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1.
Circulation ; 145(21): 1581-1591, 2022 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dapagliflozin improved heart failure and kidney outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with or at high risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in the DECLARE-TIMI 58 trial (Dapagliflozin Effect on Cardiovascular Events - Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 58). Here, the aim was to analyze the efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin stratified according to baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP). METHODS: The DECLARE-TIMI 58 trial randomly assigned patients with T2DM and either previous atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk factors to dapagliflozin or placebo. Patients were categorized by baseline SBP levels: <120, 120 to 129, 130 to 139, 140 to 159, and ≥160 mm Hg (normal, elevated, stage 1, stage 2, and severe hypertension, respectively). Efficacy outcomes of interest were hospitalization for heart failure and a renal-specific composite outcome (sustained decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate by 40%, progression to end-stage renal disease, or renal death). Safety outcomes included symptoms of volume depletion, lower extremity amputations, and acute kidney injury. RESULTS: The trial comprised 17 160 patients; mean age, 64.0±6.8 years; 37.4% women; median duration of T2DM, 11 years; 40.6% with prevalent cardiovascular disease. Overall, dapagliflozin reduced SBP by 2.4 mm Hg (95% CI, 1.9-2.9; P<0.0001) compared with placebo at 48 months. The beneficial effects of dapagliflozin on hospitalization for heart failure and renal outcomes were consistent across all baseline SBP categories, with no evidence of modification of treatment effect (Pinteractions=0.28 and 0.52, respectively). Among normotensive patients, the hazard ratios were 0.66 (95% CI, 0.42-1.05) and 0.39 (95% CI, 0.19-0.78), respectively, for hospitalization for heart failure and the renal-specific outcome. Events of volume depletion, amputation, and acute kidney injury did not differ with dapagliflozin overall or within any baseline SBP group. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with T2DM with or at high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk, dapagliflozin reduced risk for hospitalization for heart failure and renal outcomes regardless of baseline SBP, with no difference in adverse events of interest at any level of baseline SBP. These results indicate that dapagliflozin provides cardiorenal benefits in patients with T2DM at high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk independent of baseline blood pressure. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov; Unique identifier: NCT01730534.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Infarto do Miocárdio , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Injúria Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Glucosídeos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico
2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(9): e024451, 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35470683

RESUMO

Background Early reports from the COVID-19 pandemic identified coronary thrombosis leading to ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) as a complication of COVID-19 infection. However, the epidemiology of STEMI in patients with COVID-19 is not well characterized. We sought to determine the incidence, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, and outcomes in STEMI patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Methods and Results Patients with data on presentation ECG and in-hospital myocardial infarction were identified from January 14, 2020 to November 30, 2020, from 105 sites participating in the American Heart Association COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease Registry. Patient characteristics, resource use, and clinical outcomes were summarized and compared based on the presence or absence of STEMI. Among 15 621 COVID-19 hospitalizations, 54 (0.35%) patients experienced in-hospital STEMI. Among patients with STEMI, the majority (n=40, 74%) underwent transthoracic echocardiography, but only half (n=27, 50%) underwent coronary angiography. Half of all patients with COVID-19 and STEMI (n=27, 50%) did not undergo any form of primary reperfusion therapy. Rates of all-cause shock (47% versus 14%), cardiac arrest (22% versus 4.8%), new heart failure (17% versus 1.4%), and need for new renal replacement therapy (11% versus 4.3%) were multifold higher in patients with STEMI compared with those without STEMI (P<0.050 for all). Rates of in-hospital death were 41% in patients with STEMI, compared with 16% in those without STEMI (P<0.001). Conclusions STEMI in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is rare but associated with poor in-hospital outcomes. Rates of coronary angiography and primary reperfusion were low in this population of patients with STEMI and COVID-19. Adaptations of systems of care to ensure timely contemporary treatment for this population are needed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Infarto do Miocárdio , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , American Heart Association , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Sistema de Registros , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Diabetes Care ; 45(4): 938-946, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015847

