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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(2): 133-144, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) concentration is associated with cardiovascular events. Alirocumab, a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor, lowers lipoprotein(a) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). OBJECTIVES: A pre-specified analysis of the placebo-controlled ODYSSEY Outcomes trial in patients with recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) determined whether alirocumab-induced changes in lipoprotein(a) and LDL-C independently predicted major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). METHODS: One to 12 months after ACS, 18,924 patients on high-intensity statin therapy were randomized to alirocumab or placebo and followed for 2.8 years (median). Lipoprotein(a) was measured at randomization and 4 and 12 months thereafter. The primary MACE outcome was coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina. RESULTS: Baseline lipoprotein(a) levels (median: 21.2 mg/dl; interquartile range [IQR]: 6.7 to 59.6 mg/dl) and LDL-C [corrected for cholesterol content in lipoprotein(a)] predicted MACE. Alirocumab reduced lipoprotein(a) by 5.0 mg/dl (IQR: 0 to 13.5 mg/dl), corrected LDL-C by 51.1 mg/dl (IQR: 33.7 to 67.2 mg/dl), and reduced the risk of MACE (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78 to 0.93). Alirocumab-induced reductions of lipoprotein(a) and corrected LDL-C independently predicted lower risk of MACE, after adjustment for baseline concentrations of both lipoproteins and demographic and clinical characteristics. A 1-mg/dl reduction in lipoprotein(a) with alirocumab was associated with a HR of 0.994 (95% CI: 0.990 to 0.999; p = 0.0081). CONCLUSIONS: Baseline lipoprotein(a) and corrected LDL-C levels and their reductions by alirocumab predicted the risk of MACE after recent ACS. Lipoprotein(a) lowering by alirocumab is an independent contributor to MACE reduction, which suggests that lipoprotein(a) should be an independent treatment target after ACS. (ODYSSEY Outcomes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab; NCT01663402).

2.
Thromb Haemost ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPIs) in combination with clopidogrel improve clinical outcome in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI); however, finding a balance that minimizes both thrombotic and bleeding risk remains fundamental. The efficacy and safety of GPI in addition to ticagrelor, a more potent P2Y12-inhibitor, have not been fully investigated. METHODS: 1,630 STEMI patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were analyzed in this subanalysis of the ATLANTIC trial. Patients were divided in three groups: no GPI, GPI administration routinely before primary PCI, and GPI administration in bailout situations. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of death, myocardial infarction, urgent target revascularization, and definite stent thrombosis at 30 days. The safety outcome was non-coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)-related PLATO major bleeding at 30 days. RESULTS: Compared with no GPI (n = 930), routine GPI (n = 525) or bailout GPI (n = 175) was not associated with an improved primary efficacy outcome (4.2% no GPI vs. 4.0% routine GPI vs. 6.9% bailout GPI; p = 0.58). After multivariate analysis, the use of GPI in bailout situations was associated with a higher incidence of non-CABG-related bleeding compared with no GPI (odds ratio [OR] 2.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32-6.64; p = 0.03). However, routine GPI use compared with no GPI was not associated with a significant increase in bleeding (OR 1.78, 95% CI 0.88-3.61; p = 0.92). CONCLUSION: Use of GPIs in addition to ticagrelor in STEMI patients was not associated with an improvement in 30-day ischemic outcome. A significant increase in 30-day non-CABG-related PLATO major bleeding was seen in patients who received GPIs in a bailout situation.

