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1.
Emerg Med J ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024642

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recent guidance recommended use of high-sensitivity troponin for rapid rule out of myocardial infarction (MI) in the English health service. We aimed to determine the extent of implementation of this guidance across English hospitals. METHODS: This study conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 131 English acute hospitals with over 10 000 admissions per year. RESULTS: We received 125/131 responses (95%), with 110/125 (88%) reporting use of a high-sensitivity troponin assay and responses showing progressive implementation over the last 10 years. High-sensitivity troponin was reported to be used for rapid rule out of MI in 92/110 Trusts (84%). Review of guidelines received from 95/110 Trusts identified that 71/95 (75%) provided guidance for rapid MI rule out with high-sensitivity troponin: 57 recommended testing at 0 and 3 hours, 4 recommended testing at 0 and 2 hours, and 9 recommended testing at 0 and 1 hour, and timing was unclear at one Trust. CONCLUSIONS: English acute hospital Trusts report widespread implementation of high-sensitivity troponin for rapid rule out of MI, with most recommending testing at 0 and 3 hours.

3.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 39(1): 36-43, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769571

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Alcohol Intoxication Management Services (AIMS) provide basic care for intoxication and minor injuries, have been increasingly implemented in urban areas characterised by a large number of premises licensed for the sale and on-site consumption of alcohol, with the goal of reducing alcohol's burden on emergency services, including referrals into hospital emergency departments. The acceptability of new health services to users is a key effectiveness outcome. The aim was to describe patient experiences when attending an AIMS and document the acceptability of AIMS to users. DESIGN AND METHODS: A sequential mixed methods study was undertaken involving semi-structured interviews with participants from four AIMS followed by a survey of users recruited from six AIMS. RESULTS: Interviewees (N = 19) were positive about the care they received in AIMS and appreciated the friendly, non-judgemental atmosphere. Survey respondents rated their experience in AIMS positively (on a 0 to 10 Likert scale, mean = 9.34, SD = 1.38, n = 188). Frequently given reasons for attendance included drinking alcohol (57%) and minor injury (42%); 24% said they would have attended the emergency department had the AIMS not been available and 6% said they would have preferred to go to the emergency department; 31% indicated they would have felt unsafe without the AIMS. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: AIMS are acceptable to users. AIMS are likely to address previously unmet demand for a safe space within the night-time environment.

4.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(2): 422-438, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thromboprophylaxis has the potential to reduce venous thromboembolism (VTE) following lower limb immobilization resulting from injury. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to estimate the effectiveness of thromboprophylaxis, compare different agents, and identify any factors associated with effectiveness. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) of randomized trials reporting VTE or bleeding outcomes that compared thromboprophylactic agents with each other or to no pharmacological prophylaxis, for this indication. An NMA was undertaken for each outcome or agent used, and a series of study-level network meta-regressions examined whether population characteristics, type of injury, treatment of injury, or duration of thromboprophylaxis were associated with treatment effect. RESULTS: Data from 6857 participants across 13 randomized trials showed that, compared with no treatment, low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) reduced the risk of any VTE (odds ratio [OR]: 0.52; 95% credible interval [CrI]: 0.37-0.71), clinically detected deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (OR: 0.39; 95% CrI: 0.12-0.94) and pulmonary embolism (PE) (OR: 0.16; 95% CrI: 0.01-0.74), whereas fondaparinux reduced the risk of any VTE (OR: 0.13; 95% CrI: 0.05-0.30) and clinically detected DVT (OR: 0.10; 95% CrI: 0.01-0.86), with inconclusive results for PE (OR: 0.40; 95% CrI: 0.01-7.53). CONCLUSIONS: Thromboprophylaxis with either fondaparinux or LMWH appears to reduce the odds of both asymptomatic and clinically detected VTE in people with temporary lower limb immobilization following an injury. Treatment effects vary by outcome and are not always conclusive. We were unable to identify any treatment effect modifiers other than thromboprophylactic agent used.

5.
Emerg Med J ; 37(1): 36-41, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694857

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolic disease is a major global cause of morbidity and mortality. An estimated 10 million episodes are diagnosed yearly; over half of these episodes are provoked by hospital admission/procedures and result in significant loss of disability adjusted life years. Temporary lower limb immobilisation after injury is a significant contributor to the overall burden of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Existing evidence suggests that pharmacological prophylaxis could reduce overall VTE event rates in these patients, but the proportional reduction of symptomatic events remains unclear. Recent studies have used different pharmacological agents, dosing regimens and outcome measures. Consequently, there is wide variation in thromboprophylaxis strategies, and international guidelines continue to offer conflicting advice for clinicians. In this review, we provide a summary of recent evidence assessing both the clinical and cost effectiveness of thromboprophylaxis in patients with temporary immobilisation after injury. We also examine the evidence supporting stratified thromboprophylaxis and the validity of widely used risk assessment methods.

