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1.
Food Chem ; 305: 125436, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514047

RESUMO

The physicochemical properties of wheat bran have an effect on its technofunctional and nutritional profile. The possibility to induce physicochemical modifications in wheat bran using microfluidisation was investigated. An I-optimal experimental design was used to investigate the effect of microfluidisation processing parameters (pressure, number of passes, bran concentration and initial particle size) on important properties of wheat bran (particle size, microstructure, chemical composition, water retention capacity (WRC), extractability, viscosity and sedimentation). With the parameters used in this study, microfluidisation reduced wheat bran median particle size to 14.8 µm and disintegrated starch granules from the attached endosperm. This coincided with an increased extractability of starch and arabinoxylan. While the initial particle size was of minor importance, a higher pressure, larger number of passes and lower bran concentration during microfluidisation resulted in a smaller particle size, higher WRC and extractability, and an increased viscosity and stability in a 2% wheat bran suspension.

2.
Food Chem ; 279: 389-400, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30611505

RESUMO

Microalgae are a sustainable alternative source of n-3 LC-PUFA that can be incorporated into the food chain either via the incorporation of the (intact or disrupted) biomass or by the incorporation of the oil extracted from the biomass. However, the impact of the dosage form on the enrichment of food products with n-3 LC-PUFA and their oxidative stability has never been described before. This study aims to contribute more insight on the impact of the dosage form of the photoautotrophic microalga Nannochloropsis in enriched tomato puree. Three different dosage forms of Nannochloropsis were compared to commercial fish oil and analyzed for their amount of n-3 LC-PUFA, lipid oxidation products, antioxidants and free fatty acids. Tomato purees supplemented with dosage forms derived from Nannochloropsis showed higher oxidative stability than those supplemented with commercial fish oil. The highest oxidative stability was observed for purees supplemented with Nannochloropsis biomass irrespective of whether it was pre-disrupted.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/química , Alimentos Fortificados/microbiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Estramenópilas/química , Animais , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Óleos de Peixe/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Microalgas/química , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo
3.
Talanta ; 192: 220-225, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30348381

RESUMO

PCR enables sensitive and specific detection of infectious disease agents, but application in point-of-care diagnostic testing remains scarce. A compact tool that runs PCR assays in less than a few minutes and that relies on mass-producible, disposable reactors could revolutionize while-you-wait molecular testing. We here exploit well-established semiconductor manufacturing processes to produce silicon ultra-fast quantitative PCR (UF-qPCR) chips that can run PCR protocols with limited assay optimization. A total of 110 clinical samples were analyzed for the detection of group B streptococci using both a validated benchtop and an on-chip qPCR assay. For the on-chip assay, the total reaction time was reduced after optimization to less than 5 min. The standard curve, spanning a concentration range of 5 log units, yielded a PCR efficiency of 94%. The sensitivity obtained was 96% (96/100; CI: 90-98%) and the specificity 70% (7/10; CI: 40-90%). We show that if melting analyses would be integrated, the obtained sensitivity would drop slightly to 93% (CI: 86-96%), while the specificity would increase to 100% (CI: 72% - 100%). In comparison to the benchtop reference qPCR assay performed on a LightCycler©96, the on-chip assay demonstrated a highly significant qualitative (Spearman's rank correlation) and quantitative (linear regression) correlation. Using a mass-producible qPCR chip and limited assay optimization, we were able to develop a validated qPCR protocol that can be carried out in less than five minutes. The analytical performance of the microchip-based UF-qPCR system was shown to match that of a benchtop assay. This is the first report to provide UF-qPCR validation using clinical samples. We demonstrate that qPCR-based while-you-wait testing is feasible without jeopardizing assay performance.


Assuntos
DNA/análise , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Calibragem , DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Gravidez , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Streptococcus agalactiae/genética
4.
Food Chem ; 264: 367-376, 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29853389

RESUMO

Chelation of iron and zinc in wheat as phytates lowers their bio-accessibility. Steeping and germination (15 °C, 120 h) lowered phytate content from 0.96% to only 0.81% of initial dry matter. A multifactorial experiment in which (steeped/germinated) wheat was subjected to different time (2-24 h), temperature (20-80 °C) and pH (2.0-8.0) conditions showed that hydrothermal processing of germinated (15 °C, 120 h) wheat at 50 °C and pH 3.8 for 24 h reduced phytate content by 95%. X-ray absorption near-edge structure imaging showed that it indeed abolished chelation of iron to phytate. It also proved that iron was oxidized during steeping, germination and hydrothermal processing. It was further shown that zinc and iron bio-accessibility were respectively 3 and 5% in wheat and 27 and 37% in hydrothermally processed wheat. Thus, hydrothermal processing of (germinated) wheat paves the way for increasing elemental bio-accessibility in whole grain-based products.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/química , Ferro/química , Ácido Fítico/análise , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zinco/química , 6-Fitase/metabolismo , Quelantes/química , Germinação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Ferro/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo , Espectroscopia por Absorção de Raios X , Zinco/metabolismo
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29403647

