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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(8)2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331425

RESUMO

Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) is the second most frequent cancer in humans and its incidence continues to rise. Although CSCC usually display a benign clinical behavior, it can be both locally invasive and metastatic. The signaling pathways involved in CSCC development have given rise to targetable molecules in recent decades. In addition, the high mutational burden and increased risk of CSCC in patients under immunosuppression were part of the rationale for developing the immunotherapy for CSCC that has changed the therapeutic landscape. This review focuses on the molecular basis of CSCC and the current biology-based approaches of targeted therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors. Another purpose of this review is to explore the landscape of drugs that may induce or contribute to the development of CSCC. Beginning with the pathogenetic basis of these drug-induced CSCCs, we move on to consider potential therapeutic opportunities for overcoming this adverse effect.

3.
Bone ; 133: 115265, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036052

RESUMO

Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is a bone disorder characterized by an increase in bone turnover in a disorganized way with a large increase in bone resorption followed by bone formation. The most important known genetic factor predisposing to PDB is mutation in Sequestosome1 (SQSTM1) gene. We have studied the prevalence of SQSTM1 mutations and examined genotype-phenotype correlations in a Spanish cohort of PDB patients. Also, we have characterized three PDB patients that carry the c.961C>T SQSTM1 gene mutation that it is localized in exon 6 of SQSTM1 gene and it causes the p. R321C mutation. This mutation has been reported in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia but in our knowledge this is the first time that p62 p. R321C mutation is associated to PDB. We show that p62 p.R321C mutation could induce blockage of autophagy and cell proliferation through NF-kB pathway. These results reinforce the hypothesis of autophagy involvement in Paget's disease of bone.

4.
Neurol Sci ; 41(1): 165-174, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494822

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Behavioural and psychological symptoms (BPS) worsen quality of life and increase institutionalization in dementia, but the relationship between BPS and vascular burden on neuroimaging is unclear. Our aim is to explore whether the profile of BPS differs between patients with large-vessel or cortical vascular dementia (cVaD), small-vessel or subcortical vascular dementia (sVaD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: The BEVASDE study comprised 806 demented patients (cVaD-136, sVaD-184, AD-486) recruited from outpatient consultations in Salamanca and Avila, Spain. The Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR) and the 12-item Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) were used to evaluate dementia severity and BPS. RESULTS: BPS were reported in 98.5%, 97.3% and 96.9% of the cVaD, sVaD and AD cases, respectively. The median NPI score was 36 in both cVaD and sVaD and 34 in AD, with a median number of four symptoms per patient. The most frequent disorders were depression (64.4%), apathy (61.8%) and sleep disturbance (60.5%). Multivariate regression analyses after controlling for possible confounders showed a higher risk of euphoria (p = 0.011), apathy (p = 0.007), irritability (p = 0.002) and sleep disturbance (p = 0.020) in cVaD than in AD and more apathy (p = 0.0001) and irritability (p = 0.0001) in sVaD than in AD. In contrast, AD subjects had a higher risk of delusions (p = 0.007) and hallucinations (p = 0.023) than patients with cVaD as well as more aberrant motor behaviour than both cVaD (p = 0.0001) and sVaD (p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: BPS are common in dementia and may help in differential diagnosis of the various subtypes. We should inquire about them and treat as necessary.

6.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(2): 1381-1391, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833031

RESUMO

The Nomo1 gene mediates a wide range of biological processes of importance in embryonic development. Accordingly, constitutive perturbation of Nomo1 function may result in myriad developmental defects that trigger embryonic lethality. To extend our understanding of Nomo1 function in postnatal stages and in a tissue-specific manner, we generated a conditional knockout mouse model of Nomo1. To achieve this, we used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 technology in C57Bl/6J mouse zygotes to generate a new mouse model in which exon 3 of the Nomo1 gene is specifically flanked (or floxed) by LoxP sites (Nomo1f/f). Nomo1f/f mouse embryonic fibroblasts were transduced with a Cre adenovirus and efficiently recombined between LoxP sites. Genomic and expression studies in Nomo1-transduced MEFs demonstrated that the Nomo1 exon 3 is ablated. Western blot assay showed that no protein or early truncated protein is produced. In vivo assay crossing Nomo1f/f mouse with a Msi1-CRE transgenic mouse corroborated the previous findings and it showed Nomo1 exon 3 deletion at msi1+ cell compartment. This short technical report demonstrates that CRISPR/Cas9 technology is a simple and easy method for creating conditional mouse models. The Nomo1f/f mouse will be useful to researchers who wish to explore the role of Nomo1 in any developmental stage or in a tissue-specific manner.