6.
Emerg Med J ; 37(2): 85-94, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831588

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inadequate pain management in EDs is a worldwide problem, yet there has been little progress in understanding how pain management can be improved. There is only weak evidence and limited rationale to support interventions to improve pain management. We used naturalistic, qualitative methods to understand the factors that influence how pain is managed within the adult ED. METHODS: We used a multiple case study design incorporating 143-hour non-participant observation, documentary analysis and semistructured interviews with 37 staff and 19 patients at three EDs in the North of England between 2014 and 2016. We analysed data using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Our analysis demonstrated that pain management was not well aligned with the core priorities of the ED and was overlooked when other works took priority. We identified that (1) pain management was not perceived to be a key organisational priority for which staff were held accountable and staff had limited awareness of their performance, (2) pain management was not a core component of ED education and training, (3) ED processes and structures were not aligned with pain management and pain reassessment was overlooked unless staff escalated pain management outside of normal processes and (4) staff held embedded beliefs that conceptualised pain management as distinct from core priorities and limited their capacity to improve. However, EDs were able to improve pain management by aligning processes of pain management with other core works, particularly patient flow (eg, nurse-initiated analgesia at triage). IMPLICATIONS: EDs may be able to improve pain management by ensuring pain management processes align with key ED priorities. Undertaking multifaceted changes to structures and processes may enable staff to improve pain management and develop a culture in which pain management can be prioritised more easily. Future interventions need to be compatible with the wider work of the ED and enable patient flow in order to be adopted and maintained.

7.
Health Technol Assess ; 23(63): 1-190, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thromboprophylaxis can reduce the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) during lower-limb immobilisation, but it is unclear whether or not this translates into meaningful health benefit, justifies the risk of bleeding or is cost-effective. Risk assessment models (RAMs) could select higher-risk individuals for thromboprophylaxis. OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different strategies for providing thromboprophylaxis to people with lower-limb immobilisation caused by injury and to identify priorities for future research. DATA SOURCES: Ten electronic databases and research registers (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Review of Effects, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Health Technology Assessment database, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Science Citation Index Expanded, ClinicalTrials.gov and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform) were searched from inception to May 2017, and this was supplemented by hand-searching reference lists and contacting experts in the field. REVIEW METHODS: Systematic reviews were undertaken to determine the effectiveness of pharmacological thromboprophylaxis in lower-limb immobilisation and to identify any study of risk factors or RAMs for VTE in lower-limb immobilisation. Study quality was assessed using appropriate tools. A network meta-analysis was undertaken for each outcome in the effectiveness review and the results of risk-prediction studies were presented descriptively. A modified Delphi survey was undertaken to identify risk predictors supported by expert consensus. Decision-analytic modelling was used to estimate the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained of different thromboprophylaxis strategies from the perspectives of the NHS and Personal Social Services. RESULTS: Data from 6857 participants across 13 trials were included in the meta-analysis. Thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin reduced the risk of any VTE [odds ratio (OR) 0.52, 95% credible interval (CrI) 0.37 to 0.71], clinically detected deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) (OR 0.40, 95% CrI 0.12 to 0.99) and pulmonary embolism (PE) (OR 0.17, 95% CrI 0.01 to 0.88). Thromboprophylaxis with fondaparinux (Arixtra®, Aspen Pharma Trading Ltd, Dublin, Ireland) reduced the risk of any VTE (OR 0.13, 95% CrI 0.05 to 0.30) and clinically detected DVT (OR 0.10, 95% CrI 0.01 to 0.94), but the effect on PE was inconclusive (OR 0.47, 95% CrI 0.01 to 9.54). Estimates of the risk of major bleeding with thromboprophylaxis were inconclusive owing to the small numbers of events. Fifteen studies of risk factors were identified, but only age (ORs 1.05 to 3.48), and injury type were consistently associated with VTE. Six studies of RAMs were identified, but only two reported prognostic accuracy data for VTE, based on small numbers of patients. Expert consensus was achieved for 13 risk predictors in lower-limb immobilisation due to injury. Modelling showed that thromboprophylaxis for all is effective (0.015 QALY gain, 95% CrI 0.004 to 0.029 QALYs) with a cost-effectiveness of £13,524 per QALY, compared with thromboprophylaxis for none. If risk-based strategies are included, it is potentially more cost-effective to limit thromboprophylaxis to patients with a Leiden thrombosis risk in plaster (cast) [L-TRiP(cast)] score of ≥ 9 (£20,000 per QALY threshold) or ≥ 8 (£30,000 per QALY threshold). An optimal threshold on the L-TRiP(cast) receiver operating characteristic curve would have sensitivity of 84-89% and specificity of 46-55%. LIMITATIONS: Estimates of RAM prognostic accuracy are based on weak evidence. People at risk of bleeding were excluded from trials and, by implication, from modelling. CONCLUSIONS: Thromboprophylaxis for lower-limb immobilisation due to injury is clinically effective and cost-effective compared with no thromboprophylaxis. Risk-based thromboprophylaxis is potentially optimal but the prognostic accuracy of existing RAMs is uncertain. FUTURE WORK: Research is required to determine whether or not an appropriate RAM can accurately select higher-risk patients for thromboprophylaxis. STUDY REGISTRATION: This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42017058688. FUNDING: The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme.