RESUMO

Background: The selection of a future breeding dog is a complicated task, in which disease characteristics and different traits have to be combined and weighed against one another. Truncation selection, that is the exclusion of affected animals, may be very inefficient when selecting on a large number of traits, and may result in a reduction of the genetic diversity in a population or breed. Selection could be facilitated by the use of a selection index that combines multiple traits or breeding values into one score. This however requires a consideration of their relative value according to their economic weight, which is difficult to express in monetary units for health traits. The use of a choice experiment to derive non-market values might be a solution to this problem. This is a pilot study to assess the potential use of choice experiments to ascertain the public preference and relative importance attached to health- and conformation traits in the selection of a Cavalier King Charles spaniel. The focus was on two prevalent disorders, mitral valve disease and syringomyelia, and on several important conformation traits such as muzzle length and eye shape. Based on available prior information, a Bayesian D-optimal design approach was used to develop a choice experiment and the resulting choice sets. Results: Every participant (breeder or owner) in the choice experiment was presented with a total of 17 choice sets, in which at most four traits could vary to reduce the cognitive burden. A total of 114 respondents participated in the choice experiment and results showed that respondents (breeders/owners) current attitudes were directed towards health (syringomyelia and mitral valve disease), followed by eye shape and level of inbreeding. Conclusions: This approach identifies the value breeders and owners attach to certain traits in the breeding objective. The resulting relative weights, represented as the logworths obtained from the choice experiment, could be an alternative to economic weights. They could be implemented as a weight when breeding values are available, but more study on this topic will be necessary. A challenge in this approach is to scale up the experiment with additional traits. Moreover, for other traits, the genetic parameters and correlations should be known first, in order to include them in the health selection index as well.

6.
Anal Chem ; 88(17): 8596-603, 2016 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27448015

RESUMO

The detection of single molecules in magnetic microbead microwell array formats revolutionized the development of digital bioassays. However, retrieval of individual magnetic beads from these arrays has not been realized until now despite having great potential for studying captured targets at the individual level. In this paper, optical tweezers were implemented on a digital microfluidic platform for accurate manipulation of single magnetic beads seeded in a microwell array. Successful optical trapping of magnetic beads was found to be dependent on Brownian motion of the beads, suggesting a 99% chance of trapping a vibrating bead. A tailor-made experimental design was used to screen the effect of bead type, ionic buffer strength, surfactant type, and concentration on the Brownian activity of beads in microwells. With the optimal conditions, the manipulation of magnetic beads was demonstrated by their trapping, retrieving, transporting, and repositioning to a desired microwell on the array. The presented platform combines the strengths of digital microfluidics, digital bioassays, and optical tweezers, resulting in a powerful dynamic microwell array system for single molecule and single cell studies.


Assuntos
Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Pinças Ópticas , Campos Magnéticos , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/instrumentação , Estreptavidina/química
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26605424

RESUMO

Mitigation strategies aimed at an intervention in the reaction pathways for furan formation (e.g., by adjusting precursor concentrations) might offer an additional route for furan reduction in sterilised, vegetable-based foods, without adverse effects on other food safety or quality attributes. As a first step towards product reformulation, the aim of the present study was to determine the relative importance and interactions of possible furan precursors in these types of foods. Based on an I-optimal experimental design, potato purée (naturally low in furan precursors) was spiked with known amounts of sugars, ascorbic acid, olive oil and ß-carotene, and subjected to a thermal sterilisation. Significant correlations were observed between furan concentrations after thermal treatment and starting concentrations of ascorbic acid and monosaccharides (i.e., fructose and glucose). Ascorbic acid had a clear furan-reducing effect as an antioxidant by protecting (polyunsaturated) fatty acids against oxidative degradation. Fructose and glucose were the main precursors, which can most probably be attributed to their high, but realistic, concentrations in the product. The contributions of fatty acids and ß-carotene were strongly dependent on redox interactions with other food constituents. In the same potato purées, only low concentrations (0-2 ng g(-1) purée) of 2-methylfuran were detected, indicating that the direct importance of the spiked food constituents as a precursor for methylfuran formation was rather small. Based on the results of this study, reducing the amount of monosaccharides or adjusting the redox conditions of the matrix are suggested as two possible approaches for furan mitigation on the product side.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Frutose/análise , Furanos/análise , Glucose/análise , Esterilização , Verduras/química , Frutose/metabolismo , Furanos/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Verduras/metabolismo
8.
Opt Express ; 24(26): 29380-29405, 2016 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28059326

