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1.
Rev. peru. med. integr ; 2(3): 765-772, 2017. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, MOSAICO - Saúde integrativa | ID: biblio-876796

RESUMO

Objetivos: Realizar un análisis fitoquímico y describir la actividad hepatoprotectora y antioxidante del extracto de rizomas de Curcuma longa L. (C. longa) en un modelo murino. Materiales y métodos: La actividad antioxidante in vitro del extracto acuoso liofilizado de rizoma de C. longa L. (Fam: Zingiberaceae) se evaluó con el método de DPPH, además, también se realizó el análisis fitoquímico de tres solventes de extracción (ExEt, ExDCM y ExH2O). El ensayo in vivo se realizó en ratas albinas cepa Holtzman. Se formaron cinco grupos de tratamiento: (control normal); (control-CCl4); (Control positivo); (C. longa 100 mg/kg) y (C. longa 200 mg/kg), que fueron inducidos con CCl4 para desarrollar daño hepático. Este modelo permitió medir el efecto protector de los extractos sobre los marcadores bioquímicos (AST, ALT y ALP) en sangre. Posteriormente, se realizó un examen histopatológico de las secciones hepáticas para apoyar la inducción de la hepatoxicidad y la eficacia hepatoprotectora. Resultados: El extracto mostró un poder reductor mucho menor que el ácido ascórbico, en el tamizaje fitoquímico se encontraron compuestos fenólicos, triterpenos, quinonas, cumarinas y flavonoides, además la cantidad de curcumina encontrada fue de 0,4%-0,6%. El extracto liofilizado de C.longa mostró un efecto protector significativo (P<0,05), disminuyendo la actividad enzimática de los marcadores hepatoespecíficos. Los niveles elevados de enzimas séricas AST, ALT y ALP, se hallaron restablecidas hacia la normalización, de manera dosis dependiente, con el máximo efecto protector a dosis de 200 mg/kg. Las observaciones histopatológicas soportan las evidencias bioquímicas de hepatoprotección. Estos efectos fueron comparables a la droga estándar, silimarina. Conclusiones: Los resultados presentados en este estudio revelan fuertemente el efecto protector del extracto liofilizado de C. longa, cultivada en la región Loreto, frente a daño hepático inducido por CCl4 en experimentación animal.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Curcuma/química , Medicamentos Hepatoprotetores , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Antioxidantes , Modelos Animais
2.
Rev. peru. med. integr ; 1(4): 16-24, 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, MOSAICO - Saúde integrativa | ID: biblio-876578

RESUMO

Objetivos: Evaluar la toxicidad, actividad antioxidante e hipoglicemiante del extracto acuoso liofilizado de Juglans neotropica Diels "nogal peruano". Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó una caracterización fitoquímica mediante cromatografía de gases y espectrometría de masas. La toxicidad fue medida en larvas de Artemia salina. La actividad antioxidante fue medida usando el test de 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH). La actividad hipoglicemiante in vitro fue evaluada mediante la prueba de inhibición de α-glucosidasa; e in vivo mediante el uso de 36 ratas albinas divididas en cuatro grupos de acuerdo a la dosis suministrada (Glibenclamida 10 mg/kg, J.neotropica 100 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg y 500 mg/kg).Resultados: Dentro de los fitoconstituyentes se encontraron compuestos piranos, carbohidratos y fenoles. Con respecto a la letalidad, se encontró una CL50 de 3108 ug/mL. La mayor actividad antioxidante con el test de DPPH fue encontrada en la concentración de 20 mg/mL (86.68 ± 0.71%) con una IC50: (3.8 ± 0.31 mg/mL). La concentración de 2000 ug/mL y 1750 ug/mL mostraron la mejor actividad inhibitoria de la α-glucosidasa (IC50: 399.39 ug/mL). Se observó que había diferencia significativa (p<0.05) al comparar el grupo glibenclamida con la dosis de Juglans neotropica D 250 mg/kg (CIC: 0.95; IC95%: 0.59-0.99) y 500 mg/kg. Conclusiones: El extracto acuoso liofilizado de Juglans neotropica Diels "nogal peruano" no es tóxico, tiene buena capacidad antioxidante y actividad hipoglicemiante in vitro e in vivo a unas concentraciones de 2000 ug/mL y 250 mg/kg, respectivamente.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Antioxidantes , Hipoglicemiantes , Opuntia/química , Liofilização , Extratos Vegetais
3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 171: 330-4, 2015 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26087228