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Current guidelines recommend prescribing SGLT2 inhibitors to patients with type 2 diabetes and established or at high risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), irrespective of HbA1c levels. We studied the association of HbA1c with cardiovascular and renal outcomes and whether the benefit of dapagliflozin varies by baseline HbA1c. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In the Dapagliflozin Effect on Cardiovascular Events trial (DECLARE-TIMI 58), 17,160 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to dapagliflozin or placebo for a median follow-up of 4.2 years. Cardiovascular and renal outcomes by baseline HbA1c in the overall population and with dapagliflozin versus placebo in HbA1c subgroups were studied by Cox regression models. RESULTS: In the overall population, higher baseline HbA1c was associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure (HHF); major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), including cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke; and cardiorenal outcomes (adjusted hazard ratios 1.12 [95% CI 1.06-1.19], 1.08 [1.04-1.13], and 1.17 [1.11-1.24] per 1% higher level, respectively). Elevated HbA1c was associated with a greater increased risk for MACE and cardiorenal outcomes in patients with multiple risk factors (MRF) than in established ASCVD (P-interaction = 0.0064 and 0.0093, respectively). Compared with placebo, dapagliflozin decreased the risk of cardiovascular death/HHF, HHF, and cardiorenal outcomes, with no heterogeneity by baseline HbA1c (P-interaction > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Higher HbA1c levels were associated with greater cardiovascular and renal risk, particularly in the MRF population, yet the benefits of dapagliflozin were observed in all subgroups irrespective of baseline HbA1c, including patients with HbA1c <7%.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Sistema Cardiovascular , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Humanos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico
5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(20): e021412, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622665

RESUMO

Background Patients with peripheral artery disease are at increased risk of both major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) and limb events. The pathobiology of limb events is likely multifactorial. Observational studies suggest a benefit of statin therapy for reducing the risk of limb ischemic events while randomized trials demonstrate a benefit with more potent antithrombotic therapies, particularly those targeting thrombin. Whether the effects of these therapeutic pathways are independent and complementary is not known. Methods and Results The TRA 2°P-TIMI 50 (Thrombin Receptor Antagonist in Secondary Prevention of Atherothrombotic Ischemic Events-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 50) trial demonstrated that vorapaxar significantly reduced MACEs and limb events. The purpose of the current analysis was to evaluate the association of statin use and intensity and the occurrence of MACEs and limb events in 5845 patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease randomized in TRA 2°P-TIMI 50 and then to understand whether statin use modified the benefits of vorapaxar for MACEs or limb ischemic events. We found that statin therapy was associated with significantly lower risk of MACEs (hazard ratio [HR], 0.77; 95% CI, 0.66-0.89; P<0.001) and limb ischemic events (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.60-0.89; P=0.002). The benefit of vorapaxar for reducing MACEs and limb events was consistent regardless of background statin (P-interaction=0.715 and 0.073, respectively). Event rates were lowest in patients receiving the combination of statin therapy and vorapaxar. Conclusions In conclusion, statin use and intensity is associated with significantly lower rates of MACEs and limb ischemic events. Thrombin inhibition with vorapaxar is effective regardless of background statin therapy. These results suggest that targeting both lipid and thrombotic risk in peripheral artery disease is necessary in order to optimize outcomes.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Doença Arterial Periférica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Isquemia , Lactonas/efeitos adversos , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Piridinas , Trombina , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Diabetes Care ; 44(11): 2573-2581, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535469

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Heart failure (HF) is an impactful complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to develop and validate a risk score for hospitalization for HF (HHF) incorporating biomarkers and clinical factor(s) in patients with T2DM. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We derived a risk score for HHF using clinical data, high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT), and N-terminal prohormone of B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) from 6,106 placebo-treated patients with T2DM in SAVOR-TIMI 53 (Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Outcomes Recorded in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 53). Candidate variables were assessed using Cox regression. The strongest indicators of HHF risk were included in the score using integer weights. The score was externally validated in 7,251 placebo-treated patients in DECLARE-TIMI 58 (Dapagliflozin Effect on CardiovascuLAR Events-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 58). The effect of dapagliflozin on HHF was assessed by risk category in DECLARE-TIMI 58. RESULTS: The strongest indicators of HHF risk were NT-proBNP, prior HF, and hsTnT (each P < 0.001). A risk score using these three variables identified a gradient of HHF risk (P-trend <0.001) in the derivation and validation cohorts, with C-indices of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.84-0.89) and 0.84 (0.81-0.86), respectively. Whereas there was no significant effect of dapagliflozin versus placebo on HHF in the low-risk group (hazard ratio [HR] 0.98 [95% CI 0.50-1.92]), dapagliflozin significantly reduced HHF in the intermediate-, high-, and very-high-risk groups (HR 0.64 [0.43-0.95], 0.63 [0.43-0.94], and 0.72 [0.54-0.96], respectively). Correspondingly, absolute risk reductions (95% CI) increased across these latter 3 groups: 1.0% (0.0-1.9), 3.0% (0.7-5.3), and 4.4% (-0.2 to 8.9) (P-trend <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We developed and validated a risk score for HHF in T2DM that incorporated NT-proBNP, prior HF, and hsTnT. The risk score identifies patients at higher risk of HHF who derive greater absolute benefit from dapagliflozin.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hospitalização , Medição de Risco/métodos , Biomarcadores , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
7.
Diabetes Care ; 44(8): 1805-1815, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233928