RESUMO

A novel meta-heuristic approach for minimizing nonlinear constrained problems is proposed, which offers tolerance information during the search for the global optimum. The method is based on the concept of design and analysis of computer experiments combined with a novel two phase design augmentation (DACEDA), which models the entire merit space using a Gaussian process, with iteratively increased resolution around the optimum. The algorithm is introduced through a series of cases studies with increasing complexity for optimizing uniformity of a short-wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging (HSI) illumination system (IS). The method is first demonstrated for a two-dimensional problem consisting of the positioning of analytical isotropic point sources. The method is further applied to two-dimensional (2D) and five-dimensional (5D) SWIR HSI IS versions using close- and far-field measured source models applied within the non-sequential ray-tracing software FRED, including inherent stochastic noise. The proposed method is compared to other heuristic approaches such as simplex and simulated annealing (SA). It is shown that DACEDA converges towards a minimum with 1 % improvement compared to simplex and SA, and more importantly requiring only half the number of simulations. Finally, a concurrent tolerance analysis is done within DACEDA for to the five-dimensional case such that further simulations are not required.

9.
Value Health ; 18(2): 224-33, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25773558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Setting fair health care priorities counts among the most difficult ethical challenges our societies are facing. OBJECTIVE: To elicit through a discrete choice experiment the Belgian adult population's (18-75 years; N = 750) preferences for prioritizing health care and investigate whether these preferences are different for prevention versus cure. METHODS: We used a Bayesian D-efficient design with partial profiles, which enables considering a large number of attributes and interaction effects. We included the following attributes: 1) type of intervention (cure vs. prevention), 2) effectiveness, 3) risk of adverse effects, 4) severity of illness, 5) link between the illness and patient's health-related lifestyle, 6) time span between intervention and effect, and 7) patient's age group. RESULTS: All attributes were statistically significant contributors to the social value of a health care program, with patient's lifestyle and age being the most influential ones. Interaction effects were found, showing that prevention was preferred to cure for disease in young adults, as well as for severe and lethal disease in people of any age. However, substantial differences were found in the preferences of respondents from different age groups, with different lifestyles and different health states. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that according to the Belgian public, contextual factors of health gains such as patient's age and health-related lifestyle should be considered in priority setting decisions. The studies, however, revealed substantial disagreement in opinion between different population subgroups.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Comportamento do Consumidor , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Prioridades em Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Prioridades em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nat Commun ; 1: 129, 2010 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21119642

RESUMO

Continental export of Si to the coastal zone is closely linked to the ocean carbon sink and to the dynamics of phytoplankton blooms in coastal ecosystems. Presently, however, the impact of human cultivation of the landscape on terrestrial Si fluxes remains unquantified and is not incorporated in models for terrestrial Si mobilization. In this paper, we show that land use is the most important controlling factor of Si mobilization in temperate European watersheds, with sustained cultivation (>250 years) of formerly forested areas leading to a twofold to threefold decrease in baseflow delivery of Si. This is a breakthrough in our understanding of the biogeochemical Si cycle: it shows that human cultivation of the landscape should be recognized as an important controlling factor of terrestrial Si fluxes.

11.
Comput Biol Chem ; 31(5-6): 320-7, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17920334

RESUMO

As missing values are often encountered in gene expression data, many imputation methods have been developed to substitute these unknown values with estimated values. Despite the presence of many imputation methods, these available techniques have some disadvantages. Some imputation techniques constrain the imputation of missing values to a limited set of genes, whereas other imputation methods optimise a more global criterion whereby the computation time of the method becomes infeasible. Others might be fast but inaccurate. Therefore in this paper a new, fast and accurate estimation procedure, called SEQimpute, is proposed. By introducing the idea of minimisation of a statistical distance rather than a Euclidean distance the method is intrinsically different from the thus far existing imputation methods. Moreover, this newly proposed method can be easily embedded in a multiple imputation technique which is better suited to highlight the uncertainties about the missing value estimates. A comparative study is performed to assess the estimation of the missing values by different imputation approaches. The proposed imputation method is shown to outperform some of the existing imputation methods in terms of accuracy and computation speed.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/estatística & dados numéricos , Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Leucemia/metabolismo , Linfoma de Células B/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
12.
J R Stat Soc Ser C Appl Stat ; 56(3): 347-364, 2007 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21197132

RESUMO

We introduce a new method for generating optimal split-plot designs. These designs are optimal in the sense that they are efficient for estimating the fixed effects of the statistical model that is appropriate given the split-plot design structure. One advantage of the method is that it does not require the prior specification of a candidate set. This makes the production of split-plot designs computationally feasible in situations where the candidate set is too large to be tractable. The method allows for flexible choice of the sample size and supports inclusion of both continuous and categorical factors. The model can be any linear regression model and may include arbitrary polynomial terms in the continuous factors and interaction terms of any order. We demonstrate the usefulness of this flexibility with a 100-run polypropylene experiment involving 11 factors where we found a design that is substantially more efficient than designs that are produced by using other approaches.

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