8.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e031696, 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678950

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Emergency department (ED) visits for epilepsy are common, costly, often clinically unnecessary and typically lead to little benefit for epilepsy management. An 'Alternative Care Pathway' (ACP) for epilepsy, which diverts people with epilepsy (PWE) away from ED when '999' is called and leads to care elsewhere, might generate savings and facilitate improved ambulatory care. It is unknown though what features it should incorporate to make it acceptable to persons from this particularly vulnerable target population. It also needs to be National Health Service (NHS) feasible. This project seeks to identify the optimal ACP configuration. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Mixed-methods project comprising three-linked stages. In Stage 1, NHS bodies will be surveyed on ACPs they are considering and semi-structured interviews with PWE and their carers will explore attributes of care important to them and their concerns and expectations regarding ACPs. In Stage 2, Discrete Choice Experiments (DCE) will be completed with PWE and carers to identify the relative importance placed on different care attributes under common seizure scenarios and the trade-offs people are willing to make. The uptake of different ACP configurations will be estimated. In Stage 3, two Knowledge Exchange workshops using a nominal group technique will be run. NHS managers, health professionals, commissioners and patient and carer representatives will discuss DCE results and form a consensus on which ACP configuration best meets users' needs and is NHS feasible. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval: NRES Committee (19/WM/0012) and King's College London ethics Committee (LRS-18/19-10353). Primary output will be identification of optimal ACP configuration which should be prioritised for implementation and evaluation. A pro-active dissemination strategy will make those considering developing or supporting an epilepsy ACP aware of the project and opportunities to take part in it. It will also ensure they are informed of its findings. PROJECT REGISTRATION NUMBER: Researchregistry4723.