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) improve albuminuria in patients with high cardiorenal risk. We report albuminuria change in the Dapagliflozin Effect on Cardiovascular Events (DECLARE-TIMI 58) cardiovascular outcome trial, which included populations with lower cardiorenal risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: DECLARE-TIMI 58 randomized 17,160 patients with type 2 diabetes, creatinine clearance >60 mL/min, and either atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD; 40.6%) or risk-factors for CVD (59.4%) to dapagliflozin or placebo. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) was tested at baseline, 6 months, 12 months, and yearly thereafter. The change in UACR over time was measured as a continuous and categorical variable (≤15, >15 to <30, ≥30 to ≤300, and >300 mg/g) by treatment arm. The composite cardiorenal outcome was a ≥40% sustained decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, end-stage kidney disease, and cardiovascular or renal death; specific renal outcome included all except cardiovascular death. RESULTS: Baseline UACR was available for 16,843 (98.15%) participants: 9,067 (53.83%) with ≤15 mg/g, 2,577 (15.30%) with >15 to <30 mg/g, 4,030 (23.93%) with 30-300 mg/g, and 1,169 (6.94%) with >300 mg/g. Measured as a continuous variable, UACR improved from baseline to 4.0 years with dapagliflozin, compared with placebo, across all UACR and eGFR categories (all P < 0.0001). Sustained confirmed ≥1 category improvement in UACR was more common in dapagliflozin versus placebo (hazard ratio 1.45 [95% CI 1.35-1.56], P < 0.0001). Cardiorenal outcome was reduced with dapagliflozin for subgroups of UACR ≥30 mg/g (P < 0.0125, P interaction = 0.033), and the renal-specific outcome was reduced for all UACR subgroups (P < 0.05, P interaction = 0.480). CONCLUSIONS: In DECLARE-TIMI 58, dapagliflozin demonstrated a favorable effect on UACR and renal-specific outcome across baseline UACR categories, including patients with normal albumin excretion. The results suggest a role for SGLT2i also in the primary prevention of diabetic kidney disease.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Albuminúria/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico
8.
JAMA Cardiol ; 6(7): 801-810, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851953

RESUMO

Importance: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, such as dapagliflozin, promote renal glucose excretion and reduce cardiovascular (CV) deaths and hospitalizations for heart failure (HHF) among patients with type 2 diabetes. The relative CV efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin according to baseline kidney function and albuminuria status are unknown. Objective: To assess the CV efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin according to baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). Design, Setting, and Participants: This secondary analysis of the randomized clinical trial Dapagliflozin Effect on Cardiovascular Events-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 58 compared dapagliflozin vs placebo in 17 160 patients with type 2 diabetes and a baseline creatinine clearance of 60 mL/min or higher. Patients were categorized according to prespecified subgroups of baseline eGFR (<60 vs ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2), urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR; <30 vs ≥30 mg/g), and of chronic kidney disease (CKD) markers using these subgroups (0, 1, or 2). The study was conducted from May 2013 to September 2018. Interventions: Dapagliflozin vs placebo. Main Outcomes and Measures: The dual primary end points were major adverse cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, and CV death) and the composite of CV death or HHF. Results: At baseline, 1265 patients (7.4%) had an eGFR below 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, and 5199 patients (30.9%) had albuminuria. Among patients having data for both eGFR and UACR, 10 958 patients (65.1%) had an eGFR equal to or higher than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and an UACR below 30 mg/g (mean [SD] age, 63.7 [6.7] years; 40.1% women), 5336 patients (31.7%) had either an eGFR below 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or albuminuria (mean [SD] age, 64.1 [7.1] years; 32.6% women), and 548 patients (3.3%) had both (mean [SD] age, 66.8 [6.9] years; 30.5% women). In the placebo group, patients with more CKD markers had higher event rates at 4 years as assessed using the Kaplan-Meier approach for the composite of CV death or HHF (3.9% for 0 markers, 8.3% for 1 marker, and 17.4% for 2 markers) and major adverse cardiovascular events (7.5% for 0 markers, 11.6% for 1 marker, and 18.9% for 2 markers). Estimates for relative risk reductions for the composite of CV death or HHF and for major adverse cardiovascular events were generally consistent across subgroups (both P > .24 for interaction), although greater absolute risk reductions were observed with more markers of CKD. The absolute risk difference for the composite of CV death or HHF was greater for patients with more markers of CKD (0 markers, -0.5%; 1 marker, -1.0%; and 2 markers, -8.3%; P = .02 for interaction). The numbers of amputations, cases of diabetic ketoacidosis, fractures, and major hypoglycemic events were balanced or numerically lower with dapagliflozin compared with placebo for patients with an eGFR below 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and an UACR of 30 mg/g or higher. Conclusions and Relevance: The effect of dapagliflozin on the relative risk for CV events was consistent across eGFR and UACR groups, with the greatest absolute benefit for the composite of CV death or HHF observed among patients with both reduced eGFR and albuminuria. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01730534.