3.
Clin Cardiol ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk prediction tools are lacking for patients with stable disease some years after myocardial infarction (MI). HYPOTHESIS: A practical long-term cardiovascular risk index can be developed. METHODS: The long-Term rIsk, Clinical manaGement and healthcare Resource utilization of stable coronary artery dISease in post-myocardial infarction patients prospective global registry enrolled patients 1 to 3 years post-MI (369 centers; 25 countries), all with ≥1 risk factor (age ≥65 years, diabetes mellitus requiring medication, second prior MI, multivessel coronary artery disease, or chronic non-end-stage kidney disease [CKD]). Self-reported health was assessed with EuroQoL-5 dimensions. Multivariable Poisson regression models were used to determine key predictors of the primary composite outcome (MI, unstable angina with urgent revascularization [UA], stroke, or all-cause death) over 2 years. RESULTS: The primary outcome occurred in 621 (6.9%) of 9027 eligible patients: death 295 (3.3%), MI 195 (2.2%), UA 103 (1.1%), and stroke 58 (0.6%). All events accrued linearly. In a multivariable model, 11 significant predictors of primary outcome (age ≥65 years, diabetes, second prior MI, CKD, history of major bleed, peripheral arterial disease, heart failure, cardiovascular hospitalization (prior 6 months), medical management (index MI), on diuretic, and poor self-reported health) were identified and combined into a user-friendly risk index. Compared with lowest-risk patients, those in the top 16% had a rate ratio of 6.9 for the primary composite, and 18.7 for all-cause death (overall c-statistic; 0.686, and 0.768, respectively). External validation was performed using the Australian Cooperative National Registry of Acute Coronary Care, Guideline Adherence and Clinical Events registry (c-statistic; 0.748, and 0.849, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In patients >1-year post-MI, recurrent cardiovascular events and deaths accrue linearly. A simple risk index can stratify patients, potentially helping to guide management.

4.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732742

RESUMO

AIMS: Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduces cardiovascular risk irrespective of age, but the evidence is less strong for older patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: This prespecified analysis from ODYSSEY OUTCOMES compared the effect of alirocumab vs. placebo in 18 924 patients with recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) according to age. We examined the effect of assigned treatment on occurrence of the primary study outcome, a composite of coronary heart disease death, myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring hospitalization [major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE)] and all-cause death. Relative risk reductions were consistent for patients ≥65 vs. <65 years for MACE [hazard ratio (HR) 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-0.91 vs. 0.89, 0.80-1.00; Pinteraction = 0.19] and all-cause death [HR 0.77, 0.62-0.95 vs. 0.94, 0.77-1.15; Pinteraction = 0.46], and consistent for MACE when dichotomizing at age 75 years (HR 0.85, 0.64-1.13 in ≥75 vs. 0.85, 0.78-0.93 in <75, Pinteraction = 0.19). When considering age as a continuous variable in regression models, advancing age increased risk of MACE, as well as the absolute reduction in MACE with alirocumab, with numbers-needed-to-treat for MACE at 3 years of 43 (25-186) at age 45 years, 26 (15-97) at age 75 years, and 12 (6-81) for those at age 85 years. Although adverse events were more frequent in older patients, there were no differences between alirocumab and placebo. CONCLUSION: In patients with recent ACS, alirocumab improves outcomes irrespective of age. Increasing absolute benefit but not harm with advancing age suggests that LDL-C lowering is an important preventive intervention for older patients after ACS.

5.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733058

RESUMO

AIMS: Hypertriglyceridaemia in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) has been in focus following the REDUCE-IT trial showing benefit with icosapent ethyl. Among individuals with prevalent ASCVD, we sought to quantify the contemporary, real-world risk of ASCVD events associated with hypertriglyceridaemia, as well as estimate icosapent ethyl eligibility and compare trial participants with REDUCE-IT-like individuals in the population. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined data from 2 424 865 adults with lipid panels in the Ontario population. Among those with prevalent ASCVD, we examined adjusted associations between triglyceride (TG) and ASCVD events (first occurrence of myocardial infarction, unstable angina, stroke or transient ischaemic attack, coronary revascularization, or cardiovascular death). The proportion of patients with ASCVD potentially eligible for icosapent ethyl was estimated as those with TG 135-499 mg/dL (1.52-5.63 mmol/L) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) 41-100 mg/dL (1.06-2.59 mmol/L), similar to the lipid cut-offs in REDUCE-IT, and their demographics and event rates examined. Among 196 717 individuals with ASCVD, median age was 69 years and 30% were female. A total of 24 097 composite ASCVD events occurred over a mean (standard deviation) 2.9 (0.5) years of follow-up. Increasing TG was associated with a graded, progressively higher hazard of ASCVD events. Twenty-five percent (49 886) of individuals with ASCVD had hypertriglyceridaemia and controlled LDLc; these patients were demographically similar to those in REDUCE-IT with comparable event rates. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with ASCVD, hypertriglyceridaemia is common, and is associated with higher ASCVD risk across a range of TG. It is possible that as many as one in four patients with ASCVD may be candidates for emerging therapies.