9.
Health Technol Assess ; 23(40): 1-194, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delirium is a common and serious neuropsychiatric syndrome, usually triggered by illness or drugs. It remains underdetected. One reason for this is a lack of brief, pragmatic assessment tools. The 4 'A's test (Arousal, Attention, Abbreviated Mental Test - 4, Acute change) (4AT) is a screening tool designed for routine use. This project evaluated its usability, diagnostic accuracy and cost. METHODS: Phase 1 - the usability of the 4AT in routine practice was measured with two surveys and two qualitative studies of health-care professionals, and a review of current clinical use of the 4AT as well as its presence in guidelines and reports. Phase 2 - the 4AT's diagnostic accuracy was assessed in newly admitted acute medical patients aged ≥ 70 years. Its performance was compared with that of the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM; a longer screening tool). The performance of individual 4AT test items was related to cognitive status, length of stay, new institutionalisation, mortality at 12 weeks and outcomes. The method used was a prospective, double-blind diagnostic test accuracy study in emergency departments or in acute general medical wards in three UK sites. Each patient underwent a reference standard delirium assessment and was also randomised to receive an assessment with either the 4AT (n = 421) or the CAM (n = 420). A health economics analysis was also conducted. RESULTS: Phase 1 found evidence that delirium awareness is increasing, but also that there is a need for education on delirium in general and on the 4AT in particular. Most users reported that the 4AT was useful, and it was in widespread use both in the UK and beyond. No changes to the 4AT were considered necessary. Phase 2 involved 785 individuals who had data for analysis; their mean age was 81.4 (standard deviation 6.4) years, 45% were male, 99% were white and 9% had a known dementia diagnosis. The 4AT (n = 392) had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.90. A positive 4AT score (> 3) had a specificity of 95% [95% confidence interval (CI) 92% to 97%] and a sensitivity of 76% (95% CI 61% to 87%) for reference standard delirium. The CAM (n = 382) had a specificity of 100% (95% CI 98% to 100%) and a sensitivity of 40% (95% CI 26% to 57%) in the subset of participants whom it was possible to assess using this. Patients with positive 4AT scores had longer lengths of stay (median 5 days, interquartile range 2.0-14.0 days) than did those with negative 4AT scores (median 2 days, interquartile range 1.0-6.0 days), and they had a higher 12-week mortality rate (16.1% and 9.2%, respectively). The estimated 12-week costs of an initial inpatient stay for patients with delirium were more than double the costs of an inpatient stay for patients without delirium (e.g. in Scotland, £7559, 95% CI £7362 to £7755, vs. £4215, 95% CI £4175 to £4254). The estimated cost of false-positive cases was £4653, of false-negative cases was £8956, and of a missed diagnosis was £2067. LIMITATIONS: Patients were aged ≥ 70 years and were assessed soon after they were admitted, limiting generalisability. The treatment of patients in accordance with reference standard diagnosis limited the ability to assess comparative cost-effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the use of the 4AT as a rapid delirium assessment instrument. The 4AT has acceptable diagnostic accuracy for acute older patients aged > 70 years. FUTURE WORK: Further research should address the real-world implementation of delirium assessment. The 4AT should be tested in other populations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN53388093. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 23, No. 40. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information. The funder specified that any new delirium assessment tool should be compared against the CAM, but had no other role in the study design or conduct of the study.

10.
Trials ; 20(1): 493, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With millions of pounds spent annually on medical research in the UK, it is important that studies are spending funds wisely. Internal pilots offer the chance to stop a trial early if it becomes apparent that the study will not be able to recruit enough patients to show whether an intervention is clinically effective. This study aims to assess the use of internal pilots in individually randomised controlled trials funded by the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) programme and to summarise the progression criteria chosen in these trials. METHODS: Studies were identified from reports of the HTA committees' funding decisions from 2012 to 2016. In total, 242 trials were identified of which 134 were eligible to be included in the audit. Protocols for the eligible studies were located on the NIHR Journals website, and if protocols were not available online then study managers were contacted to provide information. RESULTS: Over two-thirds (72.4%) of studies said in their protocol that they would include an internal pilot phase for their study and 37.8% of studies without an internal pilot had done an external pilot study to assess the feasibility of the full study. A typical study with an internal pilot has a target sample size of 510 over 24 months and aims to recruit one-fifth of their total target sample size within the first one-third of their recruitment time. There has been an increase in studies adopting a three-tiered structure for their progression rules in recent years, with 61.5% (16/26) of studies using the system in 2016 compared to just 11.8% (2/17) in 2015. There was also a rise in the number of studies giving a target recruitment rate in their progression criteria: 42.3% (11/26) in 2016 compared to 35.3% (6/17) in 2015. CONCLUSIONS: Progression criteria for an internal pilot are usually well specified but targets vary widely. For the actual criteria, red/amber/green systems have increased in popularity in recent years. Trials should justify the targets they have set, especially where targets are low.

