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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e050480, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475179

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify mental health prospective trajectories before and after a second lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic and their associations with somatic symptoms. DESIGN: Prospective Study. SETTING: Population-based study drawn from a probability-based internet panel of over 100 000 Israelis. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged 18 years or more, representative of the adult Israeli population. The participants were measured at two time points (time 1 (T1) pre-second lockdown N=1029; response rate=76.17%; time 2 (T2) post-second lockdown N=764; response rate=74.24%). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Trajectories of anxiety and adjustment disorder based on clinical cut-off score for probable diagnoses across T1-T2, somatic symptoms at T2. The four trajectories: stable-low, (no probable diagnosis), stable-high (stable probable diagnosis), exacerbation (no probable diagnosis at T1, probable diagnosis at T2), recovery (probable diagnosis at T1, no probable diagnosis at T2). RESULTS: Three anxiety trajectories predicted probable somatic symptoms (stable-high OR=6.451; exacerbation OR=5.379; recovery OR=2.025) compared with the stable-low trajectory. The three adjustment disorder trajectories also predicted somatic symptoms (stable-high OR=4.726; exacerbation OR=6.419; recovery OR=4.666) compared with the stable-low trajectory. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show elevated somatic symptoms among those whose mental health trajectories were poor, exacerbated and those who recovered following the second lockdown. The presentation of somatic symptoms may mask psychological vulnerabilities, even among those who appear to have recovered from the stressor. This indicates that lockdown may be a double-edged sword and should be carefully administered given these populations vulnerabilities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sintomas Inexplicáveis , Adulto , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Psychiatr Res ; 142: 272-274, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392054

RESUMO

This is the first study to examine COVID-19 vaccine-related stressors in the context of current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms amongst older adults exposed to traumatic events prior to the COVID-19 outbreak, with particular focus on the associations between ageism, vaccine-related stressors and PTSD. Five hundred and sixty-three participants aged 65 and above reported exposure to at least one traumatic event, their current PTSD level, physical and mental health, ageist attitudes, and vaccine related stressors. Univariate logistic regression revealed that depressive symptoms, ageism, vaccine hesitancy and severity of side effects were the main factors associated with clinical levels of current PTSD. These results suggest that older adults were vulnerable to intensified PTSD symptoms, not only as a result of greater depression, but also as a consequence of other factors, including ageism, vaccination hesitancy and vaccination side effects. Practitioners would benefit from awareness to these factors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Idoso , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
4.
J Affect Disord ; 294: 60-62, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274788

RESUMO

Background The mental health toll of a second lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic has not been yet examined. The purpose of the study was to examine psychological predictors before the second lockdown and their impact on the prediction of ICD-11 probable Adjustment Disorder (AjD) after the second lockdown. Methods Using a longitudinal design we surveyed a national representative sample of the Israeli population before and after the second lockdown. In wave 1, 1029 were surveyed (Response Rate (RR) = 76.17%) and in Wave 2, 764 were surveyed (RR = 74.24%). Participants answer a questionnaire tapping COVID-19 stressful related events, uncertainty, probable depression predicting ICD-11 and probable AjD. Results The main predictors of AjD after the second lockdown were sex (OR = 1.868; p ≤0.01), having a COVID-19 occupational related stressful event (OR = 2.855; p <0.001), probable depression (OR = 2.520; p <0.001) and Uncertainty (OR = 4.485; p <0.001). Limitations We recognise the limitations of response bias. In addition, we did not measure pre COVID-19 mental health. Conclusions The study results show the mental toll of a second lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 174, 2021 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731687