6.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(12): e008018, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent trials have identified anti-diabetes mellitus agents that lower major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) rates, although some increase rates of lower-extremity amputation (LEA). Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) have greater incidence of diabetes mellitus and risk for LEA, prompting this investigation of clinical outcomes in patients with diabetes mellitus and PAD in the EXSCEL trial (Exenatide Study of Cardiovascular Event Lowering). METHODS: EXSCEL evaluated the effects of once-weekly exenatide (a GLP-1 [glucagon-like peptide-1] receptor agonist) versus placebo on the rates of the primary composite MACE end point (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this post hoc analysis, we assessed the association of baseline PAD with rates of MACE, LEA, and the effects of exenatide versus placebo in patients with and without PAD. RESULTS: EXSCEL included 2800 patients with PAD (19% of the trial population). These individuals had higher unadjusted and adjusted rates of MACE compared with patients without PAD (13.6% versus 11.4%, respectively) as well as a higher adjusted hazard ratio (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.13 [95% CI, 1.00-1.27]; P=0.047). Patients with PAD had higher all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.38 [95% CI, 1.20-1.60]; P<0.001) and more frequent LEA (adjusted hazard ratio 5.48 [95% CI, 4.16-7.22]; P<0.001). Patients treated with exenatide or placebo had similar rates of MACE and LEA, regardless of PAD status. CONCLUSIONS: EXSCEL participants with PAD had higher rates of all-cause mortality and LEA compared with those without PAD. There were no differences in MACE or LEA rates with exenatide versus placebo. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01144338.

7.
Diabetes Care ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757838

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of once-weekly exenatide (EQW) on microvascular and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes by baseline renal function in the Exenatide Study of Cardiovascular Event Lowering (EXSCEL). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Least squares mean difference (LSMD) in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from baseline between the EQW and placebo groups was calculated for 13,844 participants. Cox regression models estimated by group effects on incident macroalbuminuria, retinopathy, and major adverse CV events (MACE). Interval-censored time-to-event models estimated effects on renal composite 1 (40% eGFR decline, renal replacement, or renal death) and renal composite 2 (composite 1 variables plus macroalbuminuria). RESULTS: EQW did not change eGFR significantly (LSMD +0.21 mL/min/1.73 m2 [95% CI -0.27 to 0.70]). Macroalbuminuria occurred in 2.2% of patients in the EQW group and in 2.5% of those in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR] 0.87 [95% CI 0.70-1.07]). Neither renal composite was reduced with EQW in unadjusted analyses, but renal composite 2 was reduced after adjustment (HR 0.85 [95% CI 0.74-0.98]). Retinopathy rates did not differ by treatment group or in the HbA1c-lowering or prior retinopathy subgroups. CV outcomes in those with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 did not differ by group. Those with eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 had nominal risk reductions for MACE, all-cause mortality, and CV death, but interactions by renal function group were significant for only stroke (HR 0.74 [95% CI 0.58-0.93]; P for interaction = 0.035) and CV death (HR 1.08 [95% CI 0.85-1.38]; P for interaction = 0.031). CONCLUSIONS: EQW had no impact on unadjusted retinopathy or renal outcomes. CV risk was modestly reduced only in those with eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 in analyses unadjusted for multiplicity.