11.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 138, 2019 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delirium affects > 15% of hospitalised patients but is grossly underdetected, contributing to poor care. The 4 'A's Test (4AT, www.the4AT.com ) is a short delirium assessment tool designed for routine use without special training. The primary objective was to assess the accuracy of the 4AT for delirium detection. The secondary objective was to compare the 4AT with another commonly used delirium assessment tool, the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM). METHODS: This was a prospective diagnostic test accuracy study set in emergency departments or acute medical wards involving acute medical patients aged ≥ 70. All those without acutely life-threatening illness or coma were eligible. Patients underwent (1) reference standard delirium assessment based on DSM-IV criteria and (2) were randomised to either the index test (4AT, scores 0-12; prespecified score of > 3 considered positive) or the comparator (CAM; scored positive or negative), in a random order, using computer-generated pseudo-random numbers, stratified by study site, with block allocation. Reference standard and 4AT or CAM assessments were performed by pairs of independent raters blinded to the results of the other assessment. RESULTS: Eight hundred forty-three individuals were randomised: 21 withdrew, 3 lost contact, 32 indeterminate diagnosis, 2 missing outcome, and 785 were included in the analysis. Mean age was 81.4 (SD 6.4) years. 12.1% (95/785) had delirium by reference standard assessment, 14.3% (56/392) by 4AT, and 4.7% (18/384) by CAM. The 4AT had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.90 (95% CI 0.84-0.96). The 4AT had a sensitivity of 76% (95% CI 61-87%) and a specificity of 94% (95% CI 92-97%). The CAM had a sensitivity of 40% (95% CI 26-57%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI 98-100%). CONCLUSIONS: The 4AT is a short, pragmatic tool which can help improving detection rates of delirium in routine clinical care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International standard randomised controlled trial number (ISRCTN) 53388093 . Date applied 30/05/2014; date assigned 02/06/2014.


Assuntos
Confusão/diagnóstico , Delírio/diagnóstico , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Lista de Checagem/métodos , Lista de Checagem/normas , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/normas , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
Ann Intern Med ; 171(2): 146-147, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307073
14.
Ann Emerg Med ; 74(4): 538-548, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955987

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Documentation of pain severity with pain scores is recommended within emergency departments (EDs) to improve consistency of assessment and management of pain. Pain scores are used in treatment guidelines and triage algorithms to determine pain management and in audit and research to evaluate pain management practices. Despite significant debate of their benefits, there has been limited evaluation of their use in practice. We use naturalistic, qualitative methods to understand how pain scores are used in practice and the mechanisms by which pain scoring may influence pain management. METHODS: We undertook a multiple case study design, using qualitative research in 3 EDs in England (the cases). Case studies incorporated 143 hours of nonparticipant observation, documentary analysis, and semistructured interviews with 36 staff and 19 patients. Data were analyzed with thematic analysis. RESULTS: Analysis identified that ED staff used the pain score for 2 conflicting purposes: as an auditable tool for guiding patient management and as a tool for monitoring patient experience. This led to ED staff's facing conflict between reporting their own judgment of what the pain score ought to be and what the patient said it was. Staff justified recording their own judgment according to concerns of accountability and appropriateness of management decisions. Staff thought that pain scoring had value in raising awareness and prompting action. CONCLUSION: In practice, pain scoring may not accurately reflect patient experience. Using pain scoring to determine the appropriateness of triage and treatment decisions reduces its validity as a measure of patient experience. Pain scoring should not be central to audit and systems of accountability for pain management.

15.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 19(8): e295-e300, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006605

RESUMO

The 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic was responsible for considerable global morbidity and mortality. In 2009, several research studies in the UK were rapidly funded and activated for clinical and public health actions. However, some studies were too late for their results to have an early and substantial effect on clinical care, because of the time required to call for research proposals, assess, fund, and set up the projects. In recognition of these inherent delays, a portfolio of projects was funded by the National Institute for Health Research in 2012. These studies have now been set up (ie, with relevant permissions and arrangements made for data collection) and pilot tested where relevant. All studies are now on standby awaiting activation in the event of a pandemic being declared. In this Personal View, we describe the projects that were set up, the challenges of putting these projects into a maintenance-only state, and ongoing activities to maintain readiness for activation, and discuss how to plan research for a range of major incidents.

16.
Behav Neurol ; 2019: 5048794, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30863463

RESUMO

Purpose: To measure fidelity with which a group seizure first aid training intervention was delivered within a pilot randomized controlled trial underway in the UK for adults with epilepsy who visit emergency departments (ED) and informal carers. Estimates of its effects, including on ED use, will be produced by the trial. Whilst hardly ever reported for trials of epilepsy interventions-only one publication on this topic exists-this study provides the information on treatment fidelity necessary to allow the trial's estimates to be accurately interpreted. This rare worked example of how fidelity can be assessed could also provide guidance sought by neurology trialists on how to assess fidelity. Methods: 53 patients who had visited ED on ≥2 occasions in prior year were recruited for the trial; 26 were randomized to the intervention. 7 intervention courses were delivered for them by one facilitator. Using audio recordings, treatment "adherence" and "competence" were assessed. Adherence was assessed by a checklist of the items comprising the intervention. Using computer software, competence was measured by calculating facilitator speech during the intervention (didacticism). Interrater reliability was evaluated by two independent raters assessing each course using the measures and their ratings being compared. Results: The fidelity measures were found to be reliable. For the adherence instrument, raters agreed 96% of the time, PABAK-OS kappa 0.91. For didacticism, raters' scores had an intraclass coefficient of 0.96. In terms of treatment fidelity, not only were courses found to have been delivered with excellent adherence (88% of its items were fully delivered) but also as intended they were highly interactive, with the facilitator speaking for, on average, 55% of course time. Conclusions: The fidelity measures used were reliable and showed that the intervention was delivered as attended. Therefore, any estimates of intervention effect will not be influenced by poor implementation fidelity.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Epilepsia/terapia , Primeiros Socorros , Convulsões/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Thromb Haemost ; 17(2): 329-344, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580466