7.
J Biol Chem ; 295(5): 1300-1314, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871052

RESUMO

ß1-chimaerin belongs to the chimaerin family of GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) and is encoded by the CHN2 gene, which also encodes the ß2- and ß3-chimaerin isoforms. All chimaerin isoforms have a C1 domain that binds diacylglycerol as well as tumor-promoting phorbol esters and a catalytic GAP domain that inactivates the small GTPase Rac. Nuclear Rac has emerged as a key regulator of various cell functions, including cell division, and has a pathological role by promoting tumorigenesis and metastasis. However, how nuclear Rac is regulated has not been fully addressed. Here, using several approaches, including siRNA-mediated gene silencing, confocal microscopy, and subcellular fractionation, we identified a nuclear variant of ß1-chimaerin, ß1-Δ7p-chimaerin, that participates in the regulation of nuclear Rac1. We show that ß1-Δ7p-chimaerin is a truncated variant generated by alternative splicing at a cryptic splice site in exon 7. We found that, unlike other chimaerin isoforms, ß1-Δ7p-chimaerin lacks a functional C1 domain and is not regulated by diacylglycerol. We found that ß1-Δ7p-chimaerin localizes to the nucleus via a nuclear localization signal in its N terminus. We also identified a key nuclear export signal in ß1-chimaerin that is absent in ß1-Δ7p-chimaerin, causing nuclear retention of this truncated variant. Functionally analyses revealed that ß1-Δ7p-chimaerin inactivates nuclear Rac and negatively regulates the cell cycle. Our results provide important insights into the diversity of chimaerin Rac-GAP regulation and function and highlight a potential mechanism of nuclear Rac inactivation that may play significant roles in pathologies such as cancer.

8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(12)2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795313

RESUMO

Early-onset colorectal cancer (EOCRC) is an increasing and worrisome entity. The aim of this study was to analyze its association with polyps concerning prognosis and surveillance. EOCRC cases were compared regarding the presence or absence of associated polyps (clinical and molecular features), during a minimum of 7 years of follow-up. Of 119 cases, 56 (47%) did not develop polyps (NP group), while 63 (53%) did (P group). The NP group showed a predominant location of the CRC in the rectum (50%), of sporadic cases (54%), and diagnosis at advanced stages: Only P53 and SMARCB1 mutations were statistically linked to this group. The P group, including mainly early-diagnosed tumors, was linked with the most frequent and differential altered chromosomal regions in the array comparative genomic hybridization. The two most frequent groups according to the follow-up were the NP group (40%), and patients developing polyps in the first 5 years of follow-up (P < 5FU) (34%) (these last groups predominantly diagnosed at the earliest stage and with adenomatous polyps (45%)). EOCRC with polyps that developed during the entire follow-up (PDFU group) were mainly located in the right colon (53%), diagnosed in earlier stages, and 75% had a familial history of CRC. Patients developing polyps after the first 5 years (P > 5FU) showed a mucinous component (50%). Our results show that the absence or presence of polyps in EOCRC is an important prognostic factor with differential phenotypes. The development of polyps during surveillance shows that it is necessary to extend the follow-up time, also in those cases with microsatellite-stable EOCRC.

11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10516, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324877

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) with CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) is recognized as a subgroup of CRC that shows association with particular genetic defects and patient outcomes. We analyzed CIMP status of 229 individuals with CRC using an eight-marker panel (CACNA1G, CDKN2A, CRABP1, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3 and SOCS1); CIMP-(+) tumors were defined as having ≥ 5 methylated markers. Patients were divided into individuals who developed a "unique" CRC, which were subclassified into early-onset CRC (EOCRC) and late-onset CRC (LOCRC), and patients with multiple primary CRCs subclassified into synchronous CRC (SCRC) and metachronous CRC (MCRC). We found 9 (15.2%) CIMP-(+) EOCRC patients related with the proximal colon (p = 0.008), and 19 (26.8%) CIMP-(+) LOCRC patients associated with tumor differentiation (p = 0.045), MSI status (p = 0.021) and BRAF mutation (p = 0.001). Thirty-five (64.8%) SCRC patients had at least one CIMP-(+) tumor and 20 (44.4%) MCRC patients presented their first tumor as CIMP-(+). Thirty-nine (72.2%) SCRC patients showed concordant CIMP status in their simultaneous tumors. The differences in CIMP-(+) frequency between groups may reflect the importance of taking into account several criteria for the development of multiple primary neoplasms. Additionally, the concordance between synchronous tumors suggests CIMP status is generally maintained in SCRC patients.