9.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(11): e005858, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In ODYSSEY OUTCOMES (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab), alirocumab was compared with placebo, added to high-intensity or maximum tolerated statin treatment after acute coronary syndrome in 18 924 patients. Alirocumab reduced first occurrence of the primary composite end point-coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal or nonfatal ischemic stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina-as well as total nonfatal cardiovascular events and all-cause deaths. The present analysis determined whether alirocumab reduced total (first and subsequent) hospitalizations and death and increased days alive and out of hospital (DAOH) and percent DAOH in ODYSSEY OUTCOMES. METHODS AND RESULTS: In prespecified analyses, hazard functions for total hospitalizations and death were jointly estimated by a semiparametric model, while in post hoc analyses, DAOH and percent DAOH were compared between treatment groups with Poisson regression and one-inflated beta regression, respectively. With 16 629 total hospitalizations and 726 deaths, 331 fewer hospitalizations, and 58 fewer deaths were observed with alirocumab compared with placebo, translating to 15.6 total hospitalizations or deaths avoided with alirocumab per 1000 patient-years of assigned treatment. Alirocumab reduced total hospitalizations (hazard ratio, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.92-1.00]; P=0.04) and increased DAOH relative to placebo (rate ratio, 1.003 [95% CI, 1.000-1.007]; P=0.05), primarily through a reduction in days dead (rate ratio, 0.847 [95% CI, 0.728-0.986]; P=0.03). Patients randomized to alirocumab were also more likely to survive to the end of the study without hospitalization (odds ratio, 1.06 [95% CI, 1.00-1.13]; P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Alirocumab reduced total hospitalizations with corresponding small increases in DAOH and percent DAOH. These outcomes provide alternative patient-centered metrics to capture the totality of alirocumab clinical efficacy after acute coronary syndrome. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01663402.

10.
Circulation ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707833

RESUMO

We describe the incidence, timing, and characteristics of stent thrombosis and its consequences in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) in the AUGUSTUS trial1 who received a coronary stent during their qualifying admission (acute coronary syndrome [ACS] or elective percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]) and the randomized treatment effects of low-dose aspirin (compared with placebo) and apixaban (compared with vitamin K antagonist [VKA]) on the risk of stent thrombosis. We included patients who received a stent during their qualifying admission. We excluded patients with medically-managed ACS (n=1097) or an unknown qualifying index event (n=19). The protocol was approved by appropriate ethics committees; patients provided written informed consent prior to participation.

12.
Circulation ; 140(23): 1921-1932, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety and efficacy of antithrombotic regimens may differ between patients with atrial fibrillation who have acute coronary syndromes (ACS), treated medically or with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and those undergoing elective PCI. METHODS: Using a 2×2 factorial design, we compared apixaban with vitamin K antagonists and aspirin with placebo in patients with atrial fibrillation who had ACS or were undergoing PCI and were receiving a P2Y12 inhibitor. We explored bleeding, death and hospitalization, as well as death and ischemic events, by antithrombotic strategy in 3 prespecified subgroups: patients with ACS treated medically, patients with ACS treated with PCI, and those undergoing elective PCI. RESULTS: Of 4614 patients enrolled, 1097 (23.9%) had ACS treated medically, 1714 (37.3%) had ACS treated with PCI, and 1784 (38.8%) had elective PCI. Apixaban compared with vitamin K antagonist reduced International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding in patients with ACS treated medically (hazard ratio [HR], 0.44 [95% CI, 0.28-0.68]), patients with ACS treated with PCI (HR, 0.68 [95% CI, 0.52-0.89]), and patients undergoing elective PCI (HR, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.64-1.04]; Pinteraction=0.052) and reduced death or hospitalization in the ACS treated medically (HR, 0.71 [95% CI, 0.54-0.92]), ACS treated with PCI (HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.74-1.06]), and elective PCI (HR, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.72-1.04]; Pinteraction=0.345) groups. Compared with vitamin K antagonists, apixaban resulted in a similar effect on death and ischemic events in the ACS treated medically, ACS treated with PCI, and elective PCI groups (Pinteraction=0.356). Aspirin had a higher rate of bleeding than did placebo in patients with ACS treated medically (HR, 1.49 [95% CI, 0.98-2.26]), those with ACS treated with PCI (HR, 2.02 [95% CI, 1.53-2.67]), and those undergoing elective PCI (HR, 1.91 [95% CI, 1.48-2.47]; Pinteraction=0.479). For the same comparison, there was no difference in outcomes among the 3 groups for the composite of death or hospitalization (Pinteraction=0.787) and death and ischemic events (Pinteraction=0.710). CONCLUSIONS: An antithrombotic regimen consisting of apixaban and a P2Y12 inhibitor without aspirin provides superior safety and similar efficacy in patients with atrial fibrillation who have ACS, whether managed medically or with PCI, and those undergoing elective PCI compared with regimens that include vitamin K antagonists, aspirin, or both. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02415400.