RESUMO

Essentials Thromboprophylaxis after lower limb injury is often based on complex risk stratification. Our systematic review identified variables predicting venous thromboembolism (VTE) in this group. Age and injury type were commonly reported to increase the odds of VTE (odds ratio 1.5-3.48). We found limited evidence to support the use of other risk factors within prediction models. SUMMARY: Background Patients immobilized after lower limb injury are at risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). There is international variation in the use of thromboprophylaxis for such patients. Risk-based strategies have been adopted to aid decision making in many settings. The accuracy of these strategies is unclear. Objectives A systematic review was undertaken to identify all individual patient-identifiable risk factors linked to any VTE outcome following lower limb immobilization. Methods Several electronic databases were searched from inception to May 2017. Any studies that included a measurement of VTE as a patient outcome in adults requiring temporary immobilization (e.g. leg cast or brace in an ambulatory setting) for an isolated lower limb injury and reported risk factor variables were included. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis were used to synthesize the evidence. Results Our database search returned 4771 citations, of which 15 studies reporting outcome data on 80 678 patients were eligible for analysis. Risk-factor associations were reported through regression analyses, non-parametric tests and descriptive statistics. All studies were assessed as at moderate or serious risk of bias using the ROBINS-I risk of bias tool. Advancing age and injury type were the only individual risk factors demonstrating a reproducible association with increased symptomatic and/or asymptomatic VTE rates. Several risk factors currently used in scoring tools did not appear to be robustly evaluated for subsequent association with VTE within these studies. Conclusions Clinicians should be aware of the limited evidence to support individual risk factors in guiding thromboprophylaxis use for this patient cohort.

20.
BMJ Open ; 8(11): e022802, 2018 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop and externally validate a prognostic model for poor recovery after ankle sprain. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Model development used secondary data analysis of 584 participants from a UK multicentre randomised clinical trial. External validation used data from 682 participants recruited in 10 UK emergency departments for a prospective observational cohort. OUTCOME AND ANALYSIS: Poor recovery was defined as presence of pain, functional difficulty or lack of confidence in the ankle at 9 months after injury. Twenty-three baseline candidate predictors were included together in a multivariable logistic regression model to identify the best predictors of poor recovery. Relationships between continuous variables and the outcome were modelled using fractional polynomials. Regression parameters were combined over 50 imputed data sets using Rubin's rule. To minimise overfitting, regression coefficients were multiplied by a heuristic shrinkage factor and the intercept re-estimated. Incremental value of candidate predictors assessed at 4 weeks after injury was explored using decision curve analysis and the baseline model updated. The final models included predictors selected based on the Akaike information criterion (p<0.157). Model performance was assessed by calibration and discrimination. RESULTS: Outcome rate was lower in the development (6.7%) than in the external validation data set (19.9%). Mean age (29.9 and 33.6 years), body mass index (BMI; 26.3 and 27.1 kg/m2), pain when resting (37.8 and 38.5 points) or bearing weight on the ankle (75.4 and 71.3 points) were similar in both data sets. Age, BMI, pain when resting, pain bearing weight, ability to bear weight, days from injury until assessment and injury recurrence were the selected predictors. The baseline model had fair discriminatory ability (C-statistic 0.72; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.79) but poor calibration. The updated model presented better discrimination (C-statistic 0.78; 95% CI 0.72 to 0.84), but equivalent calibration. CONCLUSIONS: The models include predictors easy to assess clinically and show benefit when compared with not using any model. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN12726986; Results.


Assuntos
Traumatismos do Tornozelo/fisiopatologia , Dor , Entorses e Distensões/fisiopatologia , Suporte de Carga , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diagnóstico Tardio , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
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