Assuntos
Albuminúria/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Creatinina/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Albuminúria/etiologia , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Glucosídeos/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/prevenção & controle , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(9): e018673, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884889

RESUMO

Background Patients with stable atherothrombotic disease vary in their risk of developing heart failure (HF). Circulating cardiovascular biomarkers may improve HF risk assessment and identify patients who may benefit from emerging HF preventive therapies. Methods and Results We measured high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I and BNP (B-type natriuretic peptide) in 15 833 patients with prior myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or peripheral artery disease from the TRA 2°P-TIMI 50 (Thrombin Receptor Antagonist in Secondary Prevention of Atherothrombotic Ischemic Events-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 50) trial, excluding patients with recent myocardial infarction (<30 days). Biomarkers were categorized using a priori cut points. Hospitalization for HF (HHF) end points were adjudicated with blinded structured review of serious adverse events. Associations between biomarkers and HHF outcomes were adjusted for sex and independent clinical risk predictors of HHF in our cohort (age ≥75, prior HF, type 2 diabetes mellitus, polyvascular disease, body mass index, anemia, chronic kidney disease, hypertension). Baseline high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I and BNP each identified a significant graded risk of HHF independent of clinical risk predictors, including in the subgroups of patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus and with and without prior HF. Patients with both high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I ≥5 ng/L and BNP ≥100 pg/mL had the highest HHF event rates. When added to a multivariable Cox regression model with clinical risk predictors (C-index 0.88; 95% CI, 0.85-0.90), BNP (C -index 0.92; 95% CI, 0.90-0.93), and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (C-index 0.90; 95% CI, 0.88-0.92) each significantly improved the prognostic performance of the model (both PLRT<0.001). Conclusions Biomarkers of myocardial injury and hemodynamic stress are independent predictors of HHF risk in patients with stable atherothrombotic disease, with and without prior HF and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00526474.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Trombose/complicações , Troponina I/sangue , Idoso , Aterosclerose/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Trombose/sangue
10.
Diabetes Care ; 44(5): 1159-1167, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653824

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: International guidelines propose prescribing sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors to patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) as secondary prevention in patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) or for primary prevention of cardiovascular events in high-risk patients with multiple risk factors (MRF) for ASCVD. The current analyses expand on the cardiovascular renal and metabolic effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in MRF patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In DECLARE-TIMI 58, 17,160 patients with T2D and MRF (59.4%) or established ASCVD (40.6%) were randomized to dapagliflozin versus placebo; patients were followed for a median of 4.2 years. The cardiovascular and renal outcomes in the MRF cohort were studied across clinically relevant subgroups for treatment effect and subgroup-based treatment interaction. RESULTS: Among patients with MRF, the reduction with dapagliflozin in risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure (CVD/HHF) (hazard ratio [HR] 0.84, 95% CI 0.67-1.04) and the renal-specific outcome (HR 0.51, 95% CI 0.37-0.69) did not differ from that for patients with ASCVD (P interaction 0.99 and 0.72, respectively). The effect on CVD/HHF was entirely driven by a reduction in HHF (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.46-0.88). The benefits of dapagliflozin on HHF and on the renal-specific outcome, among the subset with MRF, were directionally consistent across clinically relevant subgroups. At 48 months, HbA1c, weight, systolic blood pressure, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio were lower with dapagliflozin versus placebo and estimated glomerular filtration rate was higher (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with T2D and MRF, dapagliflozin reduced the risk of HHF and adverse renal outcomes regardless of baseline characteristics. These analyses support the benefit of dapagliflozin for important outcomes in a broad primary prevention population.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Prevenção Primária , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 23(1): 29-38, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844557

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the associations between baseline glucose-lowering agents (GLAs) and cardiorenal outcomes with dapagliflozin versus placebo in the DECLARE-TIMI 58 study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DECLARE-TIMI 58 assessed the cardiorenal outcomes of dapagliflozin versus placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes. This post hoc analysis elaborates the efficacy and safety outcomes by baseline GLA for treatment effect and GLA-based treatment interaction. RESULTS: At baseline, 14 068 patients (82.0%) used metformin, 7322 (42.7%) sulphonylureas, 2888 (16.8%) dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, 750 (4.4%) glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) and 7013 (40.9%) insulin. Dapagliflozin reduced the composite of cardiovascular death (CVD) and hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) versus placebo regardless of baseline GLA, with greater benefit in the small group of patients with baseline use of GLP-1 RAs (HR [95% CI] 0.37 [0.18, 0.78] vs. 0.86 [0.75, 0.98] in GLP-1 RA users vs. non-users, Pinteraction = .03). The overall HR for major adverse cardiovascular events (CVD, myocardial infarction or ischaemic stroke) was 0.93 (95% CI 0.84, 1.03) with dapagliflozin versus placebo, with no interaction by baseline GLA (Pinteraction > .05). The renal-specific outcome was reduced with dapagliflozin versus placebo in the overall cohort (HR [95%CI] 0.53[0.43-0.66]), with no interaction by baseline GLA (Pinteraction > .05). All of these outcomes were similar in those with versus those without baseline metformin use. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of dapagliflozin on cardiorenal outcomes were generally consistent regardless of baseline GLA, with consistent benefits regardless of baseline metformin use. The potential clinical benefit of combining sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors with GLP-1 RAs, given some evidence of cardiovascular risk reduction with both classes, should be explored further.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glucose , Glucosídeos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(6): 1026-1036, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269486