13.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e032165, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492797

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: For non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS) there is a gap between the use of class I guideline recommended therapies and clinical practice. The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score is recommended in international guidelines for the risk stratification of NSTEACS, but its impact on adherence to guideline-indicated treatments and reducing adverse clinical outcomes is unknown. The objective of the UK GRACE Risk Score Intervention Study (UKGRIS) trial is to assess the effectiveness of the GRACE risk score tool and associated treatment recommendations on the use of guideline-indicated care and clinical outcomes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The UKGRIS, a parallel-group cluster randomised registry-based controlled trial, will allocate hospitals in a 1:1 ratio to manage NSTEACS by standard care or according to the GRACE risk score and associated international guidelines. UKGRIS will recruit a minimum of 3000 patients from at least 30 English National Health Service hospitals and collect healthcare data from national electronic health records. The co-primary endpoints are the use of guideline-indicated therapies, and the composite of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, new onset heart failure hospitalisation or cardiovascular readmission at 12 months. Secondary endpoints include duration of inpatient hospital stay over 12 months, EQ-5D-5L responses and utilities, unscheduled revascularisation and the components of the composite endpoint over 12 months follow-up. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has ethical approval (North East - Tyne & Wear South Research Ethics Committee reference: 14/NE/1180). Findings will be announced at relevant conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals in line with the funder's open access policy. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN29731761; Pre-results.

14.
Circulation ; 140(19): 1578-1589, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2018 US cholesterol management guidelines recommend additional lipid-lowering therapies for secondary prevention in patients with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥70 mg/dL or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥100 mg/dL despite maximum tolerated statin therapy. Such patients are considered at very high risk (VHR) based on a history of >1 major atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) event or a single ASCVD event and multiple high-risk conditions. We investigated the association of US guideline-defined risk categories with the occurrence of ischemic events after acute coronary syndrome and reduction of those events by alirocumab, a PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) inhibitor. METHODS: In the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab), patients with recent acute coronary syndrome and residual dyslipidemia despite optimal statin therapy were randomly assigned to alirocumab or placebo. The primary trial outcome (major adverse cardiovascular events, ie, coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina) was examined according to American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association risk category. RESULTS: Of 18 924 participants followed for a median of 2.8 years, 11 935 (63.1%) were classified as VHR: 4450 (37.3%) had multiple prior ASCVD events and 7485 (62.7%) had 1 major ASCVD event and multiple high-risk conditions. Major adverse cardiovascular events occurred in 14.4% of placebo-treated patients at VHR versus 5.6% of those not at VHR. In the VHR category, major adverse cardiovascular events occurred in 20.4% with multiple prior ASCVD events versus 10.7% with 1 ASCVD event and multiple high-risk conditions. Alirocumab was associated with consistent relative risk reductions in both risk categories (hazard ratio=0.84 for VHR; hazard ratio=0.86 for not VHR; Pinteraction=0.820) and by stratification within the VHR group (hazard ratio=0.86 for multiple prior ASCVD events; hazard ratio=0.82 for 1 major ASCVD event and multiple high-risk conditions; Pinteraction=0.672). The absolute risk reduction for major adverse cardiovascular events with alirocumab was numerically greater (but not statistically different) in the VHR group versus those not at VHR (2.1% versus 0.8%; Pinteraction=0.095) and among patients at VHR with multiple prior ASCVD events versus a single prior ASCVD event (2.4% versus 1.8%; Pinteraction=0.661). CONCLUSIONS: The US guideline criteria identify patients with recent acute coronary syndrome and dyslipidemia who are at VHR for recurrent ischemic events and who may derive a larger absolute benefit from treatment with alirocumab. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01663402.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400191