RESUMO

This study examined prevalences of anxiety and depression and their correlations with daily routines among Hong Kong Chinese during the COVID-19 pandemic. Random digit dialing recruited two population-representative samples of 6029 residents during a period of low infection and limited intervention (survey 1: n = 4021) and high incidence and intensive measures (survey 2: n = 2008). Prevalence of anxiety for survey 1 and survey 2 were 14.9% and 14% and depression were 19.6% and 15.3%, respectively. Increased odds of anxiety and depression were associated with disrupted routines and lower socioeconomic status in both surveys, whereas depression was inversely related to the novel preventive routine of avoiding going to crowded places in survey 1. The prevalences of anxiety and depression were higher than preceding public health/social crises. A heavier burden of psychiatric conditions was evidenced amongst people experiencing disrupted daily routines across different phases of the pandemic and without novel preventive routines in the early phase.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Depressão/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Estudos de Coortes , Desinfecção , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distanciamento Físico , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
7.
Br J Psychiatry ; 218(3): 172-173, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622452
8.
J Affect Disord ; 282: 594-601, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examined the associations between components of psychological resilience and mental health at different levels of exposure to COVID-19 stressors. METHODS: A population-representative sample of 4,021 respondents were recruited and assessed between February 25th and March 19th, 2020. Respondents reported current anxiety symptoms (7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale [GAD-7]), cognitive components (perceived ability to adapt to change, tendency to bounce back after adversities) and behavioral components (regularity of primary and secondary daily routines) of resilience, worry about COVID-19 infection, and sociodemographics. RESULTS: Logistic regression revealed that cognitive and behavioral components of resilience were not correlated with probable anxiety (GAD-7≥10) among those reporting no worry. Among respondents who were worried, all resilient components were inversely associated with probable anxiety. Specifically, propensity to bounce back and regular primary routines were more strongly related to lower odds of probable anxiety among those reporting lower levels of worry. LIMITATIONS: The cross-sectional design limits causal inference. Second, other resilient components and some key daily routines that could be related to better mental health were not assessed. Third, generalizability of the findings to other similar major cities is uncertain because cases and deaths due to COVID-19 in Hong Kong have been comparatively lower. CONCLUSIONS: To foster mental health, cultivation of confidence in one's ability to adapt to change and a propensity to bounce back from hardship should be coupled with sustainment of regular daily routines. Such assessment and intervention protocols could be more relevant to those who suffer heightened levels of exposure to COVID-19 stressors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Resiliência Psicológica , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Hong Kong , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Psychiatr Res ; 135: 212-217, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497875

RESUMO

Anxiety, perceived control and trust in information sources have all been shown to significantly influence health and social behaviours during pandemics. We measured these factors in a nationally representative on-street survey collected across five regions of Thailand (N = 1000, May 2020, response rate 82.6%). Anxiety was positively associated with stocking up on food (OR 2.62 (95% CI 1.88-3.66)) and taking vitamins (OR 2.37 (1.59-3.54)); perceived control with (recommended) coughing into an elbow (OR 2.42 (1.80-3.26)), checking on others (OR 1.52 (1.00-2.31)), and negatively with stockpiling (OR 0.72 (0.55-0.96)). Those relying on family/friends, doctors online or foreign sources were more likely to take vitamins (ORs 4.11, 2.88. 2.82), respondents using TV news less likely to stock up on food (OR 0.57 (0.37-0.86)) and to wear a mask for self-protection (OR 0.27 (0.10-0.73)). Comparing findings with analogous cross-sectional data on anxiety collected at the start of the pandemic (Feb 2020, Goodwin et al., 2020) there was no significant difference between personal anxiety in the two surveys (F (1, 1197) = 0.72, p = .40)) but perceived control was lower in the later survey (F (1, 1197) = 6.72 p = .01)). Findings suggest reduced perceived control as the pandemic developed and illuminate possible negative impacts of anxiety and low sense of control on pandemic behaviours.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19 , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Controle Interno-Externo , Angústia Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tailândia , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 75(2): 189-192, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967892