12.
J Pain Res ; 12: 1371-1384, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118755

RESUMO

Aims: In this study we wanted to figure out if there was a correlation between OPRM1 N40D, TRPV1 I316M, TRPV1 I585V, NOS3 -786T>C and IL6 -174C>G polymorphisms and the response to locally applied articaine-epinephrine anesthetic. Methods: In this observational study, 114 oral cell samples of patients anesthetized with articaine-epinephrine (54 from men 60 from women), were collected from dental centers in Madrid (Spain). High molecular weight DNA was obtained from oral mucosa cells. The analysis of OPRM1 N40D (rs1799971), TRPV1 I316M (rs222747), TRPV1 I585V (rs8065080) and IL6 -174C>G polymorphism was performed through real-time PCR allelic discrimination using TaqMan probes. Polymorphism NOS3 -786T> C (rs2070744) was analyzed using RFLP-PCR. Results: The studied polymorphisms are involved neither in the response to the anesthetic, nor in the intensity of perceived dental pain. However, in a subset of female patients we found that TRPV1 I316M was associated with a delayed onset of anesthesia. Conclusions: There is no association among these polymorphisms and the time elapsed between the application of the anesthetic and the onset of its effect.

13.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216472, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095598

RESUMO

Comparative studies of colorectal cancer (CRC) according to the age of onset have found differences between early-onset CRC (EOCRC) and late-onset CRC (LOCRC). Using this as a starting point, we wished to determine whether intermediate-onset CRC (IOCRC) might also be considered as an independent group within CRC. We performed a retrospective comparative study of the clinicopathological and familial features, as well as of the symptoms and their duration, of a total of 272 subjects diagnosed with CRC classified into three groups according to the age-of-onset (98 EOCRC, 83 IOCRC and 91 LOCRC). The results show that from a clinicopathological point of view, IOCRC shared certain features with EOCRC (gender, prognosis), and with LOCRC (multiple primary CRCs), whereas it also had characteristics that were specific for IOCRC (mean number of associated polyps). A gradual progression was observed from EOCRC to LOCRC from a greater family aggregation to sporadic cases, in parallel with a change of Lynch Syndrome cases to the sporadic microsatellite instability pathway, with the IOCRC being a boundary group that is more related to EOCRC. With respect to symptoms, duration and correlation with stages, IOCRC appeared more similar to EOCRC. Clinically, IOCRC behaves as a transitional group between EOCRC and LOCRC, with features in common with both groups, but also with IOCRC-specific features. Excluding cases with familial cancer history, the awareness for EOCRC diagnosis should be extended to IOCRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(4)2019 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959967

RESUMO

Despite classical environmental risk factors like tobacco, alcohol or viral infection, not all individuals develop head and neck cancer. Therefore, identification of the genetic susceptibility produced by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is an important task. A total of 296 human papillomavirus negative head and neck cancer (HNC) patients (126 laryngeal, 100 pharyngeal and 70 oral cavity) were included in the study, involving 29 candidate SNPs in genes within important carcinogenic pathways (oncogenesis and tumour suppression, DNA repair, inflammation, oxidation and apoptosis). Genotyping was performed using TaqMan probes or restriction fragment length assays in peripheral blood DNA. In addition, 259 paired controls were also evaluated with the same risk factors for each specific location. Nine SNPs in DNA repair (ERCC1 rs11615, ERCC2 rs13181), inflammatory (IL2 rs2069762, IL6 rs1800795), oxidative (NFE2L2 rs13035806 and rs2706110) and apoptotic genes (TP53 rs1042522, MDM2 rs2279744, BCL2 rs2279115) were differently associated with HNSCC susceptibility by location. Some of these SNPs were not described before in this tumour type. In conclusion, we describe several SNPs associated with HNC in a Spanish population.

15.
Atherosclerosis ; 285: 17-22, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder characterized by high levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The magnitude of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk in FH patients is highly variable, and this can result from genetic factors. The aim of our study was to characterize whether polymorphisms in VEGFR2 and OPG genes could influence the expression of ASCVD in FH patients. METHODS: We studied 318 FH patients from the SAFEHEART registry, without clinical diagnosis of ASCVD. A coronary tomographic angiography (CTA) was performed to determine and evaluate the presence of coronary stenosis and coronary artery calcium, as measured by coronary calcium score (CCS). Genotyping of OPG rs2073618 and VEGFR2 rs2071559 polymorphisms was performed using TaqMan 5'-exonuclease allelic discrimination assays. RESULTS: Homozygous GG genotype and G allele of VEGFR2 rs2071559 polymorphism were associated with decreased risk of developing coronary artery stenosis. In the analysis of OPG rs2073618 and VEGFR2 rs2071559 polymorphisms, according to the presence of coronary artery calcium, we found significant differences in both polymorphisms. Homozygous GG genotype and G allele of VEGFR2 rs2071559 polymorphism were associated with decreased risk of accumulation of coronary artery calcium measured by CCS in CTA. Moreover, being a carrier of the GG genotype and G allele of the OPG rs2073618 polymorphism increased the risk of the presence of coronary artery calcium measured by CCS in CTA. CONCLUSIONS: Polymorphisms in VEGFR2 and OPG genes modify the risk of ASCVD in FH patients.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(4)2019 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813366