RESUMO

AIMS: Diagnostic and therapeutic tools have a significant impact on morbidity and mortality associated with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Data about ACS performance measures are scarce in Brazil, and improving its collection is an objective of the Brazilian Registry in Acute Coronary syndromEs (BRACE). METHODS AND RESULTS: BRACE is a cross-sectional, observational epidemiological registry of ACS patients. Stratified "cluster sampling" methodology was adopted to obtain a representative picture of ACS. A performance score (PS) varying from 0 to 100 was developed to compare studied parameters. Performance measures alone and the PS were compared between institutions, and the relationship between the PS and outcomes was evaluated. 1,150 patients, median age 63 years, 64% male, from 72 hospitals were included in the registry. The mean PS for the overall population was 65.9% ± 20.1%. Teaching institutions had a significantly higher PS (71.4% ± 16.9%) compared to non-teaching hospitals (63.4% ± 21%; p <0.001). Overall in-hospital mortality was 5.2%, and the variables that correlated independently with in-hospital mortality included: PS - per point increase (OR=0.97, 95% CI 0.95-0.98, p<0.001), age - per year (OR=1.06, 95% CI 1.03-1.09, p<0.001), chronic kidney disease (OR=3.12, 95% CI 1.08-9.00, p=0.036), and prior angioplasty (OR=0.25, 95% CI 0.07-0.84, p=0.025). CONCLUSION: In BRACE, adoption of evidence-based therapies for ACS, as measured by the performance score, was independently associated with lower in-hospital mortality. The use of diagnostic tools and therapeutic approaches for the management of ACS is less than ideal in Brazil, with high variability especially among different regions of the country.

16.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(9): 1177-1186, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and history of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) are at high risk for recurrent cardiovascular events and death. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the clinical benefit of adding alirocumab to statins in ACS patients with prior CABG in a pre-specified analysis of ODYSSEY OUTCOMES (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab). METHODS: Patients (n = 18,924) 1 to 12 months post-ACS with elevated atherogenic lipoprotein levels despite high-intensity statin therapy were randomized to alirocumab or placebo subcutaneously every 2 weeks. Median follow-up was 2.8 years. The primary composite endpoint of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) comprised coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring hospitalization. All-cause death was a secondary endpoint. Patients were categorized by CABG status: no CABG (n = 16,896); index CABG after qualifying ACS, but before randomization (n = 1,025); or CABG before the qualifying ACS (n = 1,003). RESULTS: In each CABG category, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for MACE (no CABG 0.86 [0.78 to 0.95], index CABG 0.85 [0.54 to 1.35], prior CABG 0.77 [0.61 to 0.98]) and death (0.88 [0.75 to 1.03], 0.85 [0.46 to 1.59], 0.67 [0.44 to 1.01], respectively) were consistent with the overall trial results (0.85 [0.78 to 0.93] and 0.85 [0.73 to 0.98], respectively). Absolute risk reductions (95% confidence intervals) differed across CABG categories for MACE (no CABG 1.3% [0.5% to 2.2%], index CABG 0.9% [-2.3% to 4.0%], prior CABG 6.4% [0.9% to 12.0%]) and for death (0.4% [-0.1% to 1.0%], 0.5% [-1.9% to 2.9%], and 3.6% [0.0% to 7.2%]). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with recent ACS and elevated atherogenic lipoproteins despite intensive statin therapy, alirocumab was associated with large absolute reductions in MACE and death in those with CABG preceding the ACS event. (ODYSSEY OUTCOMES: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab; NCT01663402).

17.
Circulation ; 140(21): 1693-1702, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SGLT2 (sodium-glucose cotransporter 2) inhibitors lower cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes mellitus but whether they promote direct cardiac effects remains unknown. We sought to determine if empagliflozin causes a decrease in left ventricular (LV) mass in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. METHODS: Between November 2016 and April 2018, we recruited 97 individuals ≥40 and ≤80 years old with glycated hemoglobin 6.5% to 10.0%, known coronary artery disease, and estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥60mL/min/1.73m2. The participants were randomized to empagliflozin (10 mg/day, n=49) or placebo (n=48) for 6 months, in addition to standard of care. The primary outcome was the 6-month change in LV mass indexed to body surface area from baseline as measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Other measures included 6-month changes in LV end-diastolic and -systolic volumes indexed to body surface area, ejection fraction, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, hematocrit, and NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide). RESULTS: Among the 97 participants (90 men [93%], mean [standard deviation] age 62.8 [9.0] years, type 2 diabetes mellitus duration 11.0 [8.2] years, estimated glomerular filtration rate 88.4 [16.9] mL/min/1.73m2, LV mass indexed to body surface area 60.7 [11.9] g/m2), 90 had evaluable imaging at follow-up. Mean LV mass indexed to body surface area regression over 6 months was 2.6 g/m2 and 0.01 g/m2 for those assigned empagliflozin and placebo, respectively (adjusted difference -3.35 g/m2; 95% CI, -5.9 to -0.81g/m2, P=0.01). In the empagliflozin-allocated group, there was significant lowering of overall ambulatory systolic blood pressure (adjusted difference -6.8mmHg, 95% CI -11.2 to -2.3mmHg, P=0.003), diastolic blood pressure (adjusted difference -3.2mmHg; 95% CI, -5.8 to -0.6mmHg, P=0.02) and elevation of hematocrit (P=0.0003). CONCLUSIONS: Among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease, SGLT2 inhibition with empagliflozin was associated with significant reduction in LV mass indexed to body surface area after 6 months, which may account in part for the beneficial cardiovascular outcomes observed in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME (BI 10773 [Empagliflozin] Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients) trial. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02998970.