RESUMO

AIMS: Dapagliflozin reduced the risk of the composite of cardiovascular (CV) death or hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in DECLARE-TIMI 58. We hypothesized that baseline N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) levels would help identify patients who are at higher baseline risk and we describe the treatment effects of dapagliflozin in patients according to their baseline NT-proBNP and hsTnT levels. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a pre-specified biomarker study from DECLARE-TIMI 58, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled CV outcomes trial of dapagliflozin. Baseline NT-proBNP and hsTnT levels were measured in the TIMI Clinical Trials Laboratory in 14 565 patients. Among the included patients, 9143 patients (62.8%) were male, 1464 (10.1%) had a history of heart failure and the mean age was 63.9 years. The median baseline NT-proBNP and hsTnT levels were 75 pg/mL [interquartile range (IQR) 35-165] and 10.2 pg/mL (IQR 6.9-15.5), respectively. Patients with higher NT-proBNP and hsTnT quartiles had higher rates of CV death/HHF (Q4 vs. Q1: NT-proBNP: 4-year Kaplan-Meier event rates 13.7% vs. 1.0%; hsTnT: 11.8% vs. 1.4%; P-trend <0.001). Dapagliflozin consistently reduced the relative risk of CV death/HHF regardless of baseline NT-proBNP (P-interaction 0.72) or hsTnT quartiles (P-interaction 0.93). Given their higher baseline risk, patients with NT-proBNP and/or hsTnT levels above the median derived larger absolute risk reductions with dapagliflozin (NT-proBNP 1.9% vs. 0%, P-interaction 0.010; hsTnT 1.8% vs. 0.1%, P-interaction 0.026). CONCLUSION: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and higher NT-proBNP or hsTnT levels are at increased risk of CV death and HHF. Dapagliflozin reduced the relative risk of CV death/HHF irrespective of NT-proBNP and hsTnT levels, with greater absolute risk reductions seen in patients with higher baseline biomarker levels.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Simportadores , Biomarcadores , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Glucose , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Sódio
13.
Circulation ; 142(8): 734-747, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) are at heightened risk of cardiovascular complications. The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor dapagliflozin reduces the risk for hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) and kidney events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. An increased risk of amputation has been observed with canagliflozin in 1 previous trial. We examined cardiovascular and kidney efficacy and the risk of limb-related events in patients with and without PAD in an exploratory analysis. METHODS: A total of 17 160 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, including 1025 (6%) with PAD, were randomized. Key efficacy outcomes were MACE (cardiovascular [CV] death, myocardial infarction, stroke), CV death/HHF, and progression of kidney disease. Amputations, peripheral revascularization, and limb ischemic adverse events were site-reported and categorized by a blinded reviewer. RESULTS: Patients in the placebo arm with PAD versus those without tended to have higher adjusted risk of CV death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.23 [95% CI, 0.97-1.56], P=0.094) and significantly higher adjusted risk of CV death/HHF (adjusted HR, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.21-2.12], P=0.0010) and progression of kidney disease (adjusted HR, 1.51 [95% CI, 1.13 - 2.03], P=0.0058), and limb adverse events (adjusted HR, 8.37, P<0.001). The relative risk reductions with dapagliflozin for CV death/HHF (HR, 0.86, PAD; HR, 0.82, no-PAD; P-interaction=0.79) and progression of kidney disease (HR, 0.78, PAD; HR, 0.76, no-PAD; P-interaction=0.84) were consistent regardless of PAD. There were 560 patients who had at least 1 limb ischemic event, 454 patients with at least 1 peripheral revascularization, and 236 patients with at least 1 amputation, with a total of 407 amputations reported. Overall, there were no significant differences in any limb outcome with dapagliflozin versus placebo including limb ischemic adverse events (HR, 1.07 [95% CI, 0.90-1.26]) and amputation (HR, 1.09 [95% CI, 0.84-1.40]), with no significant interactions by a history of PAD versus not (P-interactions=0.30 and 0.093, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with versus without PAD are at a higher risk of CV death of CV death, HHF, and kidney outcomes, and have a consistent benefits for CV death/HHF and progression of kidney disease with dapagliflozin. Patients with PAD had a higher risk of limb events, with no consistent pattern of incremental risk observed with dapagliflozin. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01730534.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Extremidades/irrigação sanguínea , Glucosídeos/administração & dosagem , Nefropatias , Infarto do Miocárdio , Doença Arterial Periférica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/irrigação sanguínea , Nefropatias/mortalidade , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Arterial Periférica/mortalidade , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
14.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(11): 1255-1262, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756916