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite the burgeoning literature on COVID-19, there has been little cross-national work on the correlates of mental health or its association with pandemic behaviours. We considered psychological distress, quarantine status, social distancing and self-medication in China and the UK. METHODS: We conducted online surveys in China (N=1135) and the UK (N=1293), beginning in March 2020. Participants indicated demographics, whether they were in quarantine, relationship status, social distancing, use of vitamins/traditional medicines and completed the K6 scale of psychological distress. RESULTS: 19.1% of the respondents in China were at risk of severe mental illness (SMI: 95% CI 16.9% to 21.6%) and 16.6% (95% CI 14.6% to 18.8%) in the UK. Risk of SMI was among those in quarantine (OR 11.18 (95% CI 4.08 to 30.62); p=0.001) and in younger respondents (OR 2.61 (95% CI 1.01 to 6.79); p=0.048) although the latter effect was significant only in the UK. Risk of SMI was positively associated with self-medication (ßs=0.17, p=0.001) and negatively with social distancing in China (country×SMI ß=0.51, p=0.001), with further interactions for age and sex (social distancing), age, marital status and quarantine (self-medication). DISCUSSION: Across the countries, quarantine was associated with poorer mental health, while greater psychological distress was associated with greater self-medication rate. Future work should explore further cross-national variations in psychological health and behaviours during pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Angústia Psicológica , Quarentena/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Distanciamento Físico , SARS-CoV-2 , Automedicação , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260472

RESUMO

This study examined the associations of perceived social capital and income change since the outbreak with probable depression and preventive behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic in Hong Kong. Random digit dialing recruited a population-representative sample of 3011 Hong Kong Chinese aged ≥ 15 years (mean = 44, 55% females) between February 25 and April 29 2020. Respondents reported social capital (perceived interpersonal trust, social harmony, and sense of belonging), income change since the outbreak (loss vs. gain/no change), depressive symptoms, preventive behaviors, and demographics. Controlling for sociodemographics, lack of perceived interpersonal trust was associated with probable depression and avoiding contact with people with respiratory symptoms. Lack of perceived sense of belonging was associated with probable depression and decreased odds of adopting preventive behaviors. Lack of perceived social harmony was associated with probable depression and increased odds of used face masks among respondents with income loss only. Our results suggest that social capital is related to lower risk of depression and to higher chance of used face masks particularly among those experiencing income loss related to COVID-19. Prevention of mental health problems and promotion of effective preventive behaviors could be implemented by focusing on support for those who are socioeconomically disadvantaged.


Assuntos
COVID-19/economia , Renda , Pandemias , Capital Social , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Apoio Social , Confiança
14.
J Psychiatr Res ; 129: 118-121, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912591

RESUMO

Any new pandemic has the potential to arouse considerable anxiety, with this anxiety associated in previous work with economic disruption and societal disruption. We examined anxiety, symptom awareness, trust and associated behavioural responses in the first three weeks of the SARS-CoV-2 (covid-19) outbreak in Thailand. We collected data on-street at randomly selected locations in Bangkok. Of 274 potential respondents, 203 (74.7%) responded. A four-item measure assessed anxiety, with open-ended questions assessing knowledge of symptoms, trusted information sources and measures taken to avoid infection. Respondents reported good awareness of the prime symptoms of the Coronovirus. Binary logistic regressions controlling for sex and age found the more anxious avoided the Chinese, people who were coughing, crowded places and public transport or flying. Younger respondents reported greater trust in foreign media and older populations information from national government. Trust in doctors online was positively associated with avoidance of coughing people and keeping fit; trust in national government with avoiding coughing people, keeping fit, and avoiding public transport . We conclude that anxiety can motivate both desirable and undesirable behaviours during pandemic outbreaks. Effective and targeted communication by trusted sources is needed to motivate preventive actions but also to limit unnecessary or disruptive behaviours.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos de Ansiedade/complicações , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Psychiatr Res ; 130: 286-288, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861984