18.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461127

RESUMO

Importance: Statins are a cornerstone medication in cardiovascular disease prevention, but their use in clinical practice remains suboptimal, with less than half of people who are indicated for statins actually taking the medication. Objective: To perform a systematic review and synthesis of the literature on patient-oriented and physician-oriented interventions aimed at increasing statin-prescribing rates in adults without a history of cardiovascular disease. Evidence Review: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for randomized clinical trials published between January 2000 and May 2019. Data abstraction was performed using the Cochrane Public Health Review Group's data collection template, and a narrative synthesis of study results was conducted. The risk of bias in each study was qualitatively assessed, and a funnel plot was created to further evaluate the risk of publication bias. Findings: Among 7948 citations and 128 full-text articles reviewed, 20 studies (of 109 807 patients) were included in the review. Eight trials reported a statistically significant increases in statin-prescribing rates. Among the effective trials, absolute effect sizes ranged from 4.2% (95% CI, 2.2%-6.4%) to 23% (95% CI, 7.3%-38.9%) and odds ratios from 1.29 (95% CI, 1.01-1.66) to 11.8 (95% CI, 8.8-15.9). Patient-education initiatives were the most commonly effective intervention, with 4 of 7 trials indicating increases in statin-prescribing rates. Two trials combined electronic decision-support tools with audit-and-feedback systems, both of which were effective overall. Physician-education programs without dynamic input regarding patient risk or updated treatment recommendations were generally found to be less effective. Conclusions and Relevance: While heterogeneous in their interventions and outcomes, a number of interventions have demonstrated increases in statin-prescribing rates, with patient-education initiatives demonstrating more promising results than those focused on physician education alone. As opposed to more education about generic recommendations, tailored patient-focused and physician-focused interventions were more effective when they provided personalized cardiovascular risk information, dynamic decision-support tools, or audit-and-feedback reports in a multicomponent program. There are a number of modestly successful approaches to implement increases in rates of statin prescribing, a proven yet underused cardiovascular disease prevention class of therapy.

19.
Am Heart J ; 215: 106-113, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310855

RESUMO

Patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) receiving oral antiplatelets and anticoagulants are at risk for bleeding and subsequent adverse non-bleeding-related events. METHODS: In this post hoc analysis, we evaluated 7,392 high-risk patients (median follow-up 241 days) with a recent ACS randomized to apixaban or placebo in APPRAISE-2. Clinical events during a 30-day period after Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) major/minor bleeding were analyzed using unadjusted and adjusted Cox proportional-hazards models. RESULTS: In total, 153 (2.1%) patients experienced TIMI major/minor bleeding during follow-up. Bleeding risk for patients on triple therapy (apixaban, thienopyridine, and aspirin) was increased compared with those on dual therapy (apixaban plus aspirin: hazard ratio [HR] 2.02, 95% CI 1.08-3.79; thienopyridine plus aspirin: HR 1.99, 95% CI 1.41-2.83). Those receiving apixaban/aspirin had similar bleeding risk compared with those receiving thienopyridine/aspirin (HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.53-1.95). Patients who experienced TIMI major/minor bleeding had an increased risk of 30-day all-cause mortality (HR 24.7, 95% CI 15.34-39.66) and ischemic events (HR 6.7, 95% CI 3.14-14.14). CONCLUSIONS: In a contemporary cohort of high-risk patients after ACS, bleeding was associated with a significantly increased risk of subsequent ischemic events and mortality regardless of antithrombotic or anticoagulant strategy. Patients receiving apixaban plus aspirin had a similar bleeding risk compared with those receiving thienopyridine plus aspirin. Interventions to improve outcomes in patients after ACS should include strategies to optimize the reduction in ischemic events while minimizing the risk of bleeding.