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Plukenetia volubilis L. (Euphorbiaceae) is a domesticated vine distributed from the high-altitude Andean rain forest to the lowlands of the Peruvian Amazon. Oil from the cold-pressed seeds, sold under the commercial name of Sacha Inchi Oil (SIO) is actually much in favour because it contains a high percentage of omega 3 and omega 6, and is hence used as a dietary supplement. SIO is also used traditionally for skin care, in order to maintain skin softness, and for the treatment of wounds, insect bites and skin infections, in a tropical context where the skin is frequently damaged. AIMS OF THE STUDY: This study was designed in order to verify whether the traditional use of SIO for skin care would have any impact on Staphylococcus aureus growth and skin adherence, as S. aureus is involved in many skin pathologies (impetigo, folliculitis, furuncles and subcutaneous abscesses) being one if the main pathogens that can be found on the skin. Therefore, our objective was to assess SIO bactericidal activity and interference with adherence to human skin explants and the keratinocyte cell line. Cytotoxicity on that cells was also determined. The activity of SIO was compared to coconut oil (CocO), which is widely used for skin care but has different unsaturated fatty acids contents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Laboratory testing with certified oil, determined antibacterial activity against radio labelled S. aureus. Cytotoxic effects were measured with XTT on keratinocyte cells and with neutral red on human skin explants; phenol was used as cytotoxic control. Adherence assays were carried out by mixing H3-labelled S. aureus bacteria with keratinocyte cells and human skin explants, incubated with oils 2h before (to determine the inhibition of adherence, assimilated to a preventive effect) or 2h after the contact of the biological material with S. aureus (to assess the detachment of the bacteria, assimilated to a curative effect). Residual radioactivity measured after washings made it possible to determine the adherence intensity. Bactericidal effect was determined by colony counting on trypticase soy agar. RESULTS: Laboratory assays showed that SIO and CocO, tested undiluted, were not cytotoxic on keratinocytes nor human explants and were not bactericidal neither. SIO was more active as antiadherent (preventive) than CocO on keratinocytes. There was no significant difference between detachment effects (curative) of both oils on keratinocytes but SIO was almost 5 times more active on the detachment of S. aureus from human skin explants. CONCLUSION: From that study it can be concluded that the use of SIO on dermal cells is safe and efficient in the inhibition of S. aureus adherence. Our results tend to support the traditional use of undiluted SIO in skin care.


Assuntos
Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Euphorbiaceae , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/microbiologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 170: 167-74, 2015 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25980423

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pseudelephantopus spiralis (Less.) Cronquist is distributed in the Caribbean, Mesoamerica and Latin America. Preparations of the plant are traditionally used in Latin America for the treatment of various diseases including fever, malaria, and spleen or liver inflammations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aerial parts of P. spiralis were extracted with either ethanol or distilled water. Seven hirsutinolide-type sesquiterpenoids were isolated: 8-acetyl-13-ethoxypiptocarphol (1), diacetylpiptocarphol (2), piptocarphins A (3), F (4) and D (5), (1S(*),4R(*),8S(*),10R(*))-1,4-epoxy-13-ethoxy-1,8,10-trihydroxygermacra-5E,7(11)-dien-6,12-olide (6), and piptocarphol (7). Extracts and isolated compounds (2, 3, 5-7) were screened for their in vitro antiplasmodial activity against the chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strain FcM29-Cameroon and antileishmanial activity against three stages of Leishmania infantum. Their cytotoxicities were also evaluated against healthy VERO cell lines and J774A.1 macrophages, the host cells of the Leishmania parasites in humans. RESULTS: Aqueous extracts showed a greater inhibitory effect than alcoholic extracts, with IC50 on P. falciparum of 3.0µg/mL versus 21.1µg/mL, and on L. infantum of 13.4µg/mL versus >50µg/mL. Both extracts were found to be cytotoxic to VERO cells (CC50<3µg/mL). Sesquiterpene lactones 2 and 3 showed the best activity against both parasites but failed in selectivity. Carbon 8 hydroxylated hirsutinolides 5-7 presented the particularity of exhibiting two conformers observed in solution during extensive NMR analyses in CD3OD and UHPLC-MS. The presence of a hydroxyl function at C-8 decreased the activity of 5-7 on the two parasites and also on VERO cells. CONCLUSION: The antiplasmodial activity displayed by the aqueous extract explains the traditional use of P. spiralis in the treatment of malaria. This activity seems to be attributable to the presence of sesquiterpene lactones 2 and 3, the most active against P. falciparum. Aqueous extract and compounds 2, 3 and 6 were also active against L. infantum but lacked in selectivity due to their cytotoxicity towards macrophages. Exploring the safety and antiplasmodial efficacy of this traditional remedy will require further toxicological and in vivo studies in the light of the cytotoxicity towards healthy cell lines displayed by the aqueous extract and compounds 2 and 3.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Asteraceae/química , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Antimaláricos/química , Antimaláricos/isolamento & purificação , Antiprotozoários/química , Antiprotozoários/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular , Cercopithecus aethiops , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Leishmania infantum/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional , Camundongos , Componentes Aéreos da Planta , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Sesquiterpenos/química , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Células Vero
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