RESUMO

Importance: The 2018 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology (AHA/ACC) cholesterol management guidelines identified 2 distinct groups of patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) prompting different treatment recommendations. Objective: To investigate whether the addition of high-sensitivity troponin (hsTn) testing to guideline-derived ASCVD risk can improve risk classification and downstream treatment recommendations. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective cohort biomarker substudy was performed that included 8635 patients enrolled in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Prior Heart Attack Using Ticagrelor Compared to Placebo on a Background of Aspirin-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 54 (PEGASUS-TIMI 54) trial. Patients were assigned to risk groups of either very high-risk ASCVD or lower-risk ASCVD based on their cardiovascular history and comorbidities, in line with the 2018 AHA/ACC cholesterol management guidelines criteria. Patients were also classified on the basis of hsTnI level (ARCHITECT assay; Abbott) using cut points of 2 ng/L (limit of detection) and 6 ng/L (risk threshold), followed by joint classification on the basis of clinical features and hsTnI level. The setting was a nested prospective cohort study in a completed multinational trial. Participants were all patients who had a myocardial infarction 1 to 3 years before enrollment, were at least 50 years of age, and had at least 1 high-risk feature. The study dates were October 2010 to December 2014. The dates of analysis were June 2019 to January 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Results: Among 8635 patients enrolled in the PEGASUS-TIMI 54 trial, the median age was 65 years (interquartile range, 58-71 years), and 6614 (76.6%) were men; 8340 (96.6%) were White individuals and 176 (2.0%) were Black individuals. Patients meeting clinical criteria for the very high-risk ASCVD group had a primary end point 3-year event rate of 8.8% compared with 5.0% in the lower-risk ASCVD group (hazard ratio, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.58-2.57; P < .001). When patients in the very high-risk ASCVD group were further risk stratified by hsTnI level, 614 of 6789 patients (9.0%) with an undetectable hsTnI level had a 3-year event rate of 2.7% (<1% per year), which was less than the overall rate in the lower-risk ASCVD group. Analogously, in the lower-risk ASCVD group, 417 of 1846 patients (22.6%) with an hsTnI level exceeding 6 ng/L had an event rate of 9.1%, comparable to the overall rate in the very high-risk ASCVD group. The addition of hsTnI to guideline-derived ASCVD risk led to a net reclassification index at event rate of 0.15 (95% CI, 0.10-0.21). Overall, use of hsTnI reclassified 1031 of 8635 patients (11.9%) (1 in 11 with very high-risk ASCVD and 1 in 4 with lower-risk ASCVD). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cohort substudy suggest that a strategy incorporating hsTn into a guideline-derived ASCVD risk algorithm provides enhanced risk stratification and reclassifies 11.9% of patients into a more appropriate risk group. This application of hsTn testing might be used to optimize the care of patients with ASCVD.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Aterosclerose/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Troponina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 2020 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624052

RESUMO

AIMS: Ceramide (Cer) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids are associated with pathophysiological processes in cardiovascular (CV) diseases. A previously derived and validated plasma Cer-PC risk score (CERT2) was associated with CV death risk in patients with stable disease, but its prognostic value has not been evaluated in patients early post-acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS AND RESULTS: Prespecified plasma Cer and PC species of CERT2 risk score were measured in 4871 subjects from SOLID-TIMI 52, which enrolled patients ≤30 days after ACS (median follow-up 2.5 years). The CERT2 score (scale 0-12 points) was calculated as previously defined. The primary outcome was CV death; CV death or heart failure (HF) hospitalization (HF), myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and all-cause death were also analysed. Poisson models included baseline characteristics and established biomarkers. Patients with higher CERT2 risk scores were more likely to be older, female, current smokers, presenting with STEMI, and to have impaired renal function and higher LDL-C. After multivariable adjustment, patients in the highest risk score category remained at a nearly two-fold higher risk of CV death (adj relative risk [RR] 1.92, 95% CI 1.01-3.66, P = 0.047). Patients in the highest risk score category were also at higher risk of all-cause death (adj RR 2.01, 95% CI 1.21-3.35, P = 0.007), whereas the relationships with HF, MI, and stroke were attenuated with multivariable adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: A plasma ceramide and phospholipid-based risk score are associated with the risk of CV death independent of established clinical risk factors and biomarkers in patients after ACS.