20.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 7(8): 618-628, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After acute coronary syndrome, diabetes conveys an excess risk of ischaemic cardiovascular events. A reduction in mean LDL cholesterol to 1·4-1·8 mmol/L with ezetimibe or statins reduces cardiovascular events in patients with an acute coronary syndrome and diabetes. However, the efficacy and safety of further reduction in LDL cholesterol with an inhibitor of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) after acute coronary syndrome is unknown. We aimed to explore this issue in a prespecified analysis of the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial of the PCSK9 inhibitor alirocumab, assessing its effects on cardiovascular outcomes by baseline glycaemic status, while also assessing its effects on glycaemic measures including risk of new-onset diabetes. METHODS: ODYSSEY OUTCOMES was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, done at 1315 sites in 57 countries, that compared alirocumab with placebo in patients who had been admitted to hospital with an acute coronary syndrome (myocardial infarction or unstable angina) 1-12 months before randomisation and who had raised concentrations of atherogenic lipoproteins despite use of high-intensity statins. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive alirocumab or placebo every 2 weeks; randomisation was stratified by country and was done centrally with an interactive voice-response or web-response system. Alirocumab was titrated to target LDL cholesterol concentrations of 0·65-1·30 mmol/L. In this prespecified analysis, we investigated the effect of alirocumab on cardiovascular events by glycaemic status at baseline (diabetes, prediabetes, or normoglycaemia)-defined on the basis of patient history, review of medical records, or baseline HbA1c or fasting serum glucose-and risk of new-onset diabetes among those without diabetes at baseline. The primary endpoint was a composite of death from coronary heart disease, non-fatal myocardial infarction, fatal or non-fatal ischaemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring hospital admission. ODYSSEY OUTCOMES is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01663402. FINDINGS: At study baseline, 5444 patients (28·8%) had diabetes, 8246 (43·6%) had prediabetes, and 5234 (27·7%) had normoglycaemia. There were no significant differences across glycaemic categories in median LDL cholesterol at baseline (2·20-2·28 mmol/L), after 4 months' treatment with alirocumab (0·80 mmol/L), or after 4 months' treatment with placebo (2·25-2·28 mmol/L). In the placebo group, the incidence of the primary endpoint over a median of 2·8 years was greater in patients with diabetes (16·4%) than in those with prediabetes (9·2%) or normoglycaemia (8·5%); hazard ratio (HR) for diabetes versus normoglycaemia 2·09 (95% CI 1·78-2·46, p<0·0001) and for diabetes versus prediabetes 1·90 (1·65-2·17, p<0·0001). Alirocumab resulted in similar relative reductions in the incidence of the primary endpoint in each glycaemic category, but a greater absolute reduction in the incidence of the primary endpoint in patients with diabetes (2·3%, 95% CI 0·4 to 4·2) than in those with prediabetes (1·2%, 0·0 to 2·4) or normoglycaemia (1·2%, -0·3 to 2·7; absolute risk reduction pinteraction=0·0019). Among patients without diabetes at baseline, 676 (10·1%) developed diabetes in the placebo group, compared with 648 (9·6%) in the alirocumab group; alirocumab did not increase the risk of new-onset diabetes (HR 1·00, 95% CI 0·89-1·11). HRs were 0·97 (95% CI 0·87-1·09) for patients with prediabetes and 1·30 (95% CI 0·93-1·81) for those with normoglycaemia (pinteraction=0·11). INTERPRETATION: After a recent acute coronary syndrome, alirocumab treatment targeting an LDL cholesterol concentration of 0·65-1·30 mmol/L produced about twice the absolute reduction in cardiovascular events among patients with diabetes as in those without diabetes. Alirocumab treatment did not increase the risk of new-onset diabetes. FUNDING: Sanofi and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals.

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