RESUMO

Our aim was to characterize and validate that the location and age of onset of the tumor are both important criteria to classify colorectal cancer (CRC). We analyzed clinical and molecular characteristics of early-onset CRC (EOCRC) and late-onset CRC (LOCRC), and we compared each tumor location between both ages-of-onset. In right-sided colon tumors, early-onset cases showed extensive Lynch syndrome (LS) features, with a relatively low frequency of chromosomal instability (CIN), but a high CpG island methylation phenotype. Nevertheless, late-onset cases showed predominantly sporadic features and microsatellite instability cases due to BRAF mutations. In left colon cancers, the most reliable clinical features were the tendency to develop polyps as well as multiple primary CRC associated with the late-onset subset. Apart from the higher degree of CIN in left-sided early-onset cancers, differential copy number alterations were also observed. Differences among rectal cancers showed that early-onset rectal cancers were diagnosed at later stages, had less association with polyps, and more than half of them were associated with a familial LS component. Stratifying CRC according to both location and age-of-onset criteria is meaningful, not only because it correlates the resulting categories with certain molecular bases, but with the confirmation across larger studies, new therapeutical algorithms could be defined according to this subclassification.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/classificação , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Idade de Início , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Dosagem de Genes , Humanos
17.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213624, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845235

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Several researchers have suggested that the rs243865 (16q13-q21) polymorphism in the promoter region of the metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) gene could be associated with an increased risk of developing age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, previous results remain inconclusive. To clarify this controversy, we conducted a meta-analysis of the relationship between rs243865 of MMP-2 and AMD. METHODS: We included 6 independent case-control studies involving 1,682 AMD patients and 2,295 healthy subjects. The association between the rs243865 polymorphism and AMD was examined by the overall odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). We used a recessive genetic model analysis, sensitivity analysis, and assessment of bias in our meta-analysis. RESULTS: Our results showed that there was no significant association between the variant T allele (p-value = 0.10, OR [95%CI] = 0.95 [0.82-1.10]) or the CT+TT genotype (p-value = 0.16, OR [95%CI] = 0.92 [0.76-1.12]) of rs243865 MMP-2 polymorphism and the presence of AMD. CONCLUSIONS: The rs243865 MMP-2 polymorphism was not associated with an increased risk of developing AMD. The MMP-2 (-1306 C>T) promoter variant is unlikely to have a major role in AMD risk susceptibility.


Assuntos
Degeneração Macular/genética , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genes Recessivos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Genéticos , Razão de Chances , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5055, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911067

RESUMO

The intra-renal dopamine (DA) system is highly expressed in the proximal tubule and contributes to Na+ and blood pressure homeostasis, as well as to the development of nephropathy. In the kidney, the enzyme DOPA Decarboxylase (DDC) originating from the circulation. We used a twin/family study design, followed by polymorphism association analysis at DDC locus to elucidate heritable influences on renal DA production. Dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping across the DDC locus on chromosome 7p12 was analyzed by re-sequencing guided by trait-associated genetic markers to discover the responsible genetic variation. We also characterized kinetics of the expressed DDC mutant enzyme. Systematic polymorphism screening across the 15-Exon DDC locus revealed a single coding variant in Exon-14 that was associated with DA excretion and multiple other renal traits indicating pleiotropy. When expressed and characterized in eukaryotic cells, the 462Gln variant displayed lower Vmax (maximal rate of product formation by an enzyme) (21.3 versus 44.9 nmol/min/mg) and lower Km (substrate concentration at which half-maximal product formation is achieved by an enzyme.)(36.2 versus 46.8 µM) than the wild-type (Arg462) allele. The highly heritable DA excretion trait is substantially influenced by a previously uncharacterized common coding variant (Arg462Gln) at the DDC gene that affects multiple renal tubular and glomerular traits, and predicts accelerated functional decline in chronic kidney disease.

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