RESUMO

The novel Coronavirus COVID-19 has led the WHO to warn of the risk of potentially disruptive behaviors. However, the association between maladaptive actions and mental health has not been empirically assessed. A national study of 1293 participants from the UK recorded location, underlying medical conditions and non-recommended behaviors along with psychological distress. Elevated psychological distress was associated with living in London, underlying medical conditions and practicing non-recommended behaviors. Findings suggest that medical authorities should address the association between psychological distress and adoption of potentially maladaptive behaviors.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Londres , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido , População Urbana , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
17.
Soc Sci Med ; 255: 113025, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442792

RESUMO

Unexpected social or economic events have been shown to negatively impact mental health and wellbeing. The result of the 2016 Brexit referendum in the UK has been associated with an increase in uncertainty and consequent anxiety. This study analyses antidepressant prescription trends in the 533 constituencies of England in the year before and three years following the referendum. We examine associations between prescription trends and constituency-level voting patterns in the referendum and later support for the March 2019 "Revoke Article 50", signed by more than 6 million UK citizens. A mixed model analysis revealed the rate of increase in antidepressant prescription trends to be steeper in Leave constituencies and in areas that did not support the petition, after controlling for constituency education, socioeconomic status, median age, total population, and seasonal effects. Proposed interpretations are provided, along with recommendations for future research. Implications for this study include redoubling mental health care service in areas that show significantly higher mental distress following a major political event.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos , Política , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , União Europeia , Humanos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
19.
Br J Psychiatry ; 216(3): 144-150, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Great East Japan Earthquake of 11 March 2011 led to the relocation of 300 000 survivors. Studies following disasters focus primarily on data collected in the immediate aftermath and neglect the influence of wider community factors. AIMS: A three-level prospective study examining associations between survivors' psychological distress and individual- and social-level factors in the 6 years following a complex disaster. METHOD: We drew on two multi-wave data collections in the 6 years after the earthquake, using residents from different forms of housing. Sample 1 included six waves of private-housing residents from 2011 to 2016 (n = 1084 per wave), sample 2 five waves of residents living in prefabricated housing from 2012 to 2016 (n = 1515 per wave). We analysed prospective associations between distress and time (level 1), pre-existing disorders and disaster experiences and behaviours (level 2) and city-wide measures of support and physical activity (level 3). RESULTS: Multilevel models with random coefficients demonstrated greater distress in earlier waves (samples 1 and 2 respectively, adjusted ß = -15 and ß = -0.16, P < 0.001), among female respondents (ß = 0.58, P = 0.01 and ß = 1.74, P = 0.001), in those with a previous psychiatric history (ß = 2.76, ß = 2.06, P < 0.001) with diminished levels of activity post-earthquake (ß = 1.40, ß = 1.51, P < 0.001) and those lacking in social support (ß = 1.95, ß = 1.51, P < 0.001). Support from spouses and friends was most protective of psychological health. City-level support was negatively associated with distress, but only among those in prefabricated housing. CONCLUSIONS: Psychological distress diminished with time, but varied across gender, psychiatric history, housing, levels of activity and availability of social support. Practitioners should consider individual- and city-level factors when devising effective interventions.


Assuntos
Desastres , Terremotos , Angústia Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Psychiatry Res ; 266: 1-4, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29787806

RESUMO

This study, through the lens of Social Cognitive Theory, examined potential risk factors that may intensify election-related psychological distress. Six weeks after the 2016 U.S. election, 772 U.S. adult citizens filled out an online survey that assessed psychological distress along with sociodemographic characteristics, and a set of variables tapping various dimensions of political self-efficacy (i.e., importance of politics in one's life, preferences for different media outlets, political directness, and voting choices). The findings showed that election-related psychological distress was positively associated with young age, greater reliance on new media, greater importance of politics in one's life, higher political directness, and voting for the candidate who did not win the election. Findings should be valuable for health-care providers informing them about potential risk factors intensifying psychological distress in the context of significant political events.


Assuntos
Política , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Comportamento de Escolha , Meios de Comunicação , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/história , Estados Unidos
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