16.
Diabetes Care ; 43(2): 468-475, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843945

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Data regarding the effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in the elderly (age ≥65 years) and very elderly (age ≥75 years) are limited. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The Dapagliflozin Effect on Cardiovascular Events (DECLARE)-TIMI 58 assessed cardiac and renal outcomes of dapagliflozin versus placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes. Efficacy and safety outcomes were studied within age subgroups for treatment effect and age-based treatment interaction. RESULTS: Of the 17,160 patients, 9,253 were <65 years of age, 6,811 ≥65 to <75 years, and 1,096 ≥75 years. Dapagliflozin reduced the composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure consistently, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.88 (95% CI 0.72, 1.07), 0.77 (0.63, 0.94), and 0.94 (0.65, 1.36) in age-groups <65, ≥65 to <75, and ≥75 years, respectively (interaction P value 0.5277). Overall, dapagliflozin did not significantly decrease the rates of major adverse cardiovascular events, with HR 0.93 (95% CI 0.81, 1.08), 0.97 (0.83, 1.13), and 0.84 (0.61, 1.15) in age-groups <65, ≥65 to <75, and ≥75 years, respectively (interaction P value 0.7352). The relative risk reduction for the secondary prespecified cardiorenal composite outcome ranged from 18% to 28% in the different age-groups with no heterogeneity. Major hypoglycemia was less frequent with dapagliflozin versus placebo, with HR 0.97 (95% CI 0.58, 1.64), 0.50 (0.29, 0.84), and 0.68 (0.29, 1.57) in age-groups <65, ≥65 to <75, and ≥75 years, respectively (interaction P value 0.2107). Safety outcomes, including fractures, volume depletion, cancer, urinary tract infections, and amputations were balanced with dapagliflozin versus placebo, and acute kidney injury was reduced, all regardless of age. Genital infections that were serious or led to discontinuation of the study drug and diabetic ketoacidosis were uncommon, yet more frequent with dapagliflozin versus placebo, without heterogeneity (interaction P values 0.1058 and 0.8433, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The overall efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin are consistent regardless of age.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Cetoacidose Diabética/induzido quimicamente , Cetoacidose Diabética/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Incidência , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Infecções Urinárias/induzido quimicamente , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia
17.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; : 2048872619883354, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vorapaxar inhibits the thrombin-mediated activation of platelets, reduces thrombotic events in patients with myocardial infarction or peripheral arterial disease while increasing bleeding. In the TRA 2°P-TIMI 50 trial, we observed a nominally significant interaction between low body weight and the reduced efficacy of vorapaxar. METHODS: We investigated the relationship between body weight and the efficacy and safety of vorapaxar within a multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vorapaxar in patients with atherosclerosis. This analysis was performed among 20,138 patients with a clinical indication for vorapaxar. RESULTS: Compared with patients weighing 60 kg or more, patients weighing less than 60 kg were older, more frequently women, Asian and had renal insufficiency (each P<0.001). The efficacy of vorapaxar with respect to cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke showed a significant interaction with patients' weight (Pinteraction<0.03). However among patients younger than 65 years, vorapaxar reduced the primary endpoint regardless of weight (weight ≥60 kg: 6.4% vs. 8.1%, hazard ratio (HR) 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65-0.86; weight <60 kg: 5.4% vs. 7.2%, HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.37-1.49, Pinteraction=0.98). Among patients aged 65 years and older, the efficacy of vorapaxar diminished in patients weighing less than 60 kg (high weight: 10.4% vs. 12.6%, HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.69-0.95; low weight: 16.1% vs. 9.0%, HR 1.62, 95% CI 0.95-2.76, Pinteraction=0.01). The relative increase in bleeding with vorapaxar was not modified by weight (all Pinteraction>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Vorapaxar reduced vascular events and improved net clinical outcome regardless of body weight in younger patients. Elderly patients with low weight may not be good candidates for aggressive secondary prevention with vorapaxar added to standard therapy. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov Unique identifier: NCT00526474.

