCUs that seldom used physical constraint, and the final group comprised doctors from both CCU subtypes. Sampling method: purposive. DATA ANALYSIS: thematic content analysis. Data saturation was achieved. RESULTS: Four principle themes emerged: 1) concept of safety and risk (patient safety versus the safety of the professional), 2) types of restraint, 3) professional responsibilities (prescription, recording, and professional roles) and 4) "zero restraint" paradigm. The conceptualisation regarding the use of physical contentions shows differences in some of the principal themes, depending on the type of CCU, in terms of policies, use and management of physical constraint (frequently used versus seldom used). CONCLUSIONS: The real reduction in the use of physical restraint in CCU must be based on one crucial point: acceptance of the complexity of the phenomenon. The use of physical restraint observed in the different CCU is influenced by individual, group and organisational factors. These factors will determine how doctors and nursing assistants interpret safety and risk, the centre of care (patient or professional-centred care), the concept of restraint, professional responsibilities and interventions, interactions of the team and the leadership.

18.
Actas Dermosifiliogr ; 110(8): 626-636, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202471

RESUMO

Dermatologic diagnosis and monitoring have been dependent largely on visual grading. A skin biopsy is performed in case of diagnostic uncertainty, but can be traumatic, and results are delayed due to time for specimen transport and processing. Biopsies also destroy specimens, prohibiting lesion evolution monitoring. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) offers a diagnostic alternative to skin biopsy. RCM captures real-time, high-resolution images, and has been piloted for the evaluation of various dermatologic conditions. Identification of unique RCM features may distinguish dermatoses with similar clinical morphologies. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) are diagnosed by patch testing that currently uses a subjective scoring system. RCM has increasingly been studied for early detection and severity grading of CD. Common RCM features shared by ACD and ICD are stratum corneum disruption, vesicle formation, exocytosis, spongiosis, and parakeratosis. Features unique to ACD are vasodilation, increased epidermal thickness, intercellular edema, and acanthosis. Features unique to ICD are detached corneocytes and targetoid keratinocytes. This review summarizes the use of RCM in evaluating contact eccematous conditions and aims to spark future research and interest in this promising tool.

19.
J Environ Manage ; 246: 472-483, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200181

RESUMO

Excessive fluoride content in groundwater can cause serious risks to human health, and sources of groundwater intended for human consumption should be treated to reduce fluoride concentrations down to acceptable levels. In the particular case of the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain), the water supply comes mainly from aquifers of volcanic origin with a high content of fluorides that make them unacceptable for human consumption without prior conditioning treatment. The treatments that generate a high rejection of water are not acceptable because water is a scarce natural resource of high value. An electrocoagulation process was investigated as a method to treat natural groundwater from volcanic soils containing a hazardously high fluoride content. The operating parameters of an electrocoagulation reactor model with parallel plate aluminum electrodes were optimized for batch and continuous flow operations. In the case of the batch operation, acidification of the water improved the removal efficiency of fluoride, which was the highest at pH 3. However, operation at the natural pH of the water achieved elimination efficiencies between 82 and 92%, depending on the applied current density. An optimum current density of 5 mA/cm2 was found in terms of maximum removal efficiency, and the kinetics of fluoride removal conformed to pseudo-second-order kinetics. In the continuous-flow operation, with the optimal residence time of 10 min and a separation of 0.5 cm between the electrodes, it was observed that the current density that would be applied would depend on the initial concentration of fluoride in the raw water. Thus, an initial fluoride concentration of 6.02 mg/L required a current density >7.5 mA/cm2 to comply with the legal guidelines in the product water, while for an initial concentration of 8.98 mg/L, the optimal current density was 10 mA/cm2. Under these operating conditions, the electrocoagulation process was able to reduce the fluoride concentration of natural groundwater to below 1.5 mg/L according to WHO guidelines with an operating cost between 0.20 and 0.26 €/m3 of treated water.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Eletrocoagulação , Eletrodos , Fluoretos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Espanha
20.
Andrology ; 7(5): 610-617, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanisms involved in the acquisition of mammalian sperm fertilizing ability are still poorly understood, reflecting the complexity of this process. OBJECTIVES: In this review, we describe the role of Cysteine RIch Secretory Proteins (CRISP1-4) in different steps of the sperm journey to the egg as well as their relevance for fertilization and fertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyze bibliography reporting the phenotypes of CRISP KO mice models and combine this search with recent findings from our team. RESULTS: Generation of individual KO for CRISP proteins reveals they are key mediators in different stages of the fertilization process. However, in spite of their important functional roles, KO males for each of these proteins remain fertile, supporting the existence of compensatory mechanisms between homologous CRISP family members. The development of mice lacking epididymal CRISP1 and CRISP4 simultaneously (DKO) revealed that mutant males exhibit an impaired fertility due to deficiencies in the sperm ability to fertilize the eggs in vivo, consistent with the proposed roles of the two proteins in fertilization. Interestingly, DKO males show clear defects in both epididymal epithelium differentiation and luminal acidification known to be critical for sperm maturation and storage. Whereas in most of the cases, these epithelium defects seem to specifically affect the sperm fertilizing ability, some animals exhibit a disruption of the characteristic immune tolerance of the organ with clear signs of inflammation and sperm viability defects. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Altogether, these observations confirm the relevance of CRISP proteins for male fertility and contribute to a better understanding of the fine-tuning mechanisms underlying sperm maturation and immune tolerance within the epididymis. Moreover, considering the existence of a human epididymal protein functionally equivalent to rodent CRISP1 and CRISP4, DKO mice may represent an excellent model for studying human epididymal physiology and pathology.

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