18.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 7(8): 606-617, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have shown beneficial effects on renal outcomes mainly in patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Here we report analyses of renal outcomes with the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin in the DECLARE-TIMI 58 cardiovascular outcomes trial, which included patients with type 2 diabetes both with and without established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and mostly with preserved renal function. METHODS: In DECLARE-TIMI 58, patients with type 2 diabetes, HbA1c 6·5-12·0% (47·5-113·1 mmol/mol), with either established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease or multiple risk factors, and creatinine clearance of at least 60 mL/min were randomly assigned (1:1) to 10 mg dapagliflozin or placebo once daily. A prespecified secondary cardiorenal composite outcome was defined as a sustained decline of at least 40% in estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] to less than 60 mL/min per 1·73m2, end-stage renal disease (defined as dialysis for at least 90 days, kidney transplantation, or confirmed sustained eGFR <15mL/min per 1·73 m2), or death from renal or cardiovascular causes; a prespecified renal-specific composite outcome was the same but excluding death from cardiovascular causes. In this renal analysis, we report findings for the components of these composite outcomes, subgroup analysis of these composite outcomes, and changes in eGFR at different timepoints. DECLARE-TIMI 58 is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01730534. FINDINGS: The trial took place between April 25, 2013, and Sept 18, 2018; median follow-up was 4·2 years (IQR 3·9-4·4). Of the 17 160 participants who were randomly assigned, 8162 (47·6%) had an eGFR of at least 90 mL/min per 1·73 m2, 7732 (45·1%) had an eGFR of 60 to less than 90 mL/min per 1·73 m2, and 1265 (7·4%) had an eGFR of less than 60 mL/min per 1·73 m2 at baseline (one participant had missing data for eGFR); 6974 (40·6%) had established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and 10 186 (59·4%) had multiple risk factors. As previously reported, the cardiorenal secondary composite outcome was significantly reduced with dapagliflozin versus placebo (hazard ratio [HR] 0·76, 95% CI 0·67-0.87; p<0·0001); excluding death from cardiovascular causes, the HR for the renal-specific outcome was 0·53 (0·43-0·66; p<0·0001). We identified a 46% reduction in sustained decline in eGFR by at least 40% to less than 60 mL/min per 1·73 m2 (120 [1·4% vs 221 [2·6%]; HR 0·54 [95% CI 0·43-0·67]; p<0·0001). The risk of end-stage renal disease or renal death was lower in the dapagliflozin group than in the placebo group (11 [0·1%] vs 27 [0·3%]; HR 0·41 [95% CI 0·20-0·82]; p=0·012). Both the cardiorenal and renal-specific composite outcomes were improved with dapagliflozin versus placebo across various prespecified subgroups, including those defined by baseline eGFR (cardiorenal outcome pinteraction=0·97; renal-specific outcome pinteraction=0·87) and the presence or absence of established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (cardiorenal outcome pinteraction=0·67; renal-specific outcome pinteraction=0·72). 6 months after randomisation, the mean decrease in eGFR was larger in the dapagliflozin group than in the placebo group. The mean change equalised by 2 years, and at 3 and 4 years the mean decrease in eGFR was less with dapagliflozin than with placebo. INTERPRETATION: Dapagliflozin seemed to prevent and reduce progression of kidney disease compared with placebo in this large and diverse population of patients with type 2 diabetes with and without established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, most of whom had preserved renal function. FUNDING: AstraZeneca.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Renal/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Circulation ; 139(17): 2022-2031, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP1-RA) and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) have emerged as 2 new classes of antihyperglycemic agents that also reduce cardiovascular risk. The relative benefits in patients with and without established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease for different outcomes with these classes of drugs remain undefined. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and trial-level meta-analysis of GLP1-RA and SGLT2i cardiovascular outcomes trials using the PubMed and EMBASE databases (Excerpta Medica Database). The primary outcomes were the composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death (MACE); hospitalization for heart failure; and progression of kidney disease. RESULTS: In total, data from 8 trials and 77 242 patients, 42 920 (55.6%) in GLP1-RA trials, and 34 322 (44.4%) in SGLT2i trials, were included. Both drug classes reduced MACE in a similar magnitude with GLP1-RA reducing the risk by 12% (hazard ratio [HR], 0.88; 95% CI, 0.84-0.94; P<0.001) and SGLT2i by 11% (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83-0.96; P=0.001). For both drug classes, this treatment effect was restricted to a 14% reduction in those with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.80-0.93; P=0.002), whereas no effect was seen in patients without established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.87-1.19; P=0.81; P interaction, 0.028). SGLT2i reduced hospitalization for heart failure by 31% (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.61-0.79; P<0.001), whereas GLP1-RA did not have a significant effect (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.83-1.04; P=0.20). Both GLP1-RA (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.75-0.89; P<0.001) and SGLT2i (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.58-0.67; P<0.001) reduced the risk of progression of kidney disease including macroalbuminuria, but only SGLT2i reduced the risk of worsening estimated glomerular filtration rate, end-stage kidney disease, or renal death (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.48-0.64; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In trials reported to date, GLP1-RA and SGLT2i reduce atherosclerotic MACE to a similar degree in patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, whereas SGLT2i have a more marked effect on preventing hospitalization for heart failure and progression of kidney disease. Their distinct clinical benefit profiles should be considered in the decision-making process when treating patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Nefropatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Receptores de Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/agonistas , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/